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Журнал
Flight за 1919 г.
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Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.

Three-quarter front view of the Supermarine "Channel"-type flying boat which is being used for joy flips at Bournemouth, Southampton and the Isle of Wight
The Supermarine "Channel"-type flying boat, with Mr. and Mrs. Harry Tate and Mr. R. Tate on board ready for a flight. Comdr. B. D. Hobbs, D.S.O., D.S.C., the pilot, is standing beside the engine
Flight, May 15, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC CONTEST
THE MACHINES

  IN our issue of April 10 we published scale drawings of the Sopwith and Short Transatlantic machines. At the time no further drawings were available, and other machines have been entered since then. This week we are able, through the courtesy of the various constructors who have given us facilities for obtaining particulars of their machines, to place before our readers scale drawings of three other entrants and a photograph of a fourth, as well as scale drawings of one of the American flying-boats which will attempt the crossing hors de concours.

The Alliance-Napier "Seabird"

  THE latest entry for the Transatlantic race is the biplane "Seabird," built and entered by the Alliance Aeroplane Co., of Acton and Hammersmith. This machine, which was designed by Mr. J. A. Peters, who will pilot the "Seabird," is a single-engine tractor with 450 h.p. Napier aero engine.
  As the accompanying photograph well shows, both pilot and navigator are enclosed in the cabin, which affords room to move about and to lie down for a brief rest. A double wireless set will be carried, one for sending and receiving messages, the other "directional" for navigation purposes. The machine is stated to have a range of about 3,000 miles. As already pointed out, the pilot will be Mr. J. A. Peters, the designer of the machine, while the navigation will be in the hands of Capt. W. R. Curtis, who will also act as assistant pilot. The main particulars of the "Seabird" are as follow :-

Span, 53 ft.
Length, 33 ft. 6 ins.
Area, 700 sq. ft.
Total weight, 7,400 lbs.
Petrol, 500 gals.
Oil, 50 gals.
Range, 3,000 miles.
Max. speed, 140 m.p.h.
Landing speed. 45 m.p.h.
Engine, 450 h.p. Napier.


Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE "SEABIRD'S" LONDON-MADRID NON-STOP FLIGHT.

  THE pilot's report of the recent non-stop record flight from London to Madrid made by the Alliance biplane shows that the flight was remarkable in many ways. This machine, which was fitted with a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine, was originally designed for the Transatlantic flight. The pilot and navigator, Lieut. W. R. Curtis, R.A.F., was lent by the Air Ministry to the Alliance Co. for the purpose of making this flight. He had with him Mr. J. A. Peters, the designer, as assistant pilot.
  The following notes are taken from the pilot's report :-
  "We left Acton Aerodrome at 7.30 a.m., steering a course for Havre. A heavy ground mist made visibility poor, and at times completely obscured the ground from view.
  "7.55 a.m. passed over Brighton at 10,000 ft., where visibility improved, until half-way across the Channel, when thick clouds again obscured the water from view.
  "8.50 a.m. passed over Havre, which we just sighted through a break in the clouds. Course was altered here for San Sebastian, and we gradually decreased our height to 6,000 ft., flying just below the clouds, which were very broken.
  "At 11.10 we passed over Rochelle; just after leaving this place we ran into very bad weather, the clouds being very thick and ranging from 2,000 to 10,000 ft. in depth. After having a very bad time in thick clouds we eventually found ourselves at 2,000 ft., flying just below them in most terrific bumps, which almost made the machine uncontrollable. After experiencing this for some time, we decided to go out to sea and get clear of the land.
  "Here we found much better conditions, the sky being almost clear.
  "We climbed to 13,000 ft., and passed over San Sebastian at 1.10 p.m.
  "Course was altered for Madrid, and the land again became obscured from view owing to very heavy clouds.
  "Nothing was seen of the Pyrenees, and the first land sighted at 2.20 p.m. when the clouds began to break up, Madrid being sighted at 3.10 p.m. and we landed at Cuetro Vientos Aerodrome at 3.28 p.m., having completed the journey in 7 3/4 hrs."


Flight, November 6, 1919.

THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA

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  In addition to the Sopwith "Wallaby" three other machines are now all but ready for the attempt, and are mainly waiting for an improvement in the weather before making a start. These are: A Martinsyde, an Alliance, and a Vickers-Vimy. As all the machines must start from Hounslow it would appear that the arrival of better weather will mean the start of all three machines more or less together, and an exciting race may therefore be looked to.

The Alliance Machine

  The machine entered by the Alliance Aeroplane Co., Ltd., is, generally speaking, similar to the "Seabird" which flew from London to Madrid. It is a tractor biplane with totally enclosed fuselage. The pilot occupies the rear of the cabin, control being by means of hand wheel and foot bar. Windows in the side allow of looking out laterally and to a certain extent at an angle forward. A triangular opening in the side, level with the pilot's head permits him; if desired, to put his head outside, when he can see fairly well in a forward direction. The engine fitted in this machine is a Napier Lion of 450 h.p. As will be seen from the accompanying photograph, the engine is totally covered in, only the exhaust pipes projecting, and the forward corner of the outer banks of cylinders. The fuel tanks, which have a capacity of about 500 gallons of petrol, are mounted inside the body, in front of the cabin. The machine has a maximum speed of about 135 m.p.h.
  Lieut. Roger Douglas, who will pilot the machine, was born in Queensland, and enlisted in the A.I.F. at the outbreak of War. He was at the landing on Gallipoli with the Australian Machine Gun Battalion; from there he went to Egypt, and ultimately arrived in France with the first contingent of the A.I.F. He was Sergt. in those days, and for bravery in the face of the enemy at Pozieres in 1916, was awarded the D.C.M., afterwards receiving his Commission on the Field. He gained a further decoration, viz., the M.C, at Polygon Wood in September, 1917. Having thoroughly proved himself on land, Lieut. Douglas sought fresh fields to conquer and joined the Australian Flying Corps. After doing good work in France, he was selected as instructor of a Scout section of S.E. 5's; he underwent a course of navigation at Andover, so besides being an experienced pilot he is also a capable navigator.
  Lieut. Ross, who will be the navigator of the machine, has also had considerable flying experience. He joined up early in the War as a Wireless operator, and received his commission and pilot's wings in October, 1916. He served continuously with the A.F.C. in France until September, 1918, when he was wounded in aerial combat whilst in charge of a squadron of S.E. 5's. He has also had considerable training in navigation, and both men have been working together since the Armistice.
  Lieut. Douglas first conceived the idea of flying home in 1916, and immediately the Armistice was declared, he set out to obtain a machine capable of long distance flying. He has now had some weeks' experience in flying an Alliance aeroplane fitted with a 450 h.p. Napier aero engine, and is confident that he could not have secured a better machine for this flight. It is particularly steady in the air, has ample reserve of power, and the engine, with many remarkable performances to its credit, is firmly expected to do all that is asked of it. Every point has been considered in the preparations for this flight, even to such small items as painting the wings and struts green, so that they will be restful to the eyes on a long trip. It is intended to carry sufficient food to last five days.
THE ALLIANCE-NAPIER "SEABIRD." - Side view, showing how both pilot and navigator are accommodated in the cabin
Weatherbound: The Alliance-Napier machine entered for the flight to Australia has had to stand by owing to unsettled weather conditions. As soon as conditions improve, a start will be made. Our photograph shows on the left, Lieut. R. Douglas, M.C., D.C.M., the pilot of the machine; on the right, Lieut. Ross, the navigator; and, in the centre, Mr. J. A. Peters, the designer of the Alliance machine. The photograph gives a good idea of the cabin arrangement
ANOTHER PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ALLIANCE-NAPIER BIPLANE: Last week we published a photograph of this machine, which has a speed of 140 m.p.h. and a range of 3,000 miles. It is fitted with a Napier Aero engine. In front of the machine are seen some of the people who have helped to build it
The instrument board and wireless outfit in the cabin of the "Seabird," the biplane manufactured by the Alliance Aeroplane Co., which recently flew from London to Madrid in 7 3/4 hours
Flight, April 3, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE ARMSTRONG-WHITWORTH MACHINES

  BEFORE commencing a description of the A.W. machines, as the aeroplanes built by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Ltd., of Newcastle, are usually called, a short reference to the history of the firm may be of interest to those who have not had the opportunity of following at close quarters the developments that have taken place since the A.W. aviation department was first formed in 1913. Although it is not generally realised, it is nevertheless a fact that aeroplanes were built by this firm as early as 1912, in which year the first aeroplane, a Farman type biplane with 50 h.p. Gnome engine, was constructed, and was afterwards sold to A. V. Roe and Co., of Brooklands, who used it for school work. This machine was built at the Elswick works, and it was not until August the following year, 1913, that the Armstrong-Whitworth aircraft department was formed, with works in the sawmills at Scotswood, near Newcastle. The War Office placed orders with the firm for a small number of B.E. 2A biplanes, the first of which was completed in April, 1914. Further small orders were subsequently received for the improved type of machine known as the B.E. 2B, and these were completed in August, 1914. The aeroplane works were then transferred to new premises on the Town Moor, Gosforth, and on the outbreak of War, the War Office issued instructions to extend the works, placing at the same time large orders for B.E. 2C biplanes. The extensions were rapidly completed, and good progress in the production of aircraft was made, the output being from four to six machines per week. In the meantime, Mr. Frederick Koolhoven, now managing director of the British Aerial Transport Co. joined the firm as designer, and from his drawing board issued a series of aeroplanes of various types, some of which did not survive the experimental stage, but many of which went into production and became well known on practically all the fighting fronts. A number of these experimental machines are not included in this series, as we have been unable to obtain from Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co. any data relating to them.

