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De Havilland D.H.10 Amiens

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1918

Twin-engine, three-crew, three-bay biplane medium bomber

De Havilland - D.H.9 - 1917 - Великобритания<– –>De Havilland - D.H.9A - 1918 - Великобритания

А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты

Потребность фронта в двухмоторном бомбардировщике, способном нести значительную бомбовую нагрузку вместе с фирмами "Шорт Бразерс" и "Блэкборн" пыталась удовлетворить и фирма "Де Хевилленд".
  В 1917 году был спроектирован и построен двухмоторный фронтовой бомбардировщик D.H.10. Это был трехстоечный биплан цельнодеревянной конструкции. Фюзеляж имел прямоугольное сечение и обшивался в носовой части фанерой, а в хвостовой части полотном. В носовой части и за задней кромкой центроплана устанавливались пулеметные турели. За носовой турелью располагалась кабина пилота. Крыло двухлонжеронное, деревянной конструкции, имело фюзеляжные нервюры и стойки бипланной коробки из металлических труб с деревянными обтекателями. Растяжки из стальной профилированной ленты. Оперение обычной конструкции. Стабилизатор регулируемый. Киль и рули имели деревянную конструкцию и обтягивались полотном. К фюзеляжу и килю стабилизатор крепился подкосами и растяжками.
  Управление рулями тросовое, от штурвала и педалей. На самолете устанавливались двигатели "Либерти" мощностью по 400 л. с. Это были 12-цилиндровые, жидкостного охлаждения, рядные, V-образные двигатели с лобовыми радиаторами и двухлопастными винтами. Шасси пирамидальное со шнуровой резиновой амортизацией и хвостовым костылем. Вооружение состояло из двух-четырех 7,62-мм пулеметов "Льюис". Машина могла нести более 400 кг бомб на внешней подвеске. В дивизионы самолеты начали поступать весной 1918 года и успели принять участие в заключительных боях войны, показав неплохие летно-технические качества. После войны некоторые машины были переоборудованы для перевозки грузов и почты и эксплуатировались до середины 1920-х годов.

  Размеры, м:
   длина 11,20
   размах крыльев 20,00
   высота 3,99
  Площадь крыла, мг 77,20
  Вес, кг:
   максимальный взлетный 4100 кг
   пустого 2550 кг
  Двигатели: "Либерти"
   число х мощность, л.с. 2x400
  Скорость, км/ч 180
  Дальность полета, км 700
  Потолок практический, м 4900
  Экипаж, чел. 3
  Вооружение 2-4 пулемета, 410 кг бомб

A.Jackson De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Putnam)

De Havilland D.H. 10 Amiens

  German bombing successes in 1917 over London, the Home Counties and along the East Coast, using twin engined aircraft, forced the Air Board to take retaliatory action and to renew its interest in the D.H.3. A contract was therefore placed with the Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd. for prototypes of a somewhat larger version designated the D.H. 10. The aircraft was structurally similar to its predecessor, the airframe being of spruce and ash construction, with fabric covered mainplanes. The fuselage consisted of a plywood covered, box-like front portion to which was bolted the usual Warren girder tail section. Rudder and elevator trailing edges were of steel tubing to simplify the creation of artistic outline and to reduce the risk of accidental damage on the ground. Steel tubing was also used for the wide track, divided undercarriage and for engine nacelle struts, the latter being faired to streamline shape with fabric doped over wooden formers. Two 230 h.p. B.H.P. watercooled engines were mounted as pushers and to give adequate airscrew clearance cut outs were made in the trailing edges of upper and lower mainplanes as on the D.H.3A. The crew of three comprised front and rear gunners and pilot, but full dual control was fitted in the rear gunner's cockpit, the rudder bar being covered by hinged floorboards when not in use.
  The prototype D.H. 10 C4283, flew for the first time on March 4, 1918, but its performance was 6% down on estimate and it could carry only a small military load. The third and fourth prototypes were therefore fitted with more powerful engines arranged to drive tractor instead of pusher airscrews, the third, C8659, flying for the first time on April 20, 1918, with 360 h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle VIIIs. The first two prototypes were therefore the only D.H. 10s to have the cut out trailing edges. Engines of even greater power - 400 h.p. Liberty 12s - were fitted to the fourth prototype C8660, which was the true pre-production version without nose wheels. It was built with 2 1/2 instead of 4 degrees of mainplane sweepback, elongated nacelles, Scarff rings for front and rear gunners and horn balanced ailerons. Fuel was carried in the front fuselage in two 98 gallon tanks, between which was a bay accommodating some 900 lb. of bombs. Additional bomb loads were carried on external racks under the lower mainplane.
  When the prototypes were ordered, the Air Board gave the D.H.10 the type name Amiens, so that the first two prototypes were Amiens Mk. I, the third Mk. II, while the fourth and all production aircraft were Amiens Mk. III. Due no doubt to the rapid winding up of production at the end of the war, this type name was little used and its very existence lay forgotten in official files for close on 40 years. Although orders were placed with the parent company and six sub-contractors for 1,295 D.H. 10s, only eight were on R.A.F. charge at the end of hostilities. Thus a most promising and worthy successor to the immortal D.H.4 arrived too late to see active war service, and the subsequent history of the type was one of technical refinement and mail carrying. Improvement in performance by mounting the engines directly on the lower mainplane in order to eliminate the enormous parasitic drag of the original strutted arrangement, gave rise to the Mann, Egerton-built D.H.10A Amiens Mk. IIIA with Liberty engines. These were given an appreciable degree of upthrust and the aircraft was also equipped with heavy duty wheels. When Liberty deliveries ceased at the end of 1918 an up-rated Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII of 375 h.p. became the standard engine of a final version known as the D.H.10C Amiens Mk. IIIC.
  The first major experimental modification to the D.H.10 was the installation of a 1 1/2 pounder Coventry Ordnance Works quick firing gun in D.H. 10 E5458 and D.H. 10C E5550 for trials at Orfordness. Each had an enlarged bow cockpit and the old familiar nose wheels but trials were discontinued when air firing tests resulted in the crash of E5458.
  The third investigation was devoted to improving asymmetrical flying in the event of engine failure and a production D.H. 10 E6042 was modified by Airco and tested at Farnborough in 1921 with twin fins and rudders of typical D.H. outline. A rectangular central fin was next added for comparison and in 1922 the entire assembly was replaced by an experimental tail unit with an immense horn balanced single rudder 39 sq. ft. in area as compared with the usual 25 sq. ft. In 1923 the aircraft was flown with twin rectangular rudders and between April 29, 1924 and May 22, 1926, fifteen or twenty test flights were made with the standard D.H. 10 rudder equipped with a small servo rudder on outriggers.
  In the peacetime R.A.F. the D.H. 10 was used by No. 120 Squadron for the air mail service to the British Army of Occupation on the Rhine, daily flights being made between Hawkinge and Cologne. A D.H. 10 piloted by Capt. Barratt which left Hawkinge at 10.15 p.m. on May 14, 1919 and arrived at Cologne 3 1/4 hours later, was the first aircraft ever to carry mails at night. Most of the D.H. 10s in India were sold as scrap at Ambala in February 1922 but a few were retained to police the North West Frontier with No. 97 Squadron and to carry the desert air mail between Cairo and Baghdad until superseded by Vickers Vimys in 1923. For this purpose they were fitted with an additional cockpit behind the pilot, e.g. E5507. One of the last recorded appearances of a D.H. 10 was at the No. 7 Group Display, Andover on June 23, 1923 when F/O. J. S. Chick performed a dog fight with two S.E.5As.
  The designation D.H.10B is generally supposed to have been reserved for a purely civil mail carrying version but only two aircraft were used for this purpose in England. Both were operated by Aircraft Transport and Travel Ltd. but neither was actually known as a D.H.10B because the first was the D.H. 10C prototype E5557 and the other a demilitarized D.H. 10 E5488, civil registered as G-EAJO. The latter was granted a full civil C. of A. before demonstration at the ELTA Exhibition at Amsterdam in August 1919 by Capt. Gerald Gathergood and on September 30th joined E5557 on regular mail flights between Hendon, Newcastle and Renfrew in an attempt to break the railway strike. A scheme was also considered for a conversion to carry pilot and four passengers, two side by side in the nose and two in the rear, the starboard passengers facing aft and the port forward.
  At least one D.H. 10 supplemented the DH-4s on United States air mail routes. Powered by two Liberty VI engines and numbered 111, it had completed 31 hours 27 minutes flying on the New York-Cleveland-Omaha route by June 1920, average flying time for the initial stage of 200 miles being 3 hours.

   The Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Hendon, London, N.W.9
   The Alliance Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Cambridge Road, London, W.14
   The Birmingham Carriage Co., Birmingham
   The Daimler Co. Ltd., Coventry
   Mann, Egerton and Co. Ltd., Aylsham Road, Norwich, Norfolk
   National Aircraft Factory No.2, Heaton Chapel, Stockport
   The Siddeley-Deasy Motor Car Co. Ltd., Parkside, Coventry
  Power Plants:
   (D.H.10 Amiens Mk. I) Two 230 h.p. B.H.P.
   (D.H.10 Amiens Mk. II) Two 360h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII
   (D.H.10 Amiens Mk. III) Two 400 h.p. Liberty 12
   (D.H.10A Amiens Mk. IIIA) Two 400 h.p. Liberty 12
   (D.H.10C Amiens Mk. IIIC) Two 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII

Dimensions, Weights and Performances:
   Mk. I Mk. II Mk. III Mk. IIIA
Span 62 ft. 9 in. 62 ft. 9 in. 65 ft. 6,in. 65 ft. 6 in.
Length 38 ft. 10 in. 38 ft. 10 in. 39 ft. 7 1/2in. 39 ft. 7 1/2 in.
Height 14 ft. 6 in. 14 ft. 6 in. 14 ft. 6 in. 14 ft. 6 in.
Wing area 789 3/4 sq. ft. 834 3/4 sq. ft. 837 1/2 sq. ft. 837 1/2 sq. ft.
Tare weight 5,004 lb. 5,585 lb. 5,750 lb.
All-up weight 6.950 lb. 8,500 lb. 9.000 lb. 9,000 lb.
Maximum speed 109 m.p.h. 117 1/2 m.p.h. 129 m.p.h.
  to 6,500 ft. 11 min. 25 sec. 9 min. 7 min.
Service ceiling 15,000 ft. 16,500 ft. 17,500 ft.
Endurance 3 1/2 hours 5 3/4 hours 5 3/4 hours

Production: The following serial numbers were allotted to D.H. 10s but many were not completed.

Serial range Manufacturer Serial range Manufacturer
C8658 to C8660 Airco *F351 to F550 N.A.F. 2
E5437 to E5636 Airco F1867 to F1882 Airco
E6037 to E6136 Birmingham Carriage Co. F7147 to F7346 Alliance
E7837 to E7986 Siddeley-Deasy F8421 to F8495 Mann. Egerton
E9057 to E9206 Daimler H2746 to H2945 Airco
* Believed F351 to F355 only. F352 crashed 2.19.

  Service Use:
   (a) In the United Kingdom Nos. 104 and 120 Squadrons.
   (b) On the N.W. Frontier of India No. 60 (formerly No. 97) Squadron,
   (c) In Egypt No. 216 Squadron.
  Civil Conversions: G-EAJO, formerly E5488, C. of A. issued 18.8.19, crashed 4.20; at least No. 111 in America.

O.Thetford Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 (Putnam)

de Havilland D.H. 10 Amiens

  Although the name ‘Amiens’ appeared in official documents of the period relating to the DH 10, it was for some years not generally realised that the type was ever named, and it is usually referred to by its maker’s designation.
  The DH 10 ranks with the Vimy and V/1500 as one of the promising new bombers of the RAF that just missed seeing action in the First World War. In October 1918 the RAF had only eight, but had the war continued it would have become a most effective weapon with the Independent Force in its raids on Germany.
  The original DH 10 (C8658) flew on 4 March 1918 and resembled the DH 3 in that the 240hp BHP engines were mounted as pushers. In the second prototype, C8659, which flew on 20 April 1918, the 360hp Rolls-Royce Eagles appeared in the more familiar tractor layout.
  Trials showed that the DH 10 was faster than the DH 9A and could carry twice the bomb load. The Air Ministry ordered 1,300 but, with the ending of the war, only some 260 were completed.
  In its production form, the DH 10 was powered by Liberty engines and was designated the Amiens III; serial numbers allocated were E5437-E5558, E6037-E6056, E7837-E7865, E9057- E9097 and F351-F358. A later version, with engines mounted directly on the lower wings, was designated the DH 10A, or Amiens IIIA, with serial numbers F1869 and F8421- F8453.
  In November 1918 the Amiens was delivered to No 104 Squadron of the Independent Force, and, on 10 November 1918 Capt Ewart Garland in F1867 bombed Sarrebourg aerodrome in the only DH 10 operation of the First World War. The unit disbanded in February 1919.
  Post-war service of the DH 10 was relatively brief, the last examples with No 216 Squadron in Egypt being superseded by the Vimy in June 1922. One DH 10 (F1869) attached to No 120 Squadron, which in 1919 flew an air mail service between Hawkinge and Cologne for the British Army on the Rhine, became the first Service aircraft to carry mail at night on 14/15 May 1919. Another pioneer air mail route flown by DH 10s was the Cairo-Baghdad service across the desert, which started on 23 June 1921. The pilots followed tracks in the sand as a navigational guide. In India No 60 Squadron used DH 10s in bombing raids on rebel tribesmen in November 1920, and again early in 1922; it reequipped with DH 9As in April 1923.


  Description: Three- or four-seat day bomber. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: The Aircraft Manufacturing Co Ltd, Hendon, Middlesex. Also built by Alliance Aero Co; Birmingham Carriage Co; Daimler Ltd; Mann, Egerton & Co; National Aircraft Factory (Stockport); and the Siddeley-Deasy Car Co.
  Powerplant: Two 400hp Liberty 12.
  Dimensions: Span, 65ft 6in; length, 39ft 7 1/2in; height, 14ft 6in; wing area, 837sq ft.
  Weights: Empty, 5,585lb; loaded, 9,000lb.
  Performance: Max speed, 112.5mph at 10,000ft, 106mph at 15,000ft; climb: 34.5 min to 15,000ft; endurance, 6hr; service ceiling, 16,500ft.
  Armament: Single or twin Lewis guns in nose and amidships. Bomb load, 900lb.
  Squadron Allocations: France (1918): No 104. Egypt: No 216 (Abu Sueir and Heliopolis). India: Nos 60 (Risalpur) and 97 (Allahabad, Lahore and Risalpur).

F.Manson British Bomber Since 1914 (Putnam)

Airco D.H. 10 Amiens

  It has been said, possibly apocryphally, that while the German bombers were attacking London in daylight on 7 July 1917, the sole D.H.3 twin-engine bomber prototype was being burnt in a scrapyard at Hendon. True or false, it is ironic that it required the daylight raids on the British capital to persuade the Air Board to reconsider its ill-judged opinion that twin-engine bombers were impractical, a view that had brought development of the D.H.3 to a premature end eighteen months earlier.
  By the end of July 1917 Air Board Specification A.2.b had been drafted, calling for a single- or twin-engine day bomber with a two-man crew, capable of carrying bombs and racks weighing 500 lb at a height of at least 19,000 feet, with a maximum speed with this load at 15,000 feet of not less than 110 mph. Moreover, the Air Board's Technical Committee went a step further by expressing the view that the D.H.3, if fitted with two 200hp BHP engines, could meet this requirement, and straightway ordered a single prototype, C4283.
  As work got underway on this aircraft, Geoffrey de Havilland started a radical redesign of the D.H.3, using 230hp Siddeley Puma engines in a slightly enlarged airframe, and on 18 October Airco was instructed to concentrate on this version, ordering three new prototypes, C8658-C8660, ten days later.
  The first of the new prototypes, C8658, was flown at Hendon on 4 March 1918, cut-outs in the trailing edge of the upper wing being necessitated by the use of pusher propellers. This machine was delivered to Martlesham Heath on 7 April for evaluation, but failed by a substantial margin to meet the performance demands, being scarcely able to manage 90 mph at 15,000 feet with the stipulated bomb load.
  This lack of performance had, however, been anticipated, and the second prototype, C8659, was flown on 20 April with 360hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIIIs in tractor installations, becoming known as the Amiens Mark II - even though the Air Ministry explained that this version was unlikely to achieve production owing to heavy demand for this engine elsewhere. As with the D.H.9A, the Eagle installation was only undertaken to test the various airframe modifications introduced, not least those associated with the tractor engines. Indeed the Eagle installation was similar to that of the American 395hp Liberty 12 engine, selected for the finite production Amiens.
  The prototype of this, the Amiens Mark III, C8660, was delivered to Martlesham Heath on 28 July, demonstrating a maximum sea level speed of about 120 mph while carrying four 230 lb bombs - well in excess of the speed and load demanded. It failed, however, to meet the load-at-altitude requirements by a slender margin. This aircraft also had the twin nosewheels removed - relics of the old D.H.3 design.
  Meanwhile work had resumed on the original prototype, C4283, now referred to as the fourth prototype as it was intended to represent the Amiens Mark III in its production guise. With raked wing tips and horn-balanced ailerons, and 405hp Liberty 12 high-compression engines, it exceeded all the speed, altitude and load requirements.
  The first major alteration to production D.H. 10s involved mounting the engine nacelles on the lower wings instead of at mid-gap and, following a favourable report from Martlesham, this modification was introduced into Mann, Egerton's production line at Norwich as the Amiens IIIa, of which 32 were produced. All production D.H. 10s were covered by the Air Ministry's Specification Type VII, issued in April 1918.
  The only other significant variant was the D.H. 10C Amiens IIIc, powered by 375hp Eagle VIIIs, but this was no more than a shortlived insurance against discontinuation of Liberty production in America. As far as can be discovered only five examples were produced, all random installations in Airco's final production batch. Two of these, E5458 and E5550, were experimentally armed with the 11/2-pounder COW gun for trials at Ordfordness in 1920.
  The general uncertainty of and delays in the delivery of Liberty engines during 1918 was the cause o f the production of Amiens aircraft falling further and further behind schedule during the last six months of the War, and it had been planned to have the aircraft in service with eight squadrons of the Independent Force by the spring o f 1919. A total of 1,291 D.H. 10s was on order with seven companies by November 1918, but only eight had been delivered by that month. Post-Armistice cancellations then reduced to actual number built to just 258. More than 100 of these remained in store until the aircraft was declared obsolete in April 1923.

Postwar Service

  In the event the D.H. 10 only fully equipped Nos 97 (becoming No 60), 104 and 216 Squadrons, and none gave service as a bomber in the United Kingdom. Moreover, its Service life only spanned the period between November 1918 and April 1923.
  First deliveries were made to No 104 Squadron in the first half of November 1918, then based at Maisoncelle in France, and it was with this unit that the Amiens flew its one and only wartime operation when on the day before the Armistice, F1867, flown by Capt Ewart Garland, joined a raid on Sarrebourg in Lorraine. No 104 gave up its aircraft in February 1919, returned to the United Kingdom and disbanded six months later.
  In the meantime No 97 Squadron, hitherto equipped with Handley Page O/400s, had returned to England and began taking on a full complement of D.H. 10s at Ford in January, the first two Airco-built examples, E5450 and E5456, arriving that month. In July the Squadron sailed for India, and between August and November took delivery of tropicalised D.H. 10s, identified by taller radiators to provide extra cooling of the Libertys.
  On 1 April 1920 No 97 Squadron was renumbered No 60 while at Lahore, and the new Squadron took charge of the D.H. 10s, moving to Risalpur to provide support for the ground forces on the North-West Frontier.
  That same month the Squadron's Amiens helped the army to suppress the Pathan revolt that marked the climax of the Third Afghan War, but another Pathan rising in November brought further air action when D.H. 10s, in company with other RAF bombers, attacked bands o f rebel tribesmen in the Tilli area. No 60 Squadron continued to fly its Amiens until April 1923 when they were replaced by D.H.9As.
  The only other Squadron to be fully equipped with D.H.10s was No 216 at Abu Sueir in Egypt, which received its first Amiens in December 1919, with eight further machines arriving during the next six months. To begin with, the D.H. 10s were flown by one Flight, charged with pioneering an air mail service between Cairo and Baghdad, while, until October 1921, the other Flight continued to fly O/400 heavy bombers. Owing to the low weight of mail payloads, No 216 Squadron simultaneously flew a 'taxi' service in the mail aircraft, adding a second cockpit behind that of the pilot. In June 1922, with the arrival of Vimys, the D.H. 10s became redundant as the Vickers aircraft could more efficiently perform passenger, mail and bombing duties on its own.
  Amiens aircraft also served in small numbers with other Squadrons, including one (E5459) with No 24 at Kenley in the communications role, two with No 27 Squadron for bombing duties on the North-West Frontier late in 1922, one (the first prototype, C8658) with No 51 Squadron in Norfolk during 1918 for evaluation as a heavy fighter, and one with No 120 Squadron for an experimental night mail service between Hawkinge in Kent and Cologne during May 1919.
  Another experimental Amiens was the Birmingham Carriage Company-built E6042, which underwent prolonged trials with various tail configurations, including twin fins and rudders; first delivered to the RAE at Farnborough on 25 October 1919, it was last flown on 8 July 1926.
  A few Amiens trainers with dual controls were produced for No 6 Flying Training School at Manston, and at least one of these was flying in 1922.

  Type: Twin-engine, three-crew, three-bay biplane medium bomber.
  Specification: Air Board (1917) Specification A.2.B
  Manufacturers: The Aircraft Manufacturing Co Ltd, Hendon, London NW9; Birmingham Carriage Co, Birmingham; The Daimler Co Ltd, Coventry; Mann, Egerton & Co Ltd, Aylsham Road, Norwich, Norfolk; The Siddeley-Deasey Motor Car Co Ltd, Parkside, Coventry; National Aircraft Factory No 2, Stockport.
  Powerplant: Mark I. Two 230hp BHP six-cylinder liquid-cooled in-line engines driving two-blade pusher propellers. Mark II. Two 360hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII twelve-cylinder liquid-cooled in-line engines driving two-blade tractor propellers. Mark III and IIIA. Two 400hp Liberty 12 engines. Mark IIIC. Two 375hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII engines.
  Structure: All-wood, wire-braced box structure; forward fuselage ply-covered, rear fabric-covered. Twin laminated spruce wing spars with ash ribs and silver spruce interplane struts.
  Dimensions (Mark IIIA): Span, 65ft 6in; length, 39ft 7 1/16in; height, 14ft 6in; wing area, 837.4 sq ft.
  Weights (Mark IIIA): Tare, 5,750 lb; all-up (with bomb load), 9,060 lb
  Performance (Mark IIIA): Max speed, 131 mph at sea level, 124 mph at 10,000ft; climb to 10,000ft, 11 min; service ceiling, 19,000ft; endurance, 6 hr.
  Armament: Bomb load of up to 920 lb (112 lb and 230 lb bombs or combinations) carried internally. Single- or double-yoked 0.303in Lewis machine guns with Scarff rings mounted on nose and midships gunners' cockpits.
  Prototypes: Three, C8658-C8660. First aircraft, Mark I C8658, first flown by Capt Geoffrey de Havilland at Hendon on 4 March 1918. One other prototype, C4283, was converted to full Amiens III production standard.
  Production: A total of 1,291 D.H.10s was ordered, but only 258 were built, as follows: Airco, 138 (E5437-E5558 and F1867-F1882, all D.H.10 Mark Ills); Birmingham Carriage, 20 (E6037-E6056, all Mark Ills); Siddeley-Deasey, 28 (E7837-E7864, all Mark Ills); Daimler, 40 (E9057-E9096, all Mark Ills); Mann, Egerton, 32 (F8421-F8452, all Mark IIIAs).
  Summary of Service: D.H. 10 Mark Ills and IIIAs served with No 104 Squadron, RAF, in France between November 1918 and February 1919; with No 97 Squadron (renumbered No 60 Squadron on 1 April 1920) at Risalpur, India, between April 1919 and April 1923); and with No 216 Squadron at Abu Sueir and Heliopolis, Egypt, between December 1919 and June 1922. E5459 served with No 24 (Communications) Squadron at Kenley and London Colney in 1919; two D.H. 10s flew bombing operations with No 27 Squadron in India in 1922; one (C8658) was evaulated as a heavy fighter with No 51 Squadron, and one operated a night mail service with No 120 Squadron between Hawkinge and Cologne in May 1919.

P.Lewis British Bomber since 1914 (Putnam)

A new twin-engine bomber, the D.H.10, was completed at Hendon at the beginning of 1918. The newcomer revived the layout of the 1916 D.H.3 but was slightly longer. The first prototype of four ordered was C8658, designated Amiens Mk. I, which made its first take-off on 4th March, 1918, powered by a pair of pusher 230 h.p. B.H.P. engines. The next machine, the Amiens Mk. II C8659, was equipped with two 360 h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle VIIIs installed as tractors and first flew on 20th April, 1918. C8660, the third machine and designated Amiens Mk. III, received a pair of tractor 400 h.p. Liberty 12 engines. The fine performance of the Liberty-powered Mk. III resulted in this version being selected for production, and four hundred and fifty were ordered on 10th March, 1918. The Mk. III A version was equipped also with the 400 h.p. Liberty 12 but attached to the lower wings, while the Mk. IIIC used a pair of 375 h.p. Eagle VIIIs, likewise mounted on the lower planes. An excellent bomber design, the D.H.10 arrived too late to play any part in the war.

H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)

D.H.10. Like the D.H.9, this D.H.3 bomber development of 1918 had internal as well as external stowage. The internal vertical cells could take containers for Baby Incendiary Bombs as alternatives to high-explosive types, and the heaviest load which appears on record is six 230-lb. In postwar operations eight 112-lb was one load dropped on operations. But if, in its early forms at least, the D.H.10 was undistinguished for weight-carrying, it did possess an excellent all-round performance, and one machine was actually sent to a Home Defence station for appraisal as a fighter. The installation of a Coventry Ordnance Works gun, however, in two of the early examples (following trials of the gun in a Tellier flying-boat at the Isle of Grain) sprang rather from an offensive or defensive-escort requirement. The two experimental aircraft had their noses lengthened, strengthened and fitted with wheels, and both were sent to Orfordness for trials. The Independent Force was interested to the extent of requesting examination of the possibility of fitting a similar gun in the dorsal position also.
  Normal gun armament was two (or twin-yoked) Lewis guns on nose and dorsal Scarff ring-mountings.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919

The De H 10 The most noticeable feature of this machine is the extremely low position of the fuselage, which is mainly below the bottom wing, and the curious mounting of the engines, overhung from one side of the outer centre section struts
The De H 10 is a somewhat later type of the same machine. They differ mainly in that in the De H. 10 the twin engines are mounted well up in the gap between the planes, and in the De H 10a, the engine nacelles are actually on the bottom plane.
The alterations have resulted in a very marked increase in the speed of the type 10a, accompanied by an increase in the empty weight of the machine of nearly 140 lbs.
Both types proved their qualities on active service, before the cessation of hostilities, and it may be expected that with suitable modifications they will show their value even more fully as commercial machines in the near future.

Airco De H.10
Type of machine Biplane "Tractor"
Name or type No. of machine De H.10.
Span 65 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 39 ft. 7 7/16 in.
Chord 7 ft
Total surface of wings, including
   centre plane and ailerons 837.4 sq. ft.
Span of tail 22 ft.
Total area of tail (empennage) 144.3 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 16.54 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 25.75 sq. ft.
Area of fin 10.0 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron 29.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 400 h.p. Llberty
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 10.0 diam., 7.3 pitch, 1,625 revs.
Weight of machine empty 5,355 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 8,500 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 10.6 lbs.
Tank capacity In gallons 215 gallons.
   Speed low down 117 1/2 m.p.h
   Speed at 10,000 feet 115 m.p.h.
   Speed at 15,000 feet 110 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 62 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,381 lbs.

Airco De H.10A
Type of machine Biplane "Tractor"
Name or type No. of machine De H.10a
Span 65 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 39 ft. 7 7/16 in.
Chord 7 ft
Total surface of wings, including
   centre plane and ailerons 837.4 sq. ft.
Span of tail 22 ft.
Total area of tail (empennage) 144.3 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 16.54 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 25.75 sq. ft.
Area of fin 10.0 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron 29.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 400 h.p. Llberty
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 10.0 diam., 7.3 pitch, 1,625 revs.
Weight of machine empty 5,488 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 8,500 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 10.6 lbs.
Tank capacity In gallons 215 gallons.
   Speed low down 128 1/2 m.p.h
   Speed at 10,000 feet 124 m.p.h.
   Speed at 15,000 feet 117 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 62 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,248 lbs.

Журнал Flight

Flight, January 9, 1919.



The D.H. 10 and 10a

  The object in designing this machine was to produce a high performance, sell-defending, long-distance daylight bomber. The armistice came along before the D.H. 10's were built in great numbers, and so this type has not had the opportunity of proving itself to the same extent on active service as have the other types of D.H.'s. Judging from its performance, however, it is safe to say that it would have proved a formidable antagonist. It will be seen from the table that when carrying three men, 1,000 lbs. of bombs, full military equipment, and sufficient fuel for a flight of 700 miles, the performance is so extraordinarily good as to be superior to any German machine of any type whatsoever. The machine would, therefore, be able to go out over the lines with its tanks full for a long journey and with a heavy load of bombs, and yet be entirely immune from enemy attack by aeroplanes. This may be regarded as an achievement to be proud of in a daylight bomber. The manoeuvrability of the D.H. 10A is as good as is its performance, and one of these machines has been looped by the late Capt. B. C. Hucks.
  It should be pointed out that whereas the drawings show the earlier type - the D.H. 10 - the photograph illustrates the D.H. 10A. Practically the only difference, however, is that in the 10 the engines are mounted some distance above the bottom plane, whereas in the 10A they rest direct on the lower plane. Other minor differences will be apparent from the illustrations.
  As a post-War machine the D.H. 10A should be capable, with little alteration, of being turned into a very fine machine for the carriage of mails and passengers. For the latter purpose it might be found advisable to increase the width of the body so as to give more room for passengers. This brings the list of Airco. machines up to date, but we feel sure that it will not be long before Capt. de Havilland furnishes proof of his ability as a designer of machines destined for peaceful pursuits, and that these will be found as efficient in their own sphere as were his war planes.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Средний бомбардировщик Де Хевилленд D.H.10 97-го дивизиона RAF (1918г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
D.H.10, переоборудованный в транспортный самолет
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
The first prototype D.H. 10 with two 230 h.p. B.H.P. engines arranged as pushers. The cutaway main plane trailing edge was unique to this aircraft.
P.Lewis - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
D.H.10 Amiens Mk. II C8659.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Another example of an opportunity frittered away, the Airco DH 10 Amiens could well have played a useful role on the Allies' behalf, had not nearly eighteen months been lost to policy vacillation. A simple development of the Airco DH 3 of early 1916, the first of four prototype Airco DH 10 Amiens made its maiden flight on 4 March 1918 and proved underpowered on the output of its two 230hp Siddeley Pumas mounted as pushers. The second prototype, serial no C 8659 seen here, used twin, tractor-mounted 375hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIIIs, while the third prototype had two 400hp Liberty 12s, again tractor-mounted. It was this machine that served as the standard for subsequent production Amiens. Essentially too late to play any real part in the air war, this three man bomber, with its top level speed of 117.5mph at 6,500 feet and maximum 1,380lb bomb load was just entering large-scale production at the time of the Armistice. Of the 1,295 DH 10 and DH 10a Amiens ordered, only eight were in the RAF's hands, of which two examples had been delivered to No 104 Squadron, RAF, at Azelot at war end. However, some of the 268 DH 10s built did enter post-war service with Nos 60. 97, 120 and 216 Squadrons, RAF.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The DH10 first flew in March 1918 but development was slow and the type was entering production just as the war ended.
F.Manson - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
Originally commenced as the first D.H. 10 prototype, C4283 was completed after the three true prototypes had flown, and became representative of the initial production version with Liberty 12 engines, and without the twin nosewheels.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Front View of a De H. 10 (two 400 h.p. Liberty engines) without wings
P.Lewis - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
The first D.H.10A Amiens Mk IIIa, F1869, with Liberty engines mounted on the lower wings, and with larger mainwheels. It was delivered for trials at Martlesham Heath on 17 August 1918, and subsequently 32 examples were built by Mann, Egerton at Norwich.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
A FAST TWIN-ENGINED BOMBER. - One of the Aircraft Manufacturing Co.'s machines designed by Capt. G. de Havilland. This is a de H. 10a, and is fitted with two Liberty engines, each of 400 h.p. The machine has an extraordinarily good performance, its speed at ground level being 134 m.p.h. and at 10,000 ft. 124 m.p.h. The climb to 10,000 ft. takes only 10.3 minutes, while it is capable of reaching an altitude of 22,500 ft. The military load is 1,000 lbs. and the machine has a range of 700 miles. Note its similarity to D.H. 3, except that it is a tractor instead of a pusher.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
F8421, first D.H.10 of a batch of 75 ordered from Mann, Egerton and Co. Ltd., Norwich.
F.Manson - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
Delivered to the RAF on 1 March 1919, F9421 was the first Mann, Egerton-built Amiens IIIa; most of these aircraft were issued to No 60 Squadron on the North-West Frontier.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
The D.H.10C prototype E5557 which took part in local races at Hendon in the summer of 1919 and later flew mails for Aircraft Transport and Travel Ltd.
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
DH 10 Amiens Mk III of No 216 Squadron in Egypt in about 1921.
F.Manson - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
A standard Amiens Mk III, E6042, built by the Birmingham Carriage Company, was modified to have twin fins and rudders, and was delivered to the RAE at Farnborough in October 1919, continuing to fly until 1926 in what was probably a basic research programme into directional control and stability of twin-engine biplanes.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
E6042, the experimental twin ruddered D.H.10 in its final configuration at Farnborough in 1923.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Fig. 33. - Day bomber. De Havilland 10a.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
THE RAILWAY HOLD-UP AND MAILS BY AEROPLANE: Post Office officials and the despatch and receipt of mails at Hounslow. 3. The D.H. 10 (Capt. Gathergood) flew with mails to Glasgow as its destination.
The Liberty engined D.H.10 civil mailplane G-EAJO operated by Aircraft Transport and Travel Ltd. in 1919.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
5. Capt. Gathergood, on a D.H. 10, sets out for Glasgow.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
A batch of R.E. 8's in the works of the Siddeley-Deasy Motor Car Co., Ltd., where large numbers of these machines have been built in addition to quantities of the B.H.P. type aero engines, known as "Siddeley-Puma." In the alleyway on the right is the partially completed fuselage of a D.H.10A.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Fig. 9. - Three-ply covered fuselage. De Havilland 10.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos. 9 and 10. The plan view of D.H. 10A is the same as that of the Liberty-engined D.H. 10.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
P.Lewis - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
de Havilland Amiens Mk. IIIA
F.Manson - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
Airco D.H.10A Amiens
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
De Havilland DH 10 Amiens Mk IIIA