В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Небольшая компания "Бидмор" производила по лицензии самолеты "Сопвич", в том числе истребитель "Пап". Когда командование флотом выдало заказ на палубный истребитель со складывающимся крылом, в "Бидмор" было решено разработать такой самолет на основе истребителя "Пап", который уже применялся на авианосцах. Новый самолет представлял собой деревянный двухстоечный биплан. Крылья были выполнены меньшего размаха, но с большей хордой. Для придания жесткости бипланной коробке при складывании крыльев назад были установлены дополнительные стойки. У нижнего крыла появился центроплан. На первом прототипе для удобства хранения самолета в ангаре было оборудовано складывающееся шасси. Из-за его узкой колеи на нижнем крыле были размещены предохранительные дуги. В последующем устанавливалось обычное шасси с колесами или легкими лыжами, однако дуги сохранились.
В серию самолет пошел под индексом S.B.3F (Ship-board Folding - "палубный складной"). Вариант S.B.3D (Droopping - сбрасывание) оснащался сбрасываемыми при вынужденной посадке на воду шасси и надувными поплавками. Пулемет "Льюис" устанавливался на центроплане верхнего крыла.
Было изготовлено 100 истребителей, однако только 36 из них использовались флотом на авианосцах "Фуриус", "Пегасус", "Наирана".
Двигатель 1 х Клерже (110 л. с.)
размах х длина 7,6x6,1 м
Площадь крыльев 22,57 м2
пустого 407 кг
взлетный 585 кг
Максимальная скорость 165 км/ч
Потолок 3800 м
Продолжительность полета 2,75 ч
пулеметное 1 синхронный пулемет
Экипаж 1 чел.
H.King Sopwith Aircraft 1912-1920 (Putnam)
The award to Beardmore of the first large Pup contract for the Admiralty and the special armament provisions connected with this early association having been recorded, it remains to note that the Sopwith Pup aeroplanes ordered as such from William Beardmore & Co Ltd., Dalmuir, Dunbartonshire, Scotland, were Nos. 9901-9950 and Nos. N6430-N6459. From these aeroplanes 9950 was selected for a metamorphosis - a transformation, at least, which represents one of the most imaginative (if one of the less successful) Naval-air undertakings on the British technical record, spattered though this record is with 'make-dos', ‘mods' and 'variants'.
Stowage-space for Pups in the smaller classes of vessel involved in Naval operations generally and anti-Zeppelin work in particular being clearly at a premium, Beardmore undertook a complete redesign of the Pup accordingly. Not only were the wings (now without stagger, and with less dihedral) adapted to be folded 'Folding Pup' being a popular name for the aircraft but the landing gear likewise was largely 'retractable' into the fuselage. Later the gear was fixed, but could be jettisoned for emergency alighting at sea. Flotation gear, jury struts and wingtip skids were added in the early stages, the control system was redesigned and the fuselage slightly lengthened all these features being connoted by the new designation W.B.III. Though some of the novelties were abandoned or mitigated, one hundred W.B.IIIs were ordered; and though not all reached Service units, at one time the carrier Furious had fourteen of her own.
O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)
Beardmore W.B. III
The Beardmore W.B. III was introduced during 1917 and, although it can lay claim to no memorable engagements with the enemy, it is nevertheless interesting historically as an early attempt to produce an aircraft exclusively for carrier-borne flying. It was not an original design, being a derivative of the Sopwith Pup, but the ingenuity that went into its modification for aircraft-carrier work was quite remarkable. The adaptation was the work of Mr G Tilghman Richards, and the manufacturers were no strangers to the Pup, as they had been the first company to build Pups under licence for the RNAS.
The prototype W.B. III (No.9950) was in fact converted from the last batch of Sopwith Pups built at Dalmuir. It differed from the Pup in having folding wings to conserve hangar space aboard ship. Unlike the Pup, the wings had no stagger and the dihedral angle was reduced. The normal centre-section struts were replaced by full-length interplane struts adjacent to the fuselage and the ailerons were operated by control rods, the upper and lower ailerons being rigidly connected by a light strut. This last feature was abandoned in later production aircraft, which reverted to cable controls. Other modifications included wingtip skids and a lengthened fuselage, which was adapted to carry emergency flotation gear, and a remarkable system whereby the undercarriage was retracted to further economise in space when stored.
Two official designations were applied to the W.B. IIIs in service, S.B.3D and S.B.3F. The former indicated an aircraft with an undercarriage which could be jettisoned in the event of 'ditching', the latter a folding undercarriage. Production orders for 100 W.B. IIIs reached Beardmores (N6100 to N6129 and N6680 to N6749), but it is possible that not all were built. On 31 October 1918, 55 W.B. IIIs were officially 'on charge' but only 18 with the Grand Fleet.
Aircraft-carriers Nairana and Pegasus. RNAS shore stations at Donibristle, Rosyth and Tlirnholise.
TECHNICAL DATA (W.B. III)
Description: Single-seat carrier-borne scout. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: William Beardmore & Co Ltd, Dalmuir, Dumbartonshire.
Power Plant: One 80 hp Le Rhone or 80 hp Clerget.
Dimensions: Span, 25 ft. (10 ft 4 in folded). Length, 20 ft 2 1/2 in. Height, 8 ft 1 1/4 in. Wing area, 243 sq ft.
Weights: Empty, 890 lb. Loaded, 1,289 lb.
Performance: Maximum speed, 103 mph at sea level; 91 mph at 10,000 ft. Climb, 9 min to 5,000 ft; 24 min to 10,000 ft. Endurance, 2 3/4 hr. Service ceiling, 12,400 ft.
Armament: One Lewis gun mounted above centre-section firing over airscrew.
H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)
W.B. III. Dating from 1916-17, this very extensively modified Sopwith Pup, for shipboard service, had a single Lewis gun, for which three ammunition drums were provided (one on the gun). Photographs show single (47-round) drums, but a contemporary account mentioned '300 rounds#, suggesting that double (97-round) drums were intended. The gun was at first carried on a tripod mounting, apparently designed at the Grain experimental station, installed forward of the cockpit, so that the gun fired through a hole in the centre-section. Later the gun was mounted slightly to starboard above the centre-section, firing a little upwards over the airscrew.
P.Lewis The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)
Among the various types of aircraft produced by William Beardmore and Co. was a version of the Sopwith Pup redesigned for Beardmore by G. Tilghman Richards specifically for shipboard use. Saving of space has, from the beginning, always been a primary consideration for naval aircraft and, in the W.B.III, the wings were made to fold by eliminating the stagger and fitting a revised system of struts. To reduce height the main landing-gear folded up into the belly of the fuselage, the length of which had been increased. The S.B.3D designation was applied to the version with jettisonable undercarriage; S.B.3F denoted folding landing-gear. Production W.B.IIIs served with the Fleet and were armed with one Lewis gun on the upper centre-section.
F.Mason The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)
The well-known engineering and shipbuilding firm of William Beardmore & Co Ltd of Dalmuir, Dunbartonshire, became involved in aero-engine manufacture shortly before the outbreak of war in 1914 when it obtained a licence to produce Austro-Daimler engines. Soon afterwards the company received subcontracts to produce the B.E.2C and, rather later, the Sop with Pup. When, in 1916, major sub-contractors were encouraged to originate designs of their own, Lieut G Tilghman Richards was appointed Chief Designer in Beardmore’s aviation department.
After two designs, the W.B.I (a bomber) and the W.B.II (a reconnaissance aircraft) had failed to receive quantity orders, Beardmore undertook extensive modification of the Sopwith Pup to improve its application to operations aboard ship, principally by reducing its dimensions for storage by introducing folding wings. To do this the Pup’s wings were re-arranged to eliminate stagger, four additional interplane struts were added close to the fuselage to retain rigidity on the wing-fold chord line and to maintain the truss with the wings folded. The fuselage was lengthened by about twelve inches so as to avoid interference between the tailplane and the outboard interplane struts, and folding skids were introduced under the lower wings.
The prototype W.B.III was in fact produced by modifying a Beardmore-built Pup (9950), originally intended for the Admiralty. Also included was provision to fold the undercarriage into the fuselage beneath the cockpit to reduce storage height; an alternative arrangement was provided to enable the entire undercarriage to be jettisoned in the event of an emergency ditching on water.
A total of one hundred W.B.IIIs was ordered under the Service designation S.B.3, the S.B.3D being said to denote ‘dropping’ undercarriage, and S.B.3F (for ‘folding’ undercarriage). S.B.3s served aboard hms Furious, Nairana and Pegasus, and at the time of the Armistice fifty-five were on RAF charge, the remainder in store. It is said that a small number was supplied to Japan.
Type: Single-engine, single-seat shipboard interceptor scout biplane.
Manufacturer: William Beardmore & Co Ltd, Dalmuir, Dunbartonshire.
Powerplant: One 80hp Le Rhone air-cooled rotary engine, or one 80hp Clerget air-cooled rotary engine.
Construction: Wooden construction throughout with ash longerons and diagonal spacers, spruce wing spars and ribs, and birch riblets. Front of fuselage covered with aluminium sheet, and ply in area of cockpit; remainder fabric-covered.
Dimensions: Span, 25ft 0in; length, 20ft 2 1/4 in; height, 8ft 1 1/4 in; wing area, 243 sq ft.
Weights: Tare, 890lb; all-up, 1,289lb.
Performance: Max speed, 103mph at sea level; climb to 5,000ft, 9 min; service ceiling, 12,400 ft; endurance, 2 3/4 hr.
Armament: One 0.303in Lewis machine gun mounted over the wing centre section to starboard, angled slightly upwards to fire over the propeller.
Prototype: One, 9950 (converted Pup, first flown January 1917)
Production: One hundred aircraft (N6100-N6129 and N6680-N6749)
Summary of Service: Known to have served aboard ships of the Grand Fleet and aboard hm Carriers Furious, Nairana and Pegasus during 1918-19.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919
THE BEARDMORE BIPLANE W.B.III.
The Beardmore W B. III. was evolved from the Sopwith "Pup" in an effort to turn this machine into a ship-plane, the principal modifications being folding planes and a retractable under-carriage. in order to simplify stowage on board ship. The fuselage and tail unit arc practically of Sopwith design, the overall length being only slightly increased.
Instead of four short centre-section struts, four long struts, two on cither side of the fuselage, are fitted with a short horizontal strut connecting them with the upper longeron of the fuselage. The main planes are unstaggered and hinged at the main rear spar close up to the fuselage.
Two sets of interplane struts are fitted to each set of main planes one set being placed at the inner edge of the plane in order to preserve the truss when the wings are folded.
Ailerons are fitted to upper and lower planes and are operated on the Nieuport principle, the upper and lower ailerons being inter-connected by a strut.
An ordinary Vee-type under-carriage is fitted, the front members of the Vee being hinged, and the rear members equipped with a release device operated from the pilot's seat which allows the under-carriage to collapse into the fuselage, leaving half the wheels exposed. The armament consists of a Lewis gun fitted on a special mounting in front of the pilot's cockpit to allow it to fire through an opening in the centre section.
Particulars of this machine are given in the following table:
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.III.
Purpose for which intended Ship's Scout.
Span 25 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 4 ft. 9 in., 4 ft. 9 in.
Overall length 20 ft. 2.5 in.
Maximum height 8 ft. 1.25 in.
Chord 5 ft. 1.5 in.
Total surface of wings,
including ailerons 243 sq. ft.
Span of tail 10 ft. 1 in.
Total area of tail 34.5 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 11.5 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 4.5 sq. ft.
Area of fin 3.5 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 5.75 sq. ft.
total area 23 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 4.6 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 17 sq, ft.
Vertical area of body 39 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Clerget or Le Rhone 80 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 8 ft. 6 in.; 1,200 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 880 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 5.3 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 16.1 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2.75 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 18 gallons.
Speed low down 103 m.p.h.
Speed at 10,000 feet 88 m.p.h.
Landing speed 40 m p.h.
To 5,000 feet in minutes 9 minutes.
To 10,000 feet in minutes 24 minutes
Disposable load apart from fuel 300 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1290 lbs.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
BEARDMORE W.B.III UK
The W.B.III single-seat shipboard fighter was an extensively modified variant of the Sopwith Pup with manually-folding mainplanes and folding main undercarriage members. The prototype (a modified Pup) was officially accepted on 7 February 1917, and 100 production W.B.IIIs were ordered under the official designation S.B.3. Armament comprised a single 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Lewis gun which fired upwards through a cut-out in the upper wing centre section, and the W.B.III could be fitted with either the seven-cylinder Clerget or nine-cylinder Le Rhone 9C rotary, both of 80 hp. The first 13 production W.B.IIIs had folding undercarriages similar to the prototype and were known as S.B.3Fs, but subsequent W.B.IIIs had jettisonable undercarriages (S.B.3D) and flotation equipment. The S.B.3D version saw some service aboard British carriers, one was used in an unsuccessful attempt to fly from the forecastle of the battle cruiser HMS Renown and several were supplied to Japan.
Max speed, 103 mph (166 km/h) at sea level, 98 mph (158 km/h) at 6,500 ft (1980 m).
Time to 6,500 ft (1 980 m), 12.15 min.
Endurance, 2.75 hrs.
Empty weight, 890 lb (404 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,289 lb (585 kg).
Span, 25ft 0 in (7,62m).
Length, 20 ft 2 1/2 in (6,16 m).
Height, 8 ft 1 1/4 in (2,46 m).
Wing area, 243 sqft (22,57 m2).