The 90 h.p. Biplane Type, F.K3 1915

  In August, 1915, a biplane having a 90 h.p. R.A.F. engine was put in hand, intended to compete with the B.E. 2c. This machine, the F.K. 3, was successful in its trial flights, and a large order for these machines was placed with the firm during 1916. The output of F.K. 3's, which were constructed alongside the B.E. 2c's, had now reached from 20 to 25 per month, and complete squadrons were equipped for service on the various fronts. In addition a large number were employed for training pilots at home. From the illustrations it will be seen that the F.K. 3 is not unlike, in a general way, the B.E. 2c, which it was intended to supplant. There is the same large gap and shallow, narrow fuselage. The undercarriage is, however, different from that of the B.E. 2C, and consists of a central skid mounted on two pairs of Vees from the fuselage, and of a two-wheel running gear mounted on shock absorbers in the side of the body, somewhat after the fashion of the old R.E.P. monoplanes in France.
Front and side elevations of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Plan views of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Flight, April 3, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE ARMSTRONG-WHITWORTH MACHINES

The A.W. Quadruplane, Type F.K. 10, 1917

  Next in the series comes the A.W. "Quad," which was first tested some time in 1917. By that time the single-seater fighting scouts were being employed in great quantities, and the question of good visibility was one of paramount importance, a pilot whose machine obscured the view to a great extent in any direction being at a considerable disadvantage. This question of visibility was attempted to be solved in the A.W. "Quad," in which, as will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, the stagger was very pronounced, while the second plane passed across some little distance above the top of the fuselage, the third and fourth planes passing through and under the body respectively, and obstructing, owing to their narrow chord, the view to a small extent only. When this machine first appeared the triplane had been tried with fair success, but the multiplane was somewhat of a dark horse, as regards its aerodynamic properties. From the table of performance it will be seen that the speed and climb of the A.W. Quad, were, if anything, inferior to those of contemporaneous triplanes with the same engines, while being a good way behind small biplanes with engines of 130 h.p. It, therefore, appears that quadruplanes do not give so good results as biplanes or triplanes as regards performance, and we understand that they are not particularly nice to fly. It will be noticed that on the A.W. Quad, there is no fixed tail plane. This is probably in order to render the elevators as effective as possible, a necessary precaution on a quadruplane with its comparatively great height over the aerofoils.
Front and side elevations of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Plan views of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Flight, April 3, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE ARMSTRONG-WHITWORTH MACHINES

The 160 h.p. Biplane, Type F.K. 8, 1916

  Towards the end of 1916 a larger and improved type of two-seater tractor biplane was designed. This machine, the F.K. 8, was fitted with a 160 h.p. Beardmore engine, and had two machine guns and a wireless installation. It proved a great success, and was built in great quantities, both by the original designers and by other firms. Squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps were equipped with it and used it on all the fighting fronts, its duties including night and day bombing, artillery spotting and reconnaissance, trench fighting, dropping of food to advanced troops, etc. Towards the end of 1917 the output of complete machines of this type in the A.W. works had reached between 80 and 100 machines per month. Construction was continued until July, 1918, when the machine was superseded by the Bristol Fighter. The illustrations will give a good idea of the general fines of the F.K. 8, which, owing to being fitted with a vertical engine, has a certain similarity to German aeroplanes, an impression that is furthered by the fact that there is no centre section, the two halves of the top plane meeting at and being attached to the top of a cabane of steel tubes. The earlier machines were fitted with an oleo type of undercarriage, somewhat similar to that of the F.K. 3, but with the central skid cut short in front of the front under carriage struts. This is the machine shown in the accompanying scale diagrams. One of our photographs shows a somewhat modified form, in which the oleo chassis has been supplanted by one of the ordinary Vee type. There is otherwise so little difference between the two types that we have not thought it necessary to publish scale diagrams of the second type. The outward appearance is the same in both cases, with the exception of the undercarriage. The F.K. 8 is greatly liked by pilots, and is generally considered very safe and strong, while being very easy to fly. If desired for peace purposes, the machine can be adapted to take 120 h.p. Beardmore, 200 Hispano-Suiza, or 250 h.p. Siddeley Puma engines.
The A.W. Biplane, Type F.K. 8, with 160 h.p. Beardmore engine.
A.W. 160 H.P. BIPLANE. - This machine is similar to the F.K. 8, but has a Vee undercarriage.
At the R.A.F. "War in the Air" Exhibition at the Grafton Galleries:- "Wind Up!" - A British fighting machine chasing a Hun
Front and side elevations of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Plan views of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Flight, April 3, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE ARMSTRONG-WHITWORTH MACHINES

The A.W. "Armadillo." 1918

  As more powerful engines became available, the designs for a number of experimental machines were got out, among them being the 220 h.p. "Armadillo" and the 320 h.p. "Ara." The former was fitted with a B.R. 2 rotary engine, and the trial flights took place in September, 1918. The results were so promising that it is fairly safe to say that the machine would have been put into production in time for the 1919 spring offensive. From the illustrations it will be seen that the chief characteristic of the Armadillo is that the top plane is mounted on the top of the fuselage on a level with the eyes of the pilot. Owing to the small gap between the planes there are two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side, thus ensuring a better angle for the lift wires. The rotary engine is enclosed in a circular cowl, which is surmounted by a square, box-like excrescence, inside which the two machine guns are mounted, synchronised, of course, to fire through the propeller.
Front and side elevations of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Plan views of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Flight, April 3, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE ARMSTRONG-WHITWORTH MACHINES

The A.W. "Ara" Single-seater, 1919

  An improved type of single-seater was contemplated at the time of testing the Armadillo. This was to be fitted with a 320 h.p. Dragonfly engine, but as considerable delay was experienced in the production of this engine, it was not until the last week in December that an engine could be obtained. In the meantime, in the hope of getting this engine, a machine had been built for it. This was the one now known as the "Ara" type. Owing to the delay in obtaining the engine it was not until January, 1919, that the machine was ready for its tests. As will be seen from the table, the performance is very good indeed, both as regards speed and climb. In appearance the "Ara" is somewhat different from the "Armadillo," the top plane being placed some little distance above the fuselage, while the fact that the engine fitted is a radial instead of a rotary has made it possible to provide a better entry for the air in the neighbourhood of the nose of the fuselage. A cone-shaped spinner is fitted over the propeller boss, and only the tops of the cylinders project beyond the cowl. The undercarriage is of the usual simple Vee type.
THE A.W. "ARA" SINGLE-SEATER. - The engine fitted is a 320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly."
Front and side elevations of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
Plan views of the Armstrong-Whitworth machines.
THE SIDDELEY "SISKIN." - A couple of snaps taken recently. This machine possesses several unusual features. Thus the undercarriage is of the Oleo type. The top plane is slightly larger than the lower one, and the inter-plane struts are raked. The engine is a 340 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly."
THE AUSTIN "GREYHOUND." - This machine is designed to carry three guns, camera, wireless, oxygen apparatus, etc. It is a two-seater, and is fitted with a 320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engine. The weight empty is 2,050 lbs. and fully loaded 3,090 lbs. The speed at 10,000 ft. is estimated at 130 m.p.h., and the climb to 10,000 ft. at 11 mins. The landing speed is about 45 m.p.h.
Flight, August 14, 1919.

THE AUSTIN "WHIPPET"

  UP to now it has been necessary for the "Amateur" pilot to have a certain amount of mechanical knowledge, in addition to knowing how to fly, in order to keep his machine in flying trim and safe - unless, of course, he has the services of a skilled mechanic or mechanics. In other words, the non-mechanical owner-pilot has only now been catered for in the Austin "Whippet," which has just been produced by the Austin Motor Co., Ltd., of Birmingham, to the designs of Mr. J. Kenworthy - the firm's chief aeronautical engineer, associated in the early days with Mr. G. de Havilland at the Royal Aircraft Factory.
  The salient points of the Austin "Whippet" are :- It is a small single-seater tractor biplane with an all-steel fuselage, folding wings, no bracing wires, and it is a safe and easy machine to fly. Furthermore, it is proposed to place this machine on the market at the comparatively low price of ?400 to ?500.
  In view of the fact that bracing wires have been practically eliminated, and that the wings are made to fold back, the "Whippet" is a machine that should appeal particularly to the "owner-pilot," for frequent adjustments and rigging - especially when folding the wings in position for flight - are thus avoided, whilst the machine can be housed in quite a small building or tent, one 8 ft. wide, 18 ft. long, and 8 ft. high being sufficient for the purpose.
  As shown in the accompanying scale drawings, it is fitted with a two-cylindered horizontally-opposed engine, but we understand that a six-cylindered 45 h.p. Anzani engine will be fitted in all future models.
  The principal dimensions of the "Whippet" are: Span, 21 ft. 6 ins.; length, 16 ft.; chord, 3 ft. 8 ins.; area of main plane, 134 sq. ft. The weight of the machine empty is 500 lbs., and fully loaded 730 lbs. It has a speed range of 30 to 95 m.p.h., and climbs to 5,000 ft. in 6 mins., and 10,000 ft. in 14 mins. Fuel is carried for a flight of two hours' duration.
  As previously stated, the fuselage is of steel construction throughout, and is built up in two sections, being divided at a point immediately behind the cockpit. The longitudinals, diagonals and cross-members are of circular-section steel tubing, and are readily replaceable. Bracing wires are entirely eliminated, and it is claimed that the whole frame-work is not affected by climatic conditions. The engine is overhung from the front of the frame, and a special shock-absorbing device, consisting of rubber buffers, is fitted between the fuselage and the engine-bearer. The engine is enclosed in an aluminium cowling.
  The main planes have been designed with a high factor of safety, and are of standard wood construction with hollow box-section spars. Steel tubes are employed for the compression members, and internal bracing is by steel piano-wire. One set of "N" struts, of streamlined steel tubes, separate the top and bottom planes on each side of the fuselage, and the top centre section is supported above the fuselage by two pairs of vertical streamlined steel struts. This portion of the cellule alone is wire-braced. The upper and lower wings are hinged at the roots of the rear spars to the top centre section and fuselage respectively. Bracing for lift and incidence is by streamlined steel tubes, which are anchored at their lower ends to the roots of the lower wings, and are thus not disconnected when folding the wings. In order to correct incidence, the rear lift struts are made adjustable. Both upper and lower wings are given a dihedral of about 5°, but are otherwise "straight." The top plane is staggered forward some 3 ins. When folded back the wings are supported and locked by tubes attached to the fuselage, and when in flying position are locked by a quick-release but positive locking device. Ailerons are fitted to the top planes only.
  The tail plane is of similar construction to the main planes, and consists of two outer portions and a centre portion, which simplifies the question of spares, as either outer portion can easily be changed. The tail plane is of comparatively thick streamline section, and is braced by telescopic streamlined steel tubes. Its angle of incidence can also be adjusted to correct the e.g. for different weights of pilots. The elevators and rudder are of standard design, the framework being of steel tubing and the ribs of wood. A triangular vertical fin is mounted both above and below the fuselage.
  The landing chassis is of the ordinary V-type, the V-struts terminating at their lower ends in pressed steel sockets, tubular tie-rods connecting each V. The axle rests in between the V where it is attached by the usual elastic cord. Bracing is by streamline steel wire. The tail skid is of the swivelling type, the skid itself being made of two steel pressings welded together. In order to provide a good wearing surface, a special shoe is fitted, consisting of ten vertical laminated plates. The springing of the skid is obtained by making the supporting strut of telescoping tubes operating on a compression spring.
  The elevators and ailerons are operated in the usual way by a "joy-stick," and the rudder and tail skid by rudder-bar. Operating rods are used for the engine control. For starting the engine a small induction pump is fitted, which forces a firing mixture into the cylinders, and a starting magneto inside the fuselage ignites this charge.
Three-quarter front view of the Austin " Whippet."
Three-quarter rear view of the Austin "Whippet."
Front view of the Austin "Whippet" with the wings folded.
Side view of the Austin "Whippet," with the wings folded.
THE AUSTIN "WHIPPET" SINGLE-SEATER BIPLANE: Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

  IN connection with this week's instalment of our Milestones series, dealing with the Avro machines, it may be of interest to mention that it was the machines built by this firm which first suggested to us the title "Milestones." An article under this heading was published in our issue of January 8, 1915, in which were briefly described and illustrated the Avro aeroplanes from the first and up to the end of 1914. The restrictions imposed by the censorship did not permit of continuing the series thus commenced, but with the present instalment on Milestones the Avro series is brought up to date, and our readers will, therefore, by looking back to the issue in question, have an unbroken series of machines ranging over a period of ten years. Needless to say there are few firms who can show such a "Family tree," having, to remain in the simile, its roots so deep down in aviation history as 1908, and with its newest branches reaching upwards into the present and near future. It is curious to note how nearly all the Avro machines retain a strong family resemblance to the earlier machines, much though they may differ in many respects. In a historical article like the present, it may not be out of the way to mention that it was Mr. A. V. Roe who pioneered the production of aeroplanes of the tractor type, a type which has proved itself superior in nearly every way to any other, and, with one or two exceptions, the designer of the famous Avro machines has remained faithful to his early ideal.
  As far as concerns this article, the machine which formed the foundation of the Avro house is the 80 h.p. tractor built in 1913, and with very slight modifications still used extensively as a training machine at the present day. Surely this is a record of which any designer may well be proud, and there can be little doubt that the famous 80 Avro was a most remarkable machine in those days. In our issue of December 6, 1913, we published a detailed description of the machine, with scale drawings and a few constructional details, and it will not, therefore, be necessary to do more than give a photograph of it here. The machine, as already indicated, has undergone slight modifications from time to time, but these have been of a minor character, and as will be seen from the accompanying photographs of some of the later models, the machine remains substantially as she was in 1913. Thus the type 504 J is to all outward appearances the same as the 1913 model, although she is fitted with a 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape engine in place of the 80 h.p. engine of the older model. Another photograph shows the 80 h.p. tractor seaplane of 1914, the famous Daily Mail seaplane on which Mr. Raynham did so much good work by arousing interest in flying at various coast towns in 1914.
  With this brief reference to the models in existence just before, or in the earliest days of, the War, we can now turn our attention to the machines built in the interval between 1914 and the present time.

The Type 504 K Training Machine

  The modern version of the original 1913 type is known as the 504 K, and is to all intents and purposes identical with the original. It has been strengthened up in places, it is true, and minor alterations have been made, but fundamentally the design remains unaltered. Of the alterations made, mention may be made of the engine mounting, which was, in the older machine, of the two-bearer type, the front bearer being in the form of a ball race supported on four tubular arms forming extensions of the fuselage longerons. This "spider," as it is usually termed, has been removed in the type 504 K, and the engine is supported on two bearer plates behind the crank case - in other words, is overhung. Also the power has been increased from that of the original 80 h.p. Gnome to more modern rotaries, such as the 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape or the 110 h.p. Le Rhone. In the table of performances printed elsewhere the figures relating to the 504 K represent the performance of the machine when fitted with a 110 h.p. Le Rhone. Any standard rotary engine up to about 100 h.p. can be fitted without entailing any alteration in the machine, adapters being supplied to suit all engines. The A.B.C. Wasp can also be fitted if desired.
  Pilots who have flown the Avro 504 K all agree that it is an extremely comfortable machine, and that on it it is possible to do every kind of "stunt" imaginable. The machine appears to be extremely strong in spite of its light weight, and is so easy on the controls that it is not in the least surprising to learn that it has been adopted as the standard training machine for the Royal Air Force. In this capacity it has been built in huge numbers, and it is even probable that more machines of this type have been built than of any other type in the world.
  As an inexpensive touring machine for the owner-driver after the War this machine should have much to recommend it, since, even when fitted with an engine of 80 h.p. only, it has a very good performance, and the first cost, as well as the running cost, would not then be unreasonably great. As a matter of fact, we believe that the type is now undergoing further development, and that it is about to be issued in a slightly new form, probably to be known as the 504 M, in which it is arranged as a three-seater, with an enclosed cabin for the pilot and two passengers. This, however, is still a thing of the future, and no particulars can, therefore, be given at present.
  It may be remembered that in 1914 the Avro firm got out a tractor seaplane, 150 h.p. Sunbeam engine, for the circuit of Britain. Although the outbreak of War prevented the running of this race, this particular type of machine was proceeded with, and several were built early in 1915. The time between the outbreak of hostilities and May, 1916, was taken up with the construction, in addition to the standard 504, of 130 h.p. Clerget two-seaters, 130h.p. Sunbeam two-seater seaplanes, and several large single-engined bombers. The 504 was slightly altered in various respects for different jobs. Then in May, 1916, tests were carried out on a twin-engined bomber.

The Seaplane, type 504L. February, 1919.

  Quite recently, last month in fact, a further development of the famous 504 type has taken place. This takes the form of a tractor seaplane with 130 h.p. Clerget engine, very similar to the standard Avro 504 in general arrangement, except, of course, the undercarriage, which is of the twin-float type. This machine is known as the 504L, and is not greatly different from the 1914 type of seaplane illustrated at the beginning of this article. The figures in the table of performances, relating to this machine, are the calculated figures, and we are informed that the actual tests have given even better results. Thus the calculated speed was, as shown in the table, 80 m.p.h. at sea level, whereas the machine actually does 90 m.p.h. The machine, which is fitted with dual controls, can be looped, spun, side-slipped, stalled, etc., just like the standard land machines. The 504L will also be arranged as a three-seater, with single controls and the pilot in front. The airscrew shown in the photograph, and which was fused for the test, has Avro patent detachable blades. Finally, it might be mentioned that the machine will take all rotaries up to 150 h.p. and also the A.B.C. Wasp.


Flight, May 15, 1919.

CIVILIAN AVIATION
OPENING OF THE SEASON AT HENDON

  GLORIOUS weather attended the opening of the civilian flying season at the London Aerodrome, Hendon, on Saturday last. A very fair number of visitors managed to get down to the aerodrome in spite of transport difficulties. Both at Golder's Green and Cricklewood there were long queues waiting for trams and 'buses, and the patience with which these prospective visitors to the aerodrome awaited their turn is a fair measure of their interest in flying. All the same, it will not do to try such patience too severely, and better facilities must be provided before the old aerodrome regains the popularity it enjoyed before the War. Not, of course, that the management of the aerodrome can be held in any way responsible for the London traffic scandal, but in their own interest, and in t he interest of flying generally, it is essential that the large number of people who now are taking a keen interest in aviation should not have their enthusiasm damped by such irritating obstacles. It is not, we admit, a matter that can be remedied at a moment's notice, but something might be done to relieve the situation. For instance, as there is now a railway track laid on to the aerodrome from the main line, it should be possible to make arrangements for running trains out from St. Pancras on Saturdays. We are aware that the scarcity of rolling-stock is probably as great on the railway as elsewhere, and that, therefore, the number of trains available for this purpose might not be very great, but even a few would materially help to relieve the congestion at Golder's Green and Cricklewood.
  As regards the flying, the Grahame-White Co. had in commission four Avro two-seaters, 110 h.p. Le Rhone engines, which were kept as busy as could be, taking up passengers at 10s. 6d. and one guinea a time. The half-guinea flights were necessarily somewhat short, but even so they compared favourably with the flips made before the War, when a fee of two guineas was charged, and when machines seldom reached a height of more than a couple of hundred feet during a flip. With the Avros now in use, even on a half-guinea flight, the passenger enjoys a turning climb to quite a fair altitude, while in the guinea flights both altitude and duration are considerably greater. If desired, the passenger is treated to "stunts" such as loops, spins, rolls, etc. We noticed that on Saturday a good proportion of the passengers taken up were anxious to crowd into each flight as many thrills as possible, and all of them thoroughly enjoyed their experience. The machines were kept busy all the afternoon, and changed passengers with great dispatch, the pilots keeping their engines ticking over the while. Only when the fuel tanks required replenishing were the engines stopped.
  Among the pilots who were giving joy-rides we were pleased to discover our old friend Maj. R. H. Carr, who will be remembered as one of the G.W. pilots before the War, and who has now rejoined his old firm. We imagine that he found the joy-riding somewhat "tame" after his experiences in aerial fighting, but his usual good humour did not desert him, and he entered into the fun of the thing with great energy.
  Pre-War visitors to the aerodrome will meet several old friends at Hendon now. Mr. M. D. Manton has joined the Airco firm as test pilot, and is assisting Mr. Birchenough, another Hendon old-timer, in that capacity. Lastly, it is quite like old times when, on passing through the gates, one is met with the rotund, smiling face of Mr. Plant, who is still, as of old, "the St. Peter of the Aerodrome."
  There was not a large attendance on Sunday, but the presence of a line of cars showed that the Hendon habit is reviving. Apart from the passenger-flights on Avros, an excellent flight was made on the new Grahame-White "Bantam," probably the smallest machine yet made, and much interest was aroused by the arrival of three Blackburn "Kangaroos," which rumour has it have been purchased by the Grahame-White Co. for inclusion in their week-end programmes.
  During the week-end, too, the aerodrome at Hounslow has presented a very animated scene, and the Avro machines which are available have, been kept very busy taking passengers for "flips." Last week over 400 trips were made, the passengers ranging in age from an old lady of 84 to a child of 4. In response to the demand for nights of longer duration, Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co. are now arranging for a regular series of cross-country trips from Hounslow.
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Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 4. - The Avro Biplane, 110 h . p . Le Rhone engine
  This machine was flown by Lieut.-Col. G. L. P. Henderson, as he could not, we understand, get permission from the Air Ministry authorities to use the Martinsyde F. 4 originally entered. The Avro two-seater is so well known as to need little description here. Suffice it to point out that to all intents and purposes she is the same machine - with an engine of higher power - as the original Avro two-seater of 1913, which had an 80 h.p. Gnome. Needless to say that, matched against modern machines of high power, the Avro had little chance of winning the Derby, although the somewhat hopeless position was, to a certain extent, mitigated by the fact that a sealed handicap was flown in connection with the Derby. Lieut.-Col. Henderson is to be congratulated upon his determination and perseverance in completing the course, and certainly was deserving of a more modern mount.


Flight, September 25, 1919.

COMMERCIAL AIR-TRANSPORT

WINDERMERE

  This week has been a record one for passengers at Bowness. The Avro seaplanes have carried out 32 flights, totaling nine hours of flying. Several people have had half-hour flights. Excellent views were obtained of Scawfell, Langdale Pikes, Helvelyn, Kirkstone Pass, Thirlmere, etc. In particular one lady and gentleman engaged a machine for a half-hour flight over Ulverston and Morecambe Bay, and from a height of between 3,000 and 4,000 ft. they enjoyed some especially splendid views of cloud effects.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO SEAPLANE OF 1914. - This machine bears a strong family resemblance to the 504L, of which scale drawings are published elsewhere in this issue.
Fig. 38. - Training machine. Avro.
The Avro 504K, a slightly modified and strengthened version of the original 80 h.p. type. This machine has been adopted as the standard training aeroplane for the R.A.F.
The Snapper, snapped. - One of the G.W. Avro biplanes, with a cinema operator on board, photographed by our photographer, from a de H. 9 (Airco) machine at Hendon at the week end
CIVILIAN FLYING AT HOUNSLOW AERODROME: Looping the loop in an Avro with three up. Photographed from another Hounslow Aerodrome Avro. An untouched negative
A REMARKABLE PAIR OF PHOTOGRAPHS: Last week we published some Flight photographs taken at Hounslow Aerodrome, and reference in the text was made as follows: "With the co-operation of Messrs. A. V. Roe, we were able to obtain some fine photographic records from the air of looping - taken from the 'looper' by the 'loopee,' and from a sister Avro accompanying the looper. Two of these photographs are of special interest in that one was taken during a loop, showing the ground appearing below the tail." These unique photographs, which, as must be obvious, were taken simultaneously, but independently, from the two machines, are now, by request, reproduced above.
Hounslow Aerodrome as seen from above by the eye of "Flight's" Camera
AT HENDON AERODROME: Racing on Whit Saturday. The two Avros flew evenly together in a remarkable way. The left-hand machine in our photograph, piloted by Mr. G. R. Hicks, won Saturday's race. On the Monday, Maj. Carr, who is flying the other Avro, had a mishap, but without serious consequences
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: First heat on Saturday as seen from No. 1 Pylon. High up in the air, Capt. Chamberlayne (final winner), below Capt. Gathergood (21), first in the heat, followed by Lieut. Park (4)
THE CROSS-COUNTRY HANDICAP AT HENDON AERODROME ON WHIT-MONDAY: The five starters lined up for the race, at the other side of the aerodrome
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Line-up of the machines before Saturday's race of the day
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Start on Saturday of the first heat. Capt. Gathergood first away on an Airco, followed by Lieut. Park on an Avro, Capt. Robertson (Avro) and the winner of the final, Capt. Chamberlayne, on a G.W. Bantam.
STARTERS IN HENDON'S AIR RACE ON SATURDAY: Left to right - B.A.T., piloted by Major Draper (winner; Avro, pilot Capt. D. H. Robertson, A.F.C.; Avro, pilot Major R. H. Carr, A.F.C., D.C.M. (second); G.-W. Bantam, pilot Capt. P. R. T. Chamberlayne (third); and Avro, pilot Lieut. G. R. Hicks, D.F.C.
THE AERIAL DERBY. - Competitors lined-up at the start of the 1919 Aerial Derby at Hendon, with Lieut-Col G. L. P. Henderson's Avro 504K H2586 in the foreground.
No. 4. - The Avro Biplane, 110 h . p . le Rhone engine, flown by Lieut.-Col. G. L. P . Henderson, in place of the Martinsyde F 4, Rolls-Royce Falcon engine, originally entered.
The Lord Chancellor, Lord Birkenhead, has a "joy-ride" on an Avro. After the flight, from left to right: Mr. Parrott (Messrs. Roe and Co.'s Southampton Manager), Captain Hamersley, Lord Birkenhead's son, Lord Birkenhead, Commander Chillcott.
OPENING OF THE SEASON AT HENDON. - A youthful visitor is taken for a flip. In the background is seen the new club-house. Inset is one of the Avros starting off.
AT HOUNSLOW AERODROME: A quick service incident. A visitor and his wife arrived in their car, with only a very short time to spare for getting to Folkestone to dinner. In a few minutes they were en route for their destination, and before dark had returned to the aerodrome
AT HOUNSLOW AERODROME: Civilian Flying: A trio of Avros filling up with passengers
The Avro "Aerodrome" on the sands at Southport for the flying meeting
AVRO FLIGHTS AT SOUTHPORT: Captain Collison landing after a popular guinea circuit of the town
THE OPENING OF THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT AERODROME AT NORTHOLT ON SATURDAY. - A quartette of the Avros used for passenger flying. "Au revoir" to baby by two passengers taking a flight with Lieut. Castleman, and, on right, Mr. Sykes returning from an exhibition of stunting on an Avro.
"GOING AWAY" BY AEROPLANE. - The wedding of Miss Standen and Mr. Hamilton at Chorley Wood last week, when the bride and bridegroom travelled by aeroplane for their honeymoon to Fowey, Cornwall. In the photograph the Avro is just about to depart.
At the E.L.T.A. Aerodrome: One of the Avros which are kept busy all day and every day carrying passengers. Note the registration letters on the fuselage
The Avro Seaplane, Type 504 L.
Homing at Dusk. - the last flight of the day, on an Avro waterplane off Brighton
AVRO SEAPLANES AT BOWNESS, WINDERMERE: The pilot in charge is Capt. Howard Pixton, who won the Jacques Schneider Trophy at Monte Carlo in 1914.
AT HENDON AERODROME: On the right Gen. Fitzpatrick, Chief of Army Aviation in U.S.A. On left, Einer Petersen of the "Politiken," Denmark, has a joy-flight with Pilot Hicks
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Plan Views of some of the Avro Machines.
Some more Plan Views of Avro Machines.
Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

The Avro "Pike." May, 1916

  This machine was the first Avro twin-engined machine to be built, and was intended for work as a three-seater fighter. The general arrangement will be clear from the accompanying diagrams. The pilot occupied the middle seat, while a gunner was placed in the nose of the fuselage, and one well aft, about half-way between the planes and the tail. From the tables it will be seen that the "Pike" had a very good performance, considering that she only had a total h.p. of 320, the power plant consisting of two Sunbeam engines each of 160 h.p. In plan the machine was very similar to the standard single-engined Avros, with rectangular planes and tail, with the corners rounded off. The machine had an adjustable tail, rotatable gun rings, and bomb racks. The pusher airscrews were carried on extension shafts from the engines, and rotated in opposite directions. Considering the time of testing the first machine, May, 1916, and the good performance for its power, it is not immediately obvious why the type was not at once put into production, but the fact remains that it was not, immediately or at any time. The solution does not emerge from the table of performances, which would certainly appear to justify its production in quantities.
  Contemporary with the "Pike," another machine, which was really her sister 'plane, was going through the works. This machine was, however, fitted with two Green engines of 150 h.p. each. Also the airscrews were tractors instead of pushers. This machine was tested in August, 1916. A third machine on very similar lines, but totally different in detail design, was fitted with two Rolls-Royce engines of 190 h.p. each. This was known as the 529 type, and was first tested in April, 1917. One of the accompanying photographs shows these three machines lined up, the one on the left being the "Pike," that in the middle the Green engined machine, and the one nearest the camera the 529.

The Three-Seater Bomber, Type 529A. October, 1917.

  The reason for the apparent break in the series, by which the two-seater fighter, type 530, comes before the 529A, is to be found in the fact that these two machines were going through the works at the same time, and the type 530 was finished a short time before the other machine. The type 529A is a sister plane to the Rolls-Royce engined machine. From the table of performances it will be seen that both speed and climb of this machine were very good indeed, while at the same time she had a good range of action (556 miles at 10,000 ft.). She would therefore have made a good long-distance bomber, and should have been coming through in quantities in the spring and early summer of 1918. From the plan view of the machine it will be seen that the wings were arranged so as to be capable of being folded back, thus economising storage room. The pilot sat just ahead of the leading edge of the planes, while a gunner was placed in the nose of the fuselage, and another gunner well aft, whence he had a good field for his machine gun. The engines fitted were Galloway B.H.Ps., of 220 h.p. each. As shown in the illustrations the engines were very neatly covered in, and drove tractor screws, running in the same direction.
A GROUP OF AVRO BOMBERS. - The machine farthest from the camera is the Avro "Pike" with two 160 h.p. Sunbeam engines. The machine in the centre is a sister 'plane to the "Pike" but is fitted with two 150 h.p. Green engines. The machine on the right is the type 529, with two 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce engines.
THE AVRO TYPE 529. - This machine is the same as that shown on the right in the preceding illustration. Front View.
THE AVRO TYPE 529A. - This is a sister 'plane to the type 529, but has two Galloway B.H.P. engines.
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Plan Views of some of the Avro Machines.
Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

Avro Two-Seater Fighter, Type 530. July, 1917.

  In many ways the 530 was a radical departure from usual Avro practice. Thus the engine, instead of the rotaries fitted in the type 504 machines, was a water-cooled - a 200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arab." Also the shape of the wing tips was totally different from the usual Avro rectangular tips with rounded corners. As regards the fuselage, this was very much deeper, and of different shape altogether from the ordinary Avro bodies. The object kept in view when designing this machine was to provide as good a view as possible for both gunner and pilot. To this end the body was made very deep, and the pilot was so placed that his eyes were on a level with the under side of the top plane. Similarly the gunner was placed very high in relation to the top plane, being in fact able to fire over it. It will be noticed that the attachment of the top plane to the body was unusual. A sort of fin was extended up from the body, covered with ply-wood, to which the centre section was attached. Inside this fin was mounted the pilot's machine gun, synchronised, of course, while the gunner's weapon was mounted on the usual rotatable gun ring. The undercarriage was of a simple Vee type, but forming a letter M, as seen from in front, and the two side Vees were enclosed in fabric. The machine was very light and quick on the controls, and the deep roomy fuselage afforded ample space for ammunition, wireless, cameras, etc. From the table of performances it will be seen that both speed and climb were very good indeed for the power, and this is of particular interest in view of the comparatively large cross sectional area of the fuselage - 14 sq. ft. - which does not appear to have adversely affected the speed of the machine. Originally the Type 530 was designed for a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine, but as this could not be obtained the experimental machines were fitted with 200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arabs" and 200 h.p. Hispano-Suizas.
THE AVRO TYPE 530. - This is a two-seater fighter, fitted with a 200 h.p. Sunbeam Arab engine. It was originally designed for a 300 h.p. Hispano, which could not. however, be obtained at the time of testing the machine.
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Plan Views of some of the Avro Machines.
Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

The Avro "Manchesters." December, 1918.

  The success which was attained with the earlier model twin-engined machines, from the point of view of performance, encouraged the Avro firm to get out a design for a modern machine of this type, to be an improvement upon previous models chiefly as regards its engines, which were to be of the A.B.C. Dragonfly type, which was by then - we are now speaking of the earlier part of 1918 - beginning to go into production, and which had an extraordinary power/weight ratio. With such engines available a very good performance was anticipated, and the drawings for the "Manchester" Mark I were got out. However, it was found that after all the engines could not be obtained, and so a slightly modified form of machine was designed - the "Manchester" Mark II - which was fitted with two Siddeley "Puma" engines, instead of the two Dragonfly engines originally contemplated. The " Manchester" II was put through its tests in December, 1918, and gave, as indicated in the tables, very good results in the way of speed and climb. As shown in the illustrations, the two types of "Manchesters" are very similar, except, of course, as regards the engine housings. As in the previous Avro twins, the pilot occupies the middle seat, with one gunner in front and one in the rear. A feature which will scarcely escape the notice of readers is the unusual arrangement whereby the ailerons are balanced. Instead of the ordinary small forward projection at the outer end of the aileron, now so frequently seen on large machines, the "Manchesters" have a small auxiliary plane mounted on two short struts from the main aileron, and placed slightly ahead of it, so as to produce a balancing effect. The advantages expected from this arrangement are probably structural rather than aerodynamic, since by doing it in this fashion the twist of the aileron leading edge, caused by the usual balance placed at the extreme end of the aileron, is avoided. We believe that in some recent German machines a similar arrangement has been tried, but differing in that the small auxiliary plane is below the main plane instead of above it as in the Avros.
  More recently we believe the Dragonfly engines have been obtained, and the "Manchester" Mark I tried with them as originally intended, with good results. We understand that the "Manchester" II is being fitted with a cabin for passenger and mail carrying, and probably, therefore, more will be heard of this machine later on.
F3492, the Siddeley Puma engined Avro 533 Manchester Mk. II.
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Some more Plan Views of Avro Machines.
Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

The Avro "Spider," Type 531. April, 1918.

  The following spring saw an entirely different type of machine issue from the Avro works. This was a single-seater "Scout," in which the wing bracing was along quite unusual lines. From the illustrations it will be seen that, instead of the ordinary wing bracing wires or cables, the "Spider," as this machine was called, had Vee struts arranged in the form of a Warren truss. It may be remembered that in 1917 we published in FLIGHT a series of articles by "Marco Polo," entitled "Wing Bracing and Head Resistance," in which this particular form of wing bracing was dealt with. In this article the author expressed the opinion that although the combination of Nieuport Vee struts and Warren truss did not appear to give the absolute minimum of resistance, it did have a low resistance, while at the same time having the structural advantage that the distance between supports was reduced, thus resulting in a lighter structure, and that therefore the arrangement might be found to be worth trying.
  This appears to be what the Avro designer has done, and we may therefore be pardoned a certain special interest in this particular machine. We understand that the "Spider" was extremely manreuvrable and light on the controls, and the accompanying table of performance indicates that the machine had quite a good turn of speed - 120 m.p.h. at ground level with a 130-h.p. Clerget engine is not bad - while the climb was also satisfactory. The pilot was so placed that his eyes were on a level with the top plane, in which a circular opening was cut out. This gave a good view both upwards and horizontally in all directions, while the small chord of the bottom plane gave a minimum of obstruction to downward visibility. The "Spider" might conceivably make a good sporting model, especially if fitted with a somewhat smaller engine, since the petrol bill for a motor of 130 h.p. would probably be more than the majority of owners would care to spend. However, as the machine is light there does not appear to be any reason why, in a slightly modified form, it should not be fitted with, say, an engine of 80 h.p. or thereabouts.

The Fighting Scout, type 531 A.

  This machine is of the ultra-modern scout type, with two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side, and with the centre section struts slightly raked outwards. The centre section in the top plane has been left open, in the manner of the Sopwith Dolphin, and the pilot is so placed that his head is in the rear portion of, and slightly below, this opening, so that his view is interrupted to a small extent only. Generally speaking, the machine follows usual Avro practice, in the shape of its body and other main components, such as the semicircular balanced rudder etc. The figures relating to its performance are estimated, and are practically identical with those relating to the "Spider," which has, it will be remembered, the same engine power - a 130 h.p. Clerget. As the total wing area is practically the same in both these machines - differing only in the disposition of the area of top and bottom planes respectively - this affords an interesting comparison between the standard type of machine with two pairs of struts on each side and the Warren-cum-Nieuport type of bracing, accompanied, of course, by a large area top plane and a small area bottom plane. According to the figures given there is little to choose between the two forms, but the "Spider" type may be thought to give the better visibility of the two.
  It may be pointed out that the figures of performance given in the table are estimated, the machine not having been flown at the time of writing this article. It is, however due to be tested almost any day now, and we hope shortly to be able to publish a photograph of it.
THE AVRO "SPIDER." - Note the unusual strutting arrangement.
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Plan Views of some of the Avro Machines.
Some more Plan Views of Avro Machines.
Flight, September 4, 1919.

THE JACQUES SCHNEIDER CUP RACE

The Machines

The Avro Seaplane

  As the accompanying illustrations will show, the Avro machine entered for the Schneider race is quite a small machine, its overall span being only 35 ft. 6 ins., and its length overall 21 ft. 4 ins. In general outline the Avro shows little resemblance to the other members of the Avro family; so little in fact that it would be impossible to identify it as an Avro from mere outward appearances. The detail construction, however, follows more or less standard Avro lines.
  If for no other reason, the Avro would be of interest on account of the fact that it is fitted with the lowest powered engine entered in the race. The Siddeley "Puma" is rated at 240 h.p., whereas the next larger engine - the Isotta Fraschini fitted on the Italian Savoia flying-boat - is rated at 250 h.p.
  This low power, however, does not necessarily mean that the machine will not be fast. Avro machines have in the past proved very efficient, and there is no reason to suppose that the present type will prove an exception. Naturally the makers are not anxious to give particulars of performance at the present time, but the small size of the machine, combined with the careful streamlining of all exposed component parts, should give her quite a good turn of speed.
  The fuselage is of rectangular section as regards its main structure, and is surmounted by a curved top which in front encloses all but the top of the cylinders of the "Puma" engine. The six exhaust pipes project horizontally through the top covering of the body. Behind the pilot's cockpit the deck fairing is fairly deep to form a fairing for the pilot's head.
  The upper longerons, it will be noticed, are straight and horizontal, thus forming a good datum line from which to true up the fuselage.
  The radiator is placed in the nose of the fuselage, motor car fashion, and is of generous proportions. The result is that the body does not taper off towards the nose, as is the case in the Avro Baby, for instance, but has its sides parallel from the neighbourhood of the pilot's cockpit. The warm air is allowed to escape from the engine-housing through louvres in the side of the aluminium cowl.
  A chassis structure of streamline steel tubes carries the two floats, which are of considerable length (14 ft.), and have one small step, occurring immediately underneath the rear chassis strut attachment. No tail float is fitted, the main floats being so placed as to make this unnecessary. The floats are placed fairly far apart, their track being 7 ft., and with the short span bottom plane avoid the use of wing-tip floats.
  One of the most interesting features of the Avro seaplane is the shape of the wing tips. From the plan view of the general arrangement drawings it will be seen that the tips are distinctly rounded, a fact which contrasts markedly with the usual square-tipped Avro wings. Otherwise the wings are characterised by a fairly high aspect ratio - nearly 6.
  The top plane, which is in one piece, has no dihedral angle, but the shorter bottom plane is set at a very marked dihedral angle. There is only one pair of inter-plane struts on each side. Owing to the slight difference in span, the inter-plane struts are sloped so as to get the best load distribution. The centre section struts, or rather the struts supporting the centre of the top plane, are sloped outwards in the usual way to reduce the length of "free" spar in the top plane.
  The tail surfaces also differ from the usual Avro tails. The fixed tail plane, which is of symmetrical section, is no longer rectangular, but is shaped as shown in the plan view. The addition of a fin, doubtlessly necessitated by the deep nose of the body and by the side area presented by the two long floats, changes the appearance of the tail, and the rudder has not the usual semi-circular balance which characterizes so many other Avro machines.
  Altogether the Avro seaplane, which, by the way, answers to the series number 539A, impresses one as being a very serviceable little machine, not only for the race contemplated, but also for purposes other than racing.
Capt H. A. Hamersley coming ashore at Hamble on 29 August, 1919, in the Avro 539A G-EALG Schneider Trophy entrant.
THE AVRO-PUMA SCHNEIDER SEAPLANE: Preparing the machine for a trial flight. In the cockpit is Capt. Hamersley, M.C., who will pilot the machine in the race
Schneider Cup Entrants in dock. - The Avro Seaplane having her float repaired. Note the large fin and balanced rudder which have been substituted for the original ones.
THE AVRO SCHNEIDER CUP SEAPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations, to scale
Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

The Avro "Popular," type 534

  This machine is designed for use as a solo machine at flying schools, and is intended to form a step between the two-seater school machines and the higher powered service machines. It should also be quite a useful 'bus for a low-priced sporting model, as its cost and upkeep should not be prohibitive. At the moment of writing the machine has not been actually tested, and so the figures are those calculated for the machine, but they will probably not be far wrong. We regret that there are no photographs available of this machine.


Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AVRO "BABY" SPORTING BIPLANE
35-40 h.p. Green Engine

  IN the Avro "Milestones" series, published in our issue of March 20, was included a little single-seater machine designed for sporting purposes. In the article mentioned this machine was referred to as the "Popular." The name has since been altered to Avro "Baby." As the former title suggests, the machine has been designed with a view to producing a machine which can be sold at a reasonable price, to be used for sporting purposes, and, one would suggest, which would form a very useful school machine to form a step between the dual control type and the high-speed, high-power model that most pupils will probably be called upon to fly after leaving the flying school. For a solo machine for this class of work the Avro Baby would appear to be particularly well fitted, since it is fairly sensitive on the controls, yet possesses a great amount of natural stability which could not but inspire a beginner in solo flights with confidence. As the Baby, in spite of its relatively small power, has a very good performance it should also become popular with pilots wishing to keep a little runabout for their own personal use, a machine which, while being inexpensive both in first cost and upkeep, is sufficiently in keeping with the modern idea of an aeroplane to provide one with quite good sport.
  As the accompanying photographs and scale drawings will show, the Avro Baby has a very strong resemblance to the other members of the Avro family. This applies not only to the outward appearance of the machine, but also to a great extent to the internal construction. As regards the former, the main distinguishing features of the Avro two-seaters are: planes of high aspect ratio, pronounced stagger, a fuselage fairly long in proportion to the span, and semi-circular rudder with semi-circular balance. All these features are retained in the Baby, although others, such as rectangular planes and tail planes with corners rounded off, have been modified, as will be seen from the plan view.
  While thus retaining the typical features of its predecessors, the Avro Baby has been designed in accordance with modern ideas, as indicated by the single pair of struts on each side, by the outward rake of its centre section struts, and by the low placing of the top plane in relation to the pilot.
  Constructionally the machine follows standard Avro practice. The fuselage, which is of rectangular section, with an arched deck fairing, is of the conventional girder type. The longerons and struts are of spruce, and the bracing is in the form of steel wire. The well-known Avro body sockets and turnbuckles are used, as shown in one of the accompanying sketches. For such a small machine, the pilot's cockpit is surprisingly roomy and comfortable. The seat is of the aluminium bucket type, with an upholstered cushion. A padded head rest is provided, and the deck fairing behind the pilot contains a small locker for carrying small articles such as spares, etc. A three-ply floor covered with aluminium sheet forms the heel rest for the pilot's feet, and the foot-bar is so arranged that the pilot can; by slightly shifting his feet, use either the toes or the instep for steering. The deck fairing in front of the pilot is so arranged that, while giving a good view, it deflects the air from the pilot's face, and it is not necessary to wear goggles when flying this machine. For those who object to feeling any draught at all on their face, a folding wind-screen is provided, but we imagine that most pilots will prefer a slight draught, as this generally helps a pilot to "feel" the speed, etc. For the man who likes to look after his own machine accessibility is of great importance, and this has been well looked after in the Avro Baby by arranging the body covering in such a manner that it may be quickly stripped off so as to afford examination of the body structure.
  The controls are of the standard type, with a foot bar for the rudder control, and a universally mounted steel tube actuating elevator and ailerons. As the control "stick" is mounted at its base, the elevator control cables pass round pulleys mounted on the foot-bar support, and thence to the elevator. The aileron cables pass over universally-jointed pulleys to the crank levers. All the control cables are of standard type, passing through fair leads, and the splices are of the standard Air Board type.
  A large instrument-board is conveniently placed, and carries a very complete set of instruments, including: revolution counter, altimeter, air-speed indicator, radiator thermometer, oil-pressure gauge, cross level, watch and engine switch.
  The power plant is a four-cylinder vertical 35-40 h.p. Green water-cooled engine. The two engine-bearers (of wood) are mounted on transverse supports bolted to the stout struts in the nose of the body. The radiator, which is of the honeycomb type, was built by the Excelsior Radiator Co., of Leeds. It is mounted in the nose of the fuselage, motor car fashion. With regard to the engine fitted in this particular machine, it is of interest to know that this is the identical engine fitted on the Avro biplane on which Capt. Pixton did so much flying in 1912. It is only fair to mention, however, that the engine has been overhauled and improved by Messrs. Green, and has been fitted with aluminium pistons, new type cam shaft, valves and valve cages, and also with an ingenious oil-pressure regulator which regulates the amount of oil used by the engine according to the throttle opening. The petrol tank contains eight gallons of petrol, or sufficient for a flight of over 200 miles, flying at cruising speed. For a sporting machine this range should be ample. The weight and complication of pressure feed has been dispensed with, the fuel flowing to the carburetor by the force of gravity. The oil tank has a capacity of 1 1/2 gallons, and as the engine is of the dry-sump type, the oil is kept in constant circulation through the engine by means of a gear pump.
  From the illustrations it will be seen that the engine is neatly cowled in by aluminium cowling, large inspection doors giving access to every part of the engine, piping and tanks. If necessary, the whole engine cowl can be easily removed. A large exhaust collector on the port side carries the exhaust gases away from the fuselage. With regard to the engine controls, wires have been entirely eliminated, the controls being all of the positive pull-and-push rod type.
  The undercarriage is of the simple Vee type, with struts of circular section steel tube, streamlined with light three-ply fairings, which are in turn covered with linen, doped and painted. The axle is of the divided type, hinged in the centre, and springing is by means of rubber shock absorbers. The tail skid is of simple construction, as shown in the photograph. It is made of ash and has a steel wearing shoe. It is sprung by rubber cord.
  In general arrangement the main planes follow modern practice. The roots of the lower planes are attached to the sides of the fuselage, while the two halves of the top plane are bolted to a centre section carried on four raked struts from the body. As already mentioned, there is only one pair of interplane struts on each side. These struts are of wood, while the four centre section struts are streamline steel tubes. The arrangement of the wing bracing is somewhat unusual. The landing wires do not present any departures from usual practice, being in the plane of the struts. The lift wires, however, are arranged somewhat differently. Although not being in duplicate in the usual sense of the word, the lift wires are four in number on each side. Perhaps their arrangement may be best described by saying that the four lift wires form a letter M, the two top points being secured to the top of the inter-plane struts, while the three lower points are anchored to points on the fuselage. In this manner not only is the lift distributed over a considerable length of the body, but by the angularity of the wires the internal drag bracing is relieved of some of its load.
  Constructionally the planes are built-up in the usual Avro manner. The main wing spars are of built-up box section, while the leading edge is of wood spindled out to a U section. The wing tips and the trailing edges are in the form of steel tubes. The wing ribs are of the wood girder type, with box girder ribs taking the compression load imposed by the internal drag bracing. Ailerons are fitted to both top and bottom planes, the upper and lower flaps being connected by wires.
  From the scale drawings of the machine it will be seen that the tail planes and elevators are of very graceful outline, while the rudder is of the usual Avro shape; this shape of rudder, by the way, has formed one of the distinctive features of the Avro machines for a number of years. No fixed vertical fin has been fitted, as this has been found unnecessary in such a small machine.
  With regard to the performance of the Avro Baby, this can only be described as uncommonly good for a machine of so low power. As the accompanying climb chart will show, the climb curve is practically a straight line, the rate of climb being very good for the power. As regards horizontal speed, this is about 78 m.p.h. near the ground, or in other words quite fast enough for a machine to be used for pleasure flying. The landing-speed in only 32 m.p.h., low enough for a beginner to make a safe landing every time, with reasonable care, and so low as to enable pilots who have been used to the high landing-speeds of modern fighting machines to bring the machine into a very confined space indeed. As the Baby leaves the ground after a very short run, she will be an ideal machine for pilots who wish to go touring, as she can be landed almost anywhere. As regards comfort of flying, we believe that the Avro Baby is to all intents and purposes automatically stable, the Avro test pilot having repeatedly flown her for long periods at a time without touching the controls. This stability, it should be pointed out, has not been obtained at the expense of controllability, for the Baby can be looped, spun, rolled, stalled, side-slipped, etc., with great ease. At full speed the engine revolves at 1,500 r.p.m., but the machine can be flown indefinitely with the engine running at 750 r.p.m., at which speed the petrol consumption is extremely low.
  Altogether, it would appear that the designers of the Avro Baby have succeeded in producing a machine which combines a surprisingly great number of desirable features, and we venture to think that when things settle down a bit more she will become very popular indeed among pilots wishing to enjoy the pleasures of - to substitute a modern saying for the old one "paddling their own canoe" - flying their own 'bus. With regard to price, it has, we understand, been impossible to settle this definitely at present, but it will, we are informed, be as low as possible consistent with good workmanship and finish. Possibly in the neighbourhood of ?500.
  The following figures give the main characteristics of the Avro Baby: Span, 25 ft.; length overall, 18 ft. 6 ins.; height, 7 ft. 6 ins.; weight bare (but including water), 625 lbs.; weight, loaded, 857 lbs.; load per sq. ft., 4.75 lbs.; load per h.p. (at 40 h.p.), 21.4 lbs.; maximum speed near ground, 78 m.p.h.; landing-speed, 32 m.p.h.; climb to 1,000 ft., 1 min. 40 secs.; to 2,000 ft., 4 mins.; to 3,000 ft. 6 mins.


THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 14. - The Avro Baby, 35-40 h.p. Green
  Although not generally realised by the majority of the visitors to Hendon, nor by the greater part of the daily Press, the performance of the little Avro Baby, piloted by Capt. Hamersley, was the feature of the Aerial Derby. It demonstrated that, even on a windy day, it is not essential to have at one's disposal an engine of very high power in, order to make a cross-country flight of considerable duration and distance. With the great engines used on War machines in order to get ultra-high performance there is the tendency to form the opinion that such powers are essential to peacetime machines as well. The Avro Baby has demonstrated that this is not so, and that the private owner of a machine, fitted with an engine of very moderate power - and, incidentally, of low cost and upkeep - may count on being able to make cross-country flights on a reasonably great percentage of days throughout the year. As the machine is fully described elsewhere in this issue, no detailed reierence need be made to it here. Suffice it to say that after the race Capt. Hamersley gave a very fine demonstration of "stunting," the little machine being capable of all the tricks indulged in by its bigger brothers. Add to this that she lands at a little over 30 m.p.h., and gets off very quickly, and it will be seen that the Avro Baby forms an ideal machine for the private owner.
THE AVRO BABY, 35-40 H.P. GREEN ENGINE. - Three-quarter front view. The first, short lived, Avro 534 Baby prototype.
THE AVRO BABY, 35-40 H.P. GREEN ENGINE. - Three-quarter rear view.
THE AVRO BABY, 35-40 H.P. GREEN ENGINE. - Front view.
No. 14. - The Avro Baby, 35-40 h.p. Green, flown by Capt. H. A. Hamersley. This machine won the sealed handicap
THE AERIAL DERBY. - Capt. H. A. Hamersley, M.C., on the Avro Baby, 35 h.p. Green engine, winner under the Sealed Handicap.
THE AVRO BABY. - Two views of the machine, before and after covering
THE AVRO BABY. - View of the mounting of the 35-40 h.p. Green engine.
THE AVRO BABY. - On left, view of the fuselage, showing pilot's seat and controls; and on the right, the tail
Avro 534A Water Baby G-EAPS with revised vertical tail surfaces, ready for launching at Hamble, November 1919.
New Avro Type: The annexed photograph shows the fuselage of an Avro Baby, fitted with floats. This machine, which was fully described in "Flight" of June 26, 1919, flies extraordinarily well as a land machine, and although the extra weight of the floats may reduce the speed and climb somewhat, the Baby should still have quite a good performance as a seaplane.
THE AVRO BABY. - Some constructional details and a key sketch indicating the location of the details. In the key sketch the struts of the undercarriage are shown without the streamline fairing. The detail sketches, B and C show attachment of rear and front spars to fuselage, while A is a sketch of the neat standard Avro fuselage socket and wiring lugs
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Some more Plan Views of Avro Machines.
THE AVRO BABY. - Plan, front and side elevations to scale.
Flight, May 22, 1919.

THE B.A.T. BANTAM

  ALTHOUGH not, perhaps, possessing the interest of novelty, having been designed a matter of nearly two years ago, the B.A.T. Bantam nevertheless presents many features that are worthy of mention, somuch the more so as we have been prevented, during the War, from describing this machine. Its detail features will not, therefore, be so well known to a large proportion of FLIGHT readers as they deserve to be, and consequently we trust that the following descriptive article may be found of interest.
  Mr. F. Koolhoven, the designer of the B.A.T. machines, was, as is well known, chief designer to Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co. for a considerable time, and produced, while with that firm, some very successful machines of widely differing types. Previous to that, Mr. Koolhoven was associated with the British Deperdussin Co. at their works at Highgate, where, in the years before the War, some very successful monoplanes were produced. Among these was, it may be remembered, a monoplane seaplane, the "Seagull," which, among other features, was remarkable for the monocoque construction of its body, a form of construction not often seen in this country in those days. The body structure was found to be remarkably strong and light, while possessing an excellent stream-line form. It is not, therefore, surprising to find that Mr. Koolhoven, having been successful with monocoque construction so long ago, still favours this method in his later machines, such as the Bantam and Basilisk. The detail construction has been somewhat changed, and, perhaps, one may not, strictly speaking, be justified in using the word monocoque in its usually accepted sense. However, in so far as having no internal bracing, except that provided by the fuselage covering, the B.A.T. Bantam, and also the Basilisk, may be said to have as one of its most noteworthy features a fuselage construction akin to the monocoque.
  In the B.A.T. Bantam the fuselage construction consists essentially of a light framework, comprising six longitudinal members and a number of transverse formers built up of three-ply wood, the whole covered by a three-ply skin put on in bands some 3 ft. wide, lap-jointed where they meet. The outer and inner layers of this three-ply skin run longitudinally, while the middle layer is placed at an angle to the other two. The longitudinal members are of ash, and are placed as follows: one at the top, one at the bottom, and the other four forming the corners of the rectangle inscribed in the elliptical cross section of the body. The top and bottom longerons are of T section, while the other four are rectangular. Where the transverse formers are attached to the longerons the formers are reinforced for extra strength. The formers themselves are of L section, the ash base of the L lying against the fuselage covering. In section, the body of the Bantam changes from circular in front, through elliptical to narrow ellipse and vertical knife's edge at the stern. From a resistance point of view the shape would appear to be excellent.
  At the rear the three-ply body covering is extended upwards to form the fixed vertical tail fin, the internal framework of which is integral with the body formers in this locality. The fixed tail plane is in two halves bolted to short spar roots built integral with the formers. A peculiarity of this design, which is somewhat similar to that of the Dep. "Seagull," is that the elevators do not go right up to the sides of the body, the space between the inner ends of the elevator flaps and the sides of the fuselage being occupied by a fixed portion of the tail plane. This will be clear from the plan view of the general arrangement drawings. As in the old Dep. monoplane, the elevator crank levers are housed inside the ply-wood fin, giving a very neat and clean appearance to the tail plane. The rudder is fabric-covered, as is also the tail plane and elevator, and forms, at its lower corner, a housing for the shock-absorbing spring of the tail skid. This skid turns with the rudder, but is so designed that, although superficially appearing to do so it does not transmit shocks to the tubular leading edge of the rudder, but to the fixed rudder post. For steering at low speeds on the ground, this arrangement is excellent, as the skid is capable of turning the machine at speeds so low that the rudder has not yet become operative. At the same time it would be difficult to imagine anything simpler or offering less resistance. As the angle of incidence of the tail plane of the Bantam is not made adjustable, the bracing of the tail consists simply of eight R.A.F. wires, four above and four below the tail plane.
  The pilot's cockpit is situated between two strong formers, serving as supports for the wing spars, and access to it is gained through a circular opening in the top plane. When the pilot is in his seat his eyes are about on a level with the spars of the top plane, and he therefore has a very good view in all directions except straight down, where the bottom plane obstructs the view to some extent, although no more so than on machines in which the pilot is less favourably situated as regards the top plane. The controls are of more or less usual type, consisting of a central control column terminating at the top in the standard handle, and of a foot bar for the rudder. The manner in which the controls work will be clear from the accompanying sketches. Although the fuselage of the Bantam is not of exceptionally great cross section, the pilot's cockpit is very roomy, this being one of the many advantages of the monocoque construction, which does not waste space on internal girders and bracing.
  Mounted on a flat sheet steel capping plate over the extreme nose of the fuselage - the main structure of which is rectangular at this point, although made up to a circular section by the surrounding cowl - is the 170 h.p. A.B.C. "Wasp" engine. Slots in the cowling admit air to the cylinders, and the air escapes at the engine plate through various passages cut in the cowl. In so doing the air is forced to negotiate some rather sharp bends, which have, however, been avoided in a later type (the Basilisk), in which the air, after passing each cylinder, is allowed to escape via cone-shaped cavities in the engine cowling. The oil tank is mounted immediately behind the engine, while the main petrol tank, which has a capacity of 22 1/2 galls., is accommodated in the fuselage behind the pilot's cockpit.
  With regard to the wings, these are mainly remarkable for a somewhat low gap-chord ratio. This is a consequence of the placing of the pilot so that his eyes shall be on a level with the top plane, in order to obstruct to as small extent as possible the view. It is not, we know, usual to consider the gap-span ratio of an aeroplane, although, to our way of thinking, this ratio may easily be of as great importance structurally as is the gap-chord ratio aerodynamically. Thus, in a very high aspect ratio wing structure the gap-chord ratio may be the normal (about 1), but the gap-span ratio very low. The result of this will necessarily mean a less favourable angle of the lift wires. This in turn will have its effect upon the number of struts which it is efficient to employ. Thus, in the B.A.T. Bantam, although the span is low, the small gap results in a low gap-span ratio, and it will be seen that if only one pair of struts was employed on each side, the angle of the lift wires would have been very flat. It was further desired to provide a wide wheel track which would ensure that the machine could not easily be overturned when doing sharp turns on the ground, and with the steerable tail skid this machine is capable of some very sharp turns at speeds which, although below the flying speed, are quite high enough to be dangerous with a narrow track undercarriage. The designer then made the bold step of securing both these desiderata by a radical departure from usual practice. This took the form of fitting two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side and attaching the undercarriage struts to the spars at the point where occur the inner pair of inter-plane struts. In this manner, not only was a good angle provided for the lift wires, and the free length of wing spars reduced, but the resulting track of the landing wheels was so wide as to practically exclude any possibility of turning over. There was, in the earlier days of flying, a prejudice against attaching the undercarriage to the wings instead of to the fuselage, the argument being that landing shocks might seriously strain the wing structure without this being apparent until the machine was taken for a subsequent flight. In the B.A.T., however, one has a very light machine and a very sturdy wing structure, so that this objection - which is probably a rather theoretical one, after all - need not cause any misgivings. We have never heard of any ill effects arising out of this feature of its design during the two years or so of the machine's existence.
  As regards the wing structure of the Bantam, this is designed along orthodox lines. