Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

De Havilland D.H.6

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1917

Two-seat elementary trainer, later used for anti-submarine patrol

De Havilland - D.H.5 - 1916 - Великобритания<– –>De Havilland - D.H.9 - 1917 - Великобритания


A.Jackson De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Putnam)


De Havilland D.H.6

  The D.H.6 was a primary trainer conceived in 1916 to meet the increasing needs of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time expanding in readiness for the decisive battles of 1917-18. As the requirement was urgent, beauty of line and fine performance were deliberately sacrificed for ease and speed of manufacture and cheapness and simplicity of repair. All major assemblies were straight sided, upper and lower mainplanes were interchangeable and the wing tips were square cut. The airframe was of fabric covered, wire braced, wooden construction but the front fuselage was plywood covered for additional strength, the tail surfaces were of steel tubing with wooden ribs and the rubber-sprung axle of the undercarriage lay between two protecting steel spreader bars. Both occupants sat in a communal cockpit of a shape familiar to Australians to whom the D.H.6 was always "The Dung Hunter", and the instructor was provided with a lever with which to disengage the pupil's controls in an emergency. Heavily cambered mainplanes, braced by cables instead of streamlined wires also earned the D.H.6 the more common titles of "The Clutching Hand" and "Sky Hook". There were others!
  Power was provided by a 90 h.p. R.A.F. 1A eight cylinder V aircooled motor, bolted straight to the top longerons without any cowlings other than a scoop on the top to direct cooling air to the back cylinders, while vertical stacks led the exhaust fumes away over the top wing. On a mere 90 h.p. the performance was lady-like in the extreme but the D.H.6 was utterly viceless and would remain airborne at an air speed of 30 m.p.h. It was a very remarkable aeroplane, which the designer deliberately made unstable so that it would be an efficient elementary trainer.
  The prototype D.H.6s A5175 and A5176 were fitted with the typical D.H. rudder but production machines, built by Airco and seven sub-contractors, had rectilinear rudders. At least 2.282 D.H.6s were built, some 600 less than those actually ordered, most of which saw widespread service with Training Squadrons during 1917 in the United Kingdom, the Near East and at Point Cook in Australia. It also became the communications aircraft of many Home Defence Squadrons, so that production soon outstripped that of the R.A.F. 1A engine, making it necessary to equip some production batches with the 80 h.p. Renault and the 90 h.p. Curtiss OX-5. The Curtiss OX-5 powered D.H.6 was selected as an alternative in the event of difficulty being experienced with the Canadian JN-4 programme. Although this contingency did not arise, the single D.H.6 completed in July 1917 by Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd. and successfully flown, was the first British designed aircraft built in Canada.
  At the end of 1917 the Avro 504K became the R.F.C.'s standard trainer and over 300 D.H.6s were transferred to the Royal Naval Air Service for anti-submarine duties around British coasts, and for operation by United States Navy personnel on similar patrols off the North East coast of Ireland. Usually they were flown solo and carried up to 100 lb. of bombs under the wings but their only noteworthy attack was the unsuccessful bombing of U boat U.C.49 on May 30, 1918. A report issued in the same month attributing a number of accidents to the difficulty of flying an unstable aeroplane on long patrols, was followed by a number of remedial experiments. F3386 was modified by Airco and tested at the R.A.E. Farnborough in July 1918 with 10 inches of back stagger and a less cambered wing section, obtained by reducing mainplane chord from 6 ft. 3 in. to 6 ft. 0 in. Elevator chord was also reduced from 2 ft. 6 in. to 1 ft. 6 in., but in an otherwise identical set of modifications made to B2963 by the R.A.E., elevator chord shrank to 1 ft. 5 in. Yet another experiment involved the re-rigging of B2840 with 13 1/2 inches of back stagger. Ultimately the Airco modification was standardised and in this form the aircraft was sometimes referred to as the D.H.6A. Forced landings at sea were frequent and one R.A.F. engined machine was tested with flotation gear but even without this, the D.H.6 had been known to remain afloat for 10 hours.
  At the end of 1918 the R.A.F. still had 1,050 D.H.6s on charge, and in the following year the majority were declared obsolete and sold. Surplus aircraft auctioned at Hendon on June 2, 1919 included a number which fetched prices ranging from ?60-?100 according to condition. About 40 were overhauled for pleasure flying within the United Kingdom during the ensuing 14 years and others were privately owned. In Australia the Point Cook machines were also declared redundant and six of these, together with one built from spares, did valuable pioneer work. B2802 and B2803, bought by the Aerial Co. Ltd. were ferried to Sydney by Capt. P. G. (later Sir Gordon) Taylor M.C. and F/Lt. R. F. Oakes in 9 3/4 hours flying time but with frequent refuelling stops the flight took from March 31, 1920 until April 8th. Great difficulty was experienced in crossing the mountains against headwinds and at one stage only four miles were covered in 25 minutes. Another D.H.6 was flown from Richmond to Bathurst by Lt. C. V. Ryvie on August 6, 1920, two were ferried to Hamilton, Victoria by Capt. R. W. McKenzie M.C. and Capt. S. G. Brearley D.F.C. for joy-riding, and the sixth was similarly operated at Bendigo, further to the north, by Lt. H. Treloar A.F.C. One of these machines, G-AUBO, later acquired by F. T. O'Dea and P. A. Moody, covered 12,000 miles in 1921 without a single forced landing.
  In the United States, Chamberlain Aircraft Inc. of New Jersey offered remodelled D.H.6s having forward stagger, individual cockpits and an improved fuel system. At least one is said to have been fitted with a 150 h.p. Benz engine, and as late as 1929 others were re-engined with 110 h.p. Clerget rotaries for 'barnstorming' purposes, e.g. 2264, 4066 and 4124.
  As a result of a sales tour made in 1919-20 by Maj. Hereward de Havilland in a Lion engined D.H.9, a number of D.H.6s were sold in Spain. One of these, M-AAAB, registered to Hispano-Britannica S.A. of Madrid in February 1920 is believed to have acted as 'prototype' for the 60 built under licence at Guadalajara from 1921 onwards. These were used at the main Air Force training establishment at Cuatros Vientos and also at Alcala de Henares. At least one belonged to a Royal Flight. Hispano-built D.H.6s had centre section fuel tanks of aerofoil section, wings of reduced camber and the 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. A few were later sold for civil use, one being flown by the Aero Club of Barcelona in 1932 and three by Aero Popular S.A. of Madrid in 1933.
  The civil D.H.6, numbered K-100, was noteworthy as the first aeroplane in the United Kingdom to fly in civil markings. It also differed from other D.H.6s in combining wings of reduced camber with normal unstaggered rigging, vertical tail surfaces of D.H. outline as fitted to the prototypes, separate cockpits and a curved cowling round the lower half of the engine. It was flown a great deal by Airco test pilot Gerald Gathergood at Hendon race meetings in the summer of 1919 and was afterwards sold to the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd. for radio telephony experiments at Croydon. Although a few D.H.6s were used for instruction by the Grahame-White Aviation Co. Ltd. at Hendon, by the Cambridge School of Flying and by the Bournemouth Aviation Co. Ltd., a considerable number belonged to small firms engaged on itinerant joyriding in the Midlands, Lancashire, the North Wales beaches and the Isle of Man. C. V. Maddocks and Charles Kingsford Smith, later to become the most famous of all Australian long distance pilots, acquired four D.H.6s from No. 5 (E) A.R.D., Henlow, with the intention of shipping them to Australia. After the scheme fell through they formed one of the typical mushroom firms of the period and gave pleasure flights near London taking as much as ?40 in an afternoon. Among the dozen or so converted military aircraft in South Africa at the end of 1919 were two D.H.6s taken out from England by F. H. Solomon, who gave seaside pleasure flights, trading as Cape Coast Resorts Aviation Ltd. Such projects were foredoomed to failure and when the second D.H.6 crashed in 1921, all civil flying in South Africa was temporarily at an end. Three D.H.6s used by P. O. Flygkompani for joyriding in Sweden 1919-21, suffered a similar fate.
  Although initially they earned a considerable amount of easy money, the post-war slump of 1920 forced most British concerns of this type out of business, but a few D.H.6s remained airworthy in the hands of pioneer private owners such as Dr. E. D. Whitehead Reid at Bekesbourne, H. B. Elwell at Lytham St. Annes and Capt. Geoffrey de Havilland whose G-EA WD. with wings of reduced camber, competed unsuccessfully in the Croydon Handicap Race of September 17. 1921. This machine flew for two years with the D.H. School of Flying at Stag Lane but crashed at Stanford Rivers, Essex on August 27, 1923 when a Dutch pupil lost his bearings during A Licence tests. A new and more lasting phase in the commercial life of the D.H.6 was made possible however by the Director of Research, Air Ministry, who in 1921 approved their modification to three seaters for the carriage of two fare paying passengers in tandem in the communal cockpit ahead of the pilot, at an all-up weight of 2,380 lb. The major operator was the Giro Aviation Co. Ltd. whose seven Renault and R.A.F. 1A engined machines made thousands of pleasure flights from Southport Sands in the period 1921-33. In the South the Martin Aviation Company's three D.H.6s acquired from the Brompton Motor Co. Ltd., were fitted with 80 h.p. Renault motors and did similar business from fields and beaches in the Isle of Wight during the 1921 and 1922 seasons. W. G. Chapman of the Leatherhead Motor Company also proved popular at Croydon with his Curtiss OX-5 engined G-EANU, which was further modified to have individual cockpits. The last commercial users other than Giro were British Motor and Flying Services Ltd. at Maylands, Romford, with G-EBPN and TS in 1929.
  A D.H.6 was modified at Sherburn-in-Elmet in 1920 by the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co. Ltd. and fitted with the Alula parasol wing designed by A. A. Holle of the Commercial Aeroplane Wing Syndicate Ltd. Powered by a 200 h.p. Bentley B.R.2 rotary, it was registered G-EAWG and first flown by Capt. Clinch on January 2, 1921. The wing was modified in the following April with dihedral instead of anhedral and also braced to a rigid structure below the wing. After flight tests by F. T. Courtney it was dismantled and despatched to St. Cyr near Paris for completion of the tests.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturers:
   The Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Hendon, London, N.W.9
   The Grahame-White Aviation Co. Ltd., Hendon, London, N.W.9
   The Kingsbury Aviation Co. Ltd., Kingsbury, Middlesex
   Harlandand Wolff Ltd., Belfast
   Morgan and Co., Leighton Buzzard, Beds.
   Savages Ltd., Stroud, Gloucester
   Ransome, Sims and Jefferies Ltd., Ipswich
   The Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. Ltd., Cheltenham
   Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd., Toronto, Canada
   Hispano-Suiza S.A., Guadalajara, Spain
  Power Plants:
   One 90 h.p. R.A.F. 1A
   One 90 h.p. Curtiss OX-5
   One 80 h.p. Renault
   One 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza
  Dimensions
   Span 35 ft. 11 in. Length 27 ft. 3 1/2 in. Height 10 ft. 9 1/2 in.
   Wing area (D.H.6) 436 1/4 sq. ft. (D.H.6A) 413 sq. ft.

Weights and Performances:
   R.A.F. 1A Curtiss OX-5 Renault
   2 seater 3 seater 2 seater 3 seater
Tare weight 1,460 lb. 1.670 lb. 1.539 lb. 1,360 lb.
All-up weight 2,027 lb. 2,380 lb. 1,926 lb. 1,900 lb.
Maximum speed 70 m.p.h. - 75 m.p.h. -
Stalling speed 40 m.p.h. 45 m.p.h. 40 m.p.h. 40 m.p.h.
Initial climb 225 ft./min. - 185 ft./min. -
Ceiling - - 6,100 ft. -
Duration 2 3/4 hours 2 3/4 hours 2 3/4 hours 3 1/2 hours

Production:
Serial range Manufacturer Serial range Manufacturer
A5175 to A5176 Airco C6801 to C6900 Savages
A9563 to A9762 Grahame-White C7201 to C7600 Ransome, Sims and Jeffries
B2601 to B3100 Airco
B9031 to B9130 Airco C7601 to C7900 Grahame-White
C1951 to C2150 Grahame-White C9336 to C9485 Gloucestershire
C5126 to C5275 Kingsbury D951 to D1000 Grahame-White
C5451 to C5750 Harland and Wolff D8581 to D8780 Airco
C6501 to C6700 Morgan F3346 to F3445 Airco

Service Use:
  No. 1 Training Squadron, Stamford; No. 39 Narborough; No. 42 Hounslow; No. 44 Waddington; No. 67 Heliopolis; No. 76, 77 and 99 Home Defence; No. 110; No. 144 Port Said; 20th Training Wing, Abu Qir; Central Flying School, Point Cook, Australia.
  Also coastal patrols by Nos. 236, 250, 252, 254, 255, 258 and 260 Squadrons at Mullion, Padstow, Tynemouth, Prawle Point, Pembroke, Luce Bay and Westward Ho!


A.Jackson British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 (Putnam)


De Havilland D.H.6

  Over 2,000 D.H.6 primary trainers were built by the Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd. and seven main sub-contractors during 1917-18. For a brief period it was the standard trainer of the R.F.C., and for ease of maintenance and repair was built with an eye to structural simplicity rather than beauty of line. It was a rugged two-bay biplane of primitive aspect, seating instructor and pupil in tandem in a single cockpit. Although of orthodox wire-braced wooden construction with fabric covering, the sides of the front fuselage were plywood covered and the 90-h.p. R.A.F. 1A V-eight air-cooled motor was bolted to the top longerons without any pretence at cowlings. A small number were fitted with Curtiss OX-5 water-cooled engines with a radiator which somewhat improved the frontal appearance.
  When civil flying began after the war, over 50 D.H.6s or ‘Clutching Hands’ - a soubriquet deriving from their heavily cambered wings - were sold for civil purposes. The first of these was notable for being the first aeroplane in the United Kingdom, and probably in the entire world, to receive civil markings. As K-100, first of the temporary British series, it was flown a great deal at the Hendon race meetings by Capt. Gathergood and others during the summer of 1919. It was a unique aircraft fitted with one of the horn-balanced rudders of typical D.H. shape taken from one of the prototypes, instead of the standard straight-sided production type. In March 1920 the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd. bought it for experimental R/T work, after which it became well known at Croydon. There, as G-EAAB, it was flown continuously by Mr. G. Shaw until written off in a crash in November 1921. The strength, the ample spares backing and the unbelievably safe flying characteristics of the D.H.6 made it an obvious choice for instruction. G-EALS and ’LT were operated by the Cambridge School of Flying at Hardwicke Aerodrome during the summer of 1919 and two others, G-EAGE and ’GF, were in use during the same period at Hendon with the Grahame-White Aviation Co. Ltd. It was more widely used, however, for joy flights, the firms concerned being the Bournemouth Aviation Co. Ltd., Ensbury Park, with G-EAFT; the Golden Eagle Aviation Co. Ltd., Blackpool, with G-EAHD, ’HE, ’PG, ’PH and ’RJ-’RM; the Warwick Aviation Co., Birmingham, with G-EAHH; the Nelson Aviation Co. Ltd., with G-EAJM; Stallard Airways, Herne Bay, with G-EANJ; By Air Ltd., Baginton, with G-EAQB and ’QC; Leatherhead Motor Services Ltd., Croydon, with G-EANU; the International Aviation Co. Ltd., Hooton, with G-EARA-’RD; Blackpool Flying Services Ltd., with G-EAUS and ’UT and the Manchester Aviation Co. Ltd., with G-EAHI, ’TI and the ex Grahame-White G-EAGE.
  Lancashire was thus the main hunting ground of the itinerant D.H.6, while the beaches of the neighbouring North Wales coast also served as landing-grounds for the Manchester Aviation Company’s aircraft. The career of International’s D.H.6 G-EARB was typical of many. This was a former R.F.C. trainer B 5533 built by Harland and Wolff, first flown as a civil machine on 15 March 1920. At the beginning of the season L. J. Rimmer flew it to Bidston, Cheshire, where it carried out 10 hours’ pleasure flying. Later it made a two-hour flight to the Isle of Man, where a further 12 hours’ flying was completed at Douglas by the end of June. It then rounded off the year’s activities by being blown over in a gale. Although they initially earned a very considerable amount of easy money, the postwar slump of 1920 forced many of these companies out of business and most of the D.H.6s were short-lived. A few were acquired, however, by a select band of pioneer private owners. Grahame-White’s G-EAGF was sold to the Hon. Elsie Mackay in October 1921, Leatherhead’s OX-5-powered G-EANU was acquired by J. V. Yates at Croydon in May 1922, A. B. Ford operated G-EAOT in 1920-21, the late Dr. E. D. Whitehead-Reid was active at Bekesbourne, Canterbury, with G-EAPW in 1920, P. A. A. Boss had G-EAQQ.and H. B. Elwell of Blackpool successively owned G-EAQY, ’RL and ’VR during the period 1922-25. One example was dismantled at Sherburn-in-Elmet and rebuilt as G-EAWG, a monoplane with a 150-h.p. Bentley B.R.1 rotary and an Alula parasol wing as detailed in Appendix A. Another, G-EAWD, had wings of lesser camber and was the private mount of Capt. G. de Havilland, who, in the cold and wet, bravely completed the course to finish last in the Croydon Handicap Race on 17 September 1921.
  From the ruins of early ambition there emerged a new and more lasting phase in the history of the civil D.H.6. After the Director of Research, Air Ministry, had finally approved their modification as three-seaters, they were permitted to carry a second fare-paying passenger at an all-up weight of 2,380 lb. In Lancashire, S. N. Giroux acquired the hangars at Hesketh Park, Southport, and used the beach as his aerodrome, at the same time buying up the aircraft of the International and Golden Eagle concerns. He began operations in 1921 as the Giro Aviation Co. with G-EARC, ’RJ, ’RK, ’RM and ’VG, and in 1959 still offers pleasure flights with vintage Fox Moths from the same pitch. In 1925 a new D.H.6 G-EBEB was built at Hesketh, probably by cannibalization of earlier machines, and was joined in May 1929 by G-EBWG bought from R. J. Bunning, an itinerant joy-rider. These were named ‘Maysbus’ and "Silver Wings’ respectively, and became famous on Southport Sands, giving thousands of holidaymakers their baptism of the air until replaced by Avros 548s in 1933. The Giro premises were used for Anson overhaul during the war, with the result that the stored remains of faithful EB and ’WG, and those of several more elderly examples, were burnt.
  The critical 1921-22 seasons found the Martin Aviation Co. Ltd., another new D.H. 6 operator, doing good business with the three-seaters G-EAWT, ’WU and ’WV in the Isle of Wight. These machines, which were fitted with 80-h.p. Renault motors, became a familiar sight in all parts of the island and were well patronized, although ’WU was written off in a minor landing accident on 31 March 1922. Giro and Martin were virtually the last users ol the D.H.6 as a commercial aircraft, although F. J. V. Holmes of Berkshire Aviation Tours converted G-EBPN and ’VS at Witney in 1926. He toured the Midlands with them for a couple of years until they were sold in April 1928 to British Flying and Motor Services Ltd. at Maylands Aerodrome, Romford. By 1930, when only Giro’s ’EB and ’WG remained in service, V. N. Dickenson produced a final example G-AARN, flying it from a field near St. Albans until he pensioned it off in 1933.


SPECIFICATION
Manufacturers: The Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Hendon, London, N.W.g; and other contractors.
Power Plants:
   One 90-h.p. R.A.F. iA.
   One 90-h.p. Curtiss OX-5.
   One 80-h.p. Renault.
Dimensions: Span, 35 ft. 11 in. Length, 27 ft. 3 1/2 in. Height, 10 ft. 9 1/2 in. Wing area, 436-3 sq. ft.
R.A.F.1A 2-seater R.A.F.1A 3-seater Curtiss OX-5 2-seater Renault 3-seater
Tare weight 1,460 lb. 1,670 lb. 1,539 lb. 1,360 lb.
All-up weight 2,000 lb. 2,380 lb. 1,926 lb. 1,900 lb.
Maximum speed. 66 m.p.h. - 75 m.p.h. -
Initial climb 225 ft./min. - 185 ft./min. -
Ceiling - - 6,100 ft. -
Duration 2 3/4 hours 2 3/4 hours 2 3/4 hours 3 1/2 hours


ALULA D.H.6

  D.H.6 fuselage and tail unit fitted with a 200-h.p. Bentley B.R.2 rotary and the Alula high lift wing. Conversion by the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co. Ltd. at Sherburn-in-Elmet 1920 to the designs of A. A. Hoile of the Commercial Aeroplane Wing Syndicate Ltd. One aircraft only: G-EAWG, first flown 2.1.21 by Capt. Clinch, later modified with dihedral from the centre line and braced with a rigid structure below the wing. Flown by F. T. Courtney 4.21, dismantled and despatched to St. Cyr, near Paris for further tests.


O.Thetford Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 (Putnam)


de Havilland DH 6 (Airco)

  In April 1918 the RAF inherited from the RNAS the DH 6 anti-submarine role, which had been established the previous month. At the end of 1918, the RAF still had 1,060 DH 6s on charge, serving for the most part with thirty-four Flights, deployed around Britain’s coastline and which eventually became Nos 236, 244, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258 and 272 Squadrons of the RAF. Basically trainers, they had been adapted as light bomb-carrying anti-submarine patrol aircraft. Their introduction to this role had been one of several expedients forced on the Admiralty by the growing menace of German submarines around Britain’s coasts. Powerplant: One 90hp RAF la, Curtiss OX-5 or 80hp Renault engine. Span, 35ft 11in; length, 27ft 3in. Loaded weight, 2,027lb. Max speed, 75mph at 2,000ft; service ceiling, 6,000ft.


P.Lewis British Bomber since 1914 (Putnam)


Geoffrey de Havilland’s outstanding versatility as a designer was fully demonstrated in the course of the 1914-18 War as - in turn - he evolved fighters, bombers and trainers. It was as a trainer that the extraordinarily angular D.H.6 was designed and served mainly. Alternatively powered by the 90 h.p. R.A.F.1A, 90 h.p. Curtiss OX-5 or the 80 h.p. Renault, according to availability of supplies, the two-seat, two-bay biplane was never to be considered as endowed with enough power. Consequently, when the D.H.6 was adapted early in 1918 for anti-submarine patrol around the coast of the British Isles, it was at a disadvantage from the start and was perforce flown solo to enable it to carry a single 100 lb. bomb or the same load of smaller missiles. Despite modifications carried out from March, 1918, with the object of improving the performance of the D.H.6 to make it more effective against U-boats, all that was achieved was a slight increase in top speed, but the machine was unable to improve its bomb-carrying ability.


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


de Havilland 6

  The stark, utilitarian lines of the D.H.6 can be ascribed to the fact that it was designed for rapid and simple production in 1916 at a time when the RFC was expanding and needed many more training aircraft in a hurry. Captain (later Sir Geoffrey) de Havilland achieved this purpose admirably, and over 2,200 D.H.6s were built by the parent company and seven sub-contracting firms.
  Few aeroplanes can have had so many nicknames, for the D.H.6 was variously known as 'The Sky Hook', 'The Crab', 'The Clutching Hand', 'The Flying Coffin', 'The Dung-hunter' and 'The Sixty'. As a trainer, the D.H.6 saw widespread service at home and overseas during 1917, but was gradually withdrawn with the subsequent standardisation of the Avro 504K.
  By a curious turn of events, the D.H.6's decline as a trainer witnessed its introduction in a first-line operational role as an anti-submarine hunter with the RNAS. Early in 1918 the Admiralty asked for additional aircraft to patrol off the coast between the Tyne and the Tees, an area where U-boats were doing great damage, and the first two Flights of D.H.6s formed at Cramlington in March. In June 1918 a further 192 D.H.6s were made available for antisubmarine work, and 32 more Flights were established at coastal air stations, five of them operated by the US Navy.
  Little success was achieved by the D. H .6s, nor could it be expected with a performance so inferior that, in order to lift a mere 100 lb of bombs, the observer had to be discarded. Modifications such as the introduction of back-stagger and a new aerofoil section on the D.H.6A did little to improve the lack of speed, and D.H.6s fitted with the far from reliable Curtiss OX-5 engine suffered frequent descents in the sea. Fortunately, the type floated for long periods and thus improved the chance of rescue.
  On only one occasion did a D.H.6 come near to destroying a U-boat. This was on 30 May 1918, when UC-49 was attacked, but it crash-dived and made its escape.

UNITS ALLOCATED
  Thirty-four Flights allocated as follows: two Flights (Cramlington): five Flights (Humber to Tees); four Flights (Tees to St Abbs Head); four Flights (Portsmouth Group): eight Flights (South Western Group); six Flights (Irish Sea). After April 1918, organised as Nos.236, 241, 242, 244, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258, 260 and 272 Squadrons.

TECHNICAL DATA (D.H.6)
  Description: Two-seat elementary trainer, later used for anti-submarine patrol. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: Aircraft Manufacturing Co Ltd, Hendon. Sub-contracted by Grahame-White Aviation Co, Gloucestershire Aircraft Co; Harland & Wolff; Kingsbury Aviation Co; Morgan & Co; Ransome, Sims & Jeffries; and Savages pd.
  Power Plant: One 90 hp RAF Ia, 90 hp Curtiss OX-5 or 80 hp Renault.
  Dimensions: Span, 35 ft 11 in. Length, 27 ft 3 1/2 in. Height, 10 ft 9 1/2 in. Wing area, 436 sq ft.
  Weights: Empty, 1,460 lb. Loaded, 2,027 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 75 mph at 2,000 ft. Climb, 35 min to 6,500 ft. Service ceiling, 6,100 ft.
  Armament: Up to 100 lb of bombs below wings.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


D.H.6. The analogy of the D.H.5 and Whirlwind is less remarkable than that adducible between the D.H.6 and Tiger Moth, the trainers of two wars which rendered arduous, if thankless, service on anti-submarine patrol. For this assignment the first-war 'Clutching Hand' carried a single 100-lb bomb or equivalent load and was generally manned by the pilot alone. The effectiveness of the type was not confined to keeping periscopes submerged, for on 30 May, 1918, an attack was made on UC-17, unhappily too late to prevent the torpedoing of SS Dungeness.


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919


The De H.6 was produced as an elementary training machine for pilots, and, to meet requirements, fundamentally different from those which are desirable in machines for war use.
  High performance was not desired, was in fact rather to be avoided. Cheapness and simplicity and strength of construction, together with ease to repair and a low landing speed, were of primary importance.
  As a result of these considerations, the De H.6, vulgarly known alternatively as the "Clutching Hand" or the "Sky Hook" vhas very few of those rather expensive refinements of form which characterise most modern machines.
  It has, in fact, rather the appearance of having been built by the mile and cut off to order, which is, of course, a testimony to the thoroughness with which the desired simplicity has been reached in the design.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane "Tractor"
Name or type No. of machine De H.6.
Span 35 ft 11 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 8 1/2 in.
Overall length 27 ft. 3 1/2 in.
Maximum height 10 ft 9 1/2 in.
Chord 6 ft. 4 in.
Total surface of wings, including
  centre plane and aileron 436.3 sq. ft.
Span of tail 12 ft.
Total area of tail (empennage) 81.0 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 13.0 sq. ft. each
Area of rudder 12.0 sq. ft.
Area of fin 5.5 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 19.0 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 100 h.p. R.A.F. 1A.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9.085 diam., 10.0 pitch, 1,800 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,460 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 2,027 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 4.64 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 20.27 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 26 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 66 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 39 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,500 feet 29 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 360 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,027 lbs.


Журнал Flight


Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 6

Towards the end of 1917 the question of training pilots became pressing, and the need for a machine designed especially for school work became apparent. To meet this demand the D.H. 6 was designed. The objects kept in view in designing her were: Simplicity, and therefore ease of manufacture, maintenance and repair, interchangeability of parts, low landing and stalling speeds. Hence the straight tips and control surfaces. The flat, and nearly vertical, nose of the fuselage might be thought to offer unnecessary resistance. It should be remembered, however, that this is a school machine, and we believe we are correct in saying that this detrimental surface was intended to assist in safeguarding the machine against being dived at too high a speed by inexperienced pupils. For the same reason plain cables are used in the wing bracing. An ingenious quick-release dual system of control is fitted, by means of which the instructor can cut out the pupil completely by the movement of a single lever, and it should be particularly noted that this quick-release includes not only aileron and elevator, but also rudder control. A remarkable feature of the D.H. 6 is the low speed at which it can be flown. The standard machine has a maximum speed of 75 m.p.h., and lands at about 30 m.p.h., while it may be actually flown at speeds below 30 m.p.h. The standard model is intentionally made slightly unstable for purposes of teaching, but a few slight modifications will turn it into a stable machine. Furthermore, by fitting streamline wires instead of the wing bracing cables, and by cowling-in the engine the maximum speed can be increased to 90 m.p.h. In this form the machine should be very well suited to pleasure flying, especially as it was primarily designed for cheapness of manufacture.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
One of the two D.H.6 prototypes, with traditional de Havilland rudder.
P.Lewis - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
Early prototype D.H.6 with curved fin and rudder.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The D.H. 6. - A school machine, two-seater, dual controls. Has a very low minimum speed, (about 30 m.p.h.), and is not easily stalled. The head resistance is purposely kept high, but by using stream-line wing bracing wires and by cowling in the engine, the speed can be raised to 90 m.p.h., when the machine should be very useful as a moderate priced pleasure plane.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
K-100 with prototype rudder, racing at Hendon 1919. It was the first aeroplane ever to carry British civil markings.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Airco DH6 was designed to be a reliable and straightforward trainer, with ease of manufacture and maintenance as the two prime considerations. Production began early in 1917 and very large numbers were ordered from a variety of contractors. Most of the reserve and training units used the type at some time. A9644 is shown with 23rd Training Wing at Scampton.
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
B2612, a production D.H.6 with large rudder and elevator.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Designed from the outset as a primary trainer, the Airco DH 6 emerged early in 1917. Designed to be both easy to fly and repair, the early DH 6s were powered by a 90hp RAF IA, but shortages of this engine led to the adoption of either the 80hp Renault or 90hp Curtiss OX-5. Top level speed of the DH 6 fitted with an RAF IA, as seen here fitted to Serial no B2612, was 70mph, while the initial climb was a meagre 225 feet per minute. By late 1917, the DH 6 had been dropped in favour of the Avro 504K as the RFC's standard trainer, enabling more than 300 of the total 2.303 DH 6 and DH 6a production to be switched to the RNAS for anti-submarine coastal patrol work, carrying a 100lb bombload.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
An Airco-built aircraft, B2840, in the so-called D.H.6A configuration with back stagger and reduced rudder and elevator chord.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
D. H.6A of No.242 Squadron. Newhaven.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
D.H.6 with 90 h.p. Curtiss OX-5 engine.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Canadian Aeroplane Limited D.H.6 w/ Curtiss OX-5 motor. This is the first, last and only D.H. 6 to have been manufactured in Canada. It was built by Canadian Aeroplane Limited, as a back up plan against a failure of the Curtiss JN machines. They were fine, so no production of the type took place. This machine did, apparently, go to a training school in Canada and was used.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
A Spanish-built D.H.6 with rounded rudder, 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza watercooled engine and Lamblin radiators between the undercarriage legs.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Flotation tests with an R.A.F. 1A engined D.H.6, A2098, at the Isle of Grain on June 14, 1918.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
The well-known D.H.6 "Maysbus" G-EBEB of the Giro Aviation Co. Ltd. flying over Southport Sands.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
C. D. Pratt stripping down the R.A.F.1A engine of his first joyriding D.H.6, G-AUDO, in the Australian outback in the 1920s.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
H. B, Elwell's D.H.6 G-EARL in the English Electric Company’s hangar at Lytham St. Annes, February 1924.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
A typical joyriding team with ground engineer, pilot (Capt. Martin) and ticket salesman at Cleethorpes in 1923 alongside the Martin Aviation Company's D.H.6, G-EAWT.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
The Leatherhead Motor Company’s OX-5 engined D.H.6 G-EANU at Croydon 1919, where it was flown by W. G. Chapman.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE CROSS-COUNTRY HANDICAP AT HENDON AERODROME ON WHIT-MONDAY: The five starters lined up for the race, at the other side of the aerodrome
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Line-up of the machines before Saturday's race of the day
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Start on Saturday of the first heat. Capt. Gathergood first away on an Airco, followed by Lieut. Park on an Avro, Capt. Robertson (Avro) and the winner of the final, Capt. Chamberlayne, on a G.W. Bantam.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Capt. Gathergood on a D.H.6 crossing the line in front of the enclosures in the cross-country handicap at Hendon on Monday. He was, however, disqualified, having passed the wrong side of one of the route flags when starting. Note the Pylone, erected for the first time since the War
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: First heat on Saturday as seen from No. 1 Pylon. High up in the air, Capt. Chamberlayne (final winner), below Capt. Gathergood (21), first in the heat, followed by Lieut. Park (4)
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
D.H.6 aircraft under construction by Ransomes, Sims and Jefferies Ltd. at their Orwell Works, Ipswich, in 1917.
D.James - Gloster aircraft since 1917 /Putnam/
Production of D.H.6 fuselages in H.H.Martyn's aeroplane erecting shop at Sunningend Works, Cheltenham, in 1917.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
The D.H.6 G-EAWG fitted with Alula high lift wing by the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co. Ltd. in 1920. The engine was a 200 h.p. Bentley B.R.2 rotary.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
An armed DH6, with a good view of the gun mounting on the upper wing - C7835 at Fowlmere after Sgt. Thompson's 'quarrel with a cottage' in September 1918. Although primarily a training machine, the DH6 was also used for Home Defence and by a number of specialist units such as the School of Aerial Fighting.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
P.Lewis - British Bomber since 1914 /Putnam/
D.H.6
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
D.H.6