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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Otto Doppeldecker

Страна: Германия

Год: 1913

Onigkeit - No.4 - 1913 - Германия<– –>Otto - monoplane - 1913 - Германия

O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)

Otto Pusher Biplane
  Although many machines were built by the Otto firm of Munich before the war, Gustav Otto was plagued by ill health and undertook little work after hostilities commenced, except to build some L.V.G.s under licence. The firm was liquidated late in 1916, and its assets were taken over by B.F.W.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913

OTTO. Gustav Otto, Flugmaschinenwerke, Schleissheimer Str. 135, Munich. Started building in 1911. Present max. capacity about 30 machines a year.

   M 1912.

Length.........feet(m.) ...
Span...........feet(m.) ...
Area......sq. feet(m?.) ...
   total....lbs.(kgs.) ...
   useful...lbs.(kgs.) ...
Motor..............h.p. 100 A. G. Otto.
   max.....m.p.h.(km.) 69 (110)
   min.....m.p.h.(km.) ...
Endurance.........hrs. 6-8
Number built during 1912 6

Remarks.--All 1912 machines purchased for German Army.

J.Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)

Pfalz-Otto Pusher (Buchner)

  One Pfalz-Otto pusher reached German Southwest Africa in 1914 before the war. Interestingly, this was originally conceived as a publicity stunt! The Berlin department store magnate Rudolf Hertzog and the large Scherl publishing business financed the construction of an Otto pusher to transport diamonds and air mail in German Southwest Africa and fly across the Union of South Africa to Zanzibar and German East Africa. The popular pre-war flyer Bruno Buchner, who had served as a mercenary in the Bulgarian air arm in 1912, was hired as pilot.
  Although long thought to have been built by Pfalz, all indications are that Buchner's pusher was in fact built by Otto and then sent to Pfalz for modification, including installation of a large tropical radiator. After arriving in Swakopmund (combined with his honeymoon voyage), Buchner performed the first flight on 13 May 1914. Buchner flew between Windhuk (Windhoek), Okahandja and Karibib (18-27 May), made several unscheduled landings, and delivered the first colonial air mail. There is no record of Buchner's flying activity in June or July. Owing to the high temperatures, the Pfalz-Otto experienced difficulty in climbing above 300 meters. That and the poor reliability of the 100 hp Rapp engine thwarted the projected flight across Africa, forcing Buchner to proceed by boat.
  Buchner and his aircraft, steaming via Cape Town, arrived in Zanzibar (British protectorate) on 4 August 1914 only to learn that war had been declared; leaving him no choice but to continue on to Dar es Salaam, capital of German East Africa. As stipulated in his employment contract, Buchner joined the German colonial army under the command of General von Lettow-Vorbeck. While on a reconnaissance sortie along the coast, Buchner was wounded by fire from two British gunboats, forcing him to land on the beach and slightly damaging the aircraft.
  The scarcity of fuel precluded long-range flights, but enough was scrounged for short hops to practice bomb dropping with coconuts and crude aerial bombs adapted from 15 cm artillery shells. The military command decided that Buchner's pusher should be fitted with floats to provide support for the light cruiser SMS Konigsberg blockaded by the British navy in the Rufidji (Rufiji) delta. This required extensive modification of wings and fuselage resulting in a virtually new aircraft. A few water starts were successfully performed but the lack of fuel ended further flight activity.

Pfalz-Otto Pusher (Modified)

  The first Pfalz-built aircraft were Otto pushers built under license, Otto being another Bavarian aircraft manufacturer. Only a few Otto pushers were built due to their limited performance. The Otto pushers were powered by 100 hp Rapp engines. Rapp was a Bavarian engine company that was only modestly successful; in 1917 Rapp was bought by investors who brought in new engineering talent and managers and re-cast the company as the Bavarian Motor Works (BMW), which still exists today and makes well-known automobiles.

Журнал Flight

Flight, August 14, 1914.


  THE Otto military biplane (type 1913), although somewhat on the lines of the Henry Farman military machines, actually differs from this type in many respects. First and foremost, it is constructed practically throughout of steel. Some considerable difference will also be found in the disposition of the engine and nacelle, the former being higher and the latter lower than obtains in Farman practice. Each of the main planes is built up on two spars, the front one of which is close to the leading edge, whilst the rear spar is placed some distance from the trailing edge. Both planes are given a slight dihedral angle and are attached to small, fixed, central pannels or sections. The upper plane has a greater span than the lower one, and large ailerons are fitted to the upper plane extensions only. Six pairs of steel struts separate the top and lower planes, and two pairs of triangular outriggers extend rearwards from the rear spars and carry the tail. The latter consists of a fixed stabilising plane, 3.2 sq. m. area, mounted on the top outriggers, and having two elevator flaps hinged to the trailing edge. Between the elevators is a vertical rudder hinged to the last strut joining the top and bottom outriggers. The nacelle, which is well streamlined, extends forward of, and below the lower plane, the pilot being seated in front with the passenger behind him; the front portion of the nacelle slopes upwards, forming a protection from the wind for the pilot. At the rear of the nacelle is a strong superstructure, carrying the engine high up, midway between the main planes. In front of the engine is the radiator, and above is the fuel tank. A portion of the trailing edges of the top and bottom planes is cut away to provide clearance for the propeller, which is 27 m. in diameter. The engine is a 6-cyl. 100 h.p. Argus, a type that has given very satisfactory results in Germany. The landing chassis is both strong and simple, consisting of two pairs of steel struts inclined outwards and forwards from the nacelle attached to two short skids, secured to which, by means of rubber shock-absorbers in the usual way, is a tubular steel axle carrying a pair of wheels. The control is of the usual Farman type, consisting of a central universally jointed lever actuating the ailerons by a side to side movement and the elevator by a to-and-fro movement; a horizontal foot-bar operates the rudder. The principal dimensions of this machine are :- Span, 14.8 m. (top), 9.5 m. (bottom); chord, 1.8 m.; supporting area, 40 sq. m.; overall length, 10.5 m.; speed, 110 k.p.h.

Flight, September 18, 1914.


27. The Otto Biplane
  is one of the comparatively few propeller biplanes in use in Germany. It is somewhat reminiscent of the Henry Farman biplane, the upper main plane being of considerably greater span than the lower one. The nacelle, however, is of quite a different type from that of the Henry Farman, both as regards its shape and position. The upper longerons of the nacelle are attached to the spars of the lower main plane, and both upper and lower longerons taper to a point in the nose, whilst gradually flattening out towards the rear. To the tips of the upper main planes are hinged ailerons which are of greater chord at their tip than at the root, in order, no doubt, to render them more effective. The engine - a 100 h.p. Mercedes - is mounted a considerable distance above the lower plane, and drives a propeller situated behind the main planes, the trailing edges of which have been cut away in the centre to provide the necessary clearing. The tail planes are carried on an outrigger of steel tubes, and consist of a fixed stabilising plane, hinged to the trailing edge of which is the divided elevator, and of a partly balanced rudder. It will be noticed that, as in the Henry Farman, no vertical tail fin is fitted.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
27. The Otto biplane.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The original pusher built by Otto was taken over by Pfalz in 1913 and flown under the designation "Pfalz No.1". The small "No.1" can be seen on its rudder. It had a 3-bay wing cellule.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
On 19 Sept. 1914, Pfalz submitted a cost estimate for rebuilding the "Pfalz Doppeldecker No.1". After rebuilding with modifications, the "Pfalz No.1" seen here had a 2 1/2-bay wing cellule of smaller span and strut-braced wing tips.The fuselage nacelle and rudder were also rebuilt.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz-built Otto pusher in 1914 national markings but showing no other identification.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz-Otto pusher in flight.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Otto B-type pusher built under license by Pfalz was flown by Bruno Buchner in German Southeast Afrika and is being protected by Askari troops. A large tropical radiator is installed under the upper wing center section and a primitive bomb-dropping chute has been attached to the side of the nacelle. In contrast to the Allies, who produced pusher aircraft in great quantity, Germany manufactured few pusher designs.
The Pfalz-Otto Pusher on the Dares Salaam airfield, capital of German East Africa, is guarded by Askari troops. Pilot Bruno Buchner points out the bomb-dropping tube mounted on the nacelle. The large tropical radiator is installed under the top wing center section. Although Pfalz made the tropical modifications, the aircraft was actually built by Otto.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
This Pfalz-built Otto Biplane, seen here in happier, prewar times, was the only aircraft available in German East Africa at the outbreak of war and as such was pressed into military service, along with its pilot, Bruno Buckner.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Here a different Pfalz pusher is rolled out of the Pfalz hangar. The wingspan appears to be reduced compared to the Otto design, and the tips are supported by a triangular truss above the wing. Maltese cross insignia were applied to both upper and lower wings. The engine is a 100 hp Rapp.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
New Pfalz-Otto pushers outside the Pfalz factory. The pilot sat in the front as can be seen from the location of the external elevator control. Airmen liked the visibility for observation, the design role for these aircraft.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Otto Pusher Biplane
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz-Otto pusher on operations. The large Pfalz logo on the side of the fuselage in front of the pilot is prominent. Early-style national insignia on white backgrounds are carried underneath both upper and lower wings.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
Major Siegert, Kommandeur of the Fliegerstation at Metz, began night flying training for his pilots in February 1913. Although the practice was officially frowned upon, Siegert showed that the pilots lost any apprehension they might have had once they were introduced to night flying, and on 23 April he even held night manoeuvres when ten aircraft flew without incident, in co-operation with searchlights. In this early night flying scene at a military aerodrome an Aviatik biplane (whose rudder has suffered from retouching) is being put into the hangar. The aircraft in the foreground is a dual-control Otto-built Farman copy powered by a 100hp Argus engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Bruno Buchner discussing modifications need to make his Pfalz-Otto pusher into a floatplane to provide reconnaissance for the German light cruiser SMS Konigsberg. The aircraft was totally rebuilt.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The completed Pfalz-Otto floatplane in Dar es Salaam harbor. Buchner's floatplane conversion was a remarkable feat given the very limited resources available. The radiator has been placed on top of the upper wing.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
27. The Otto biplane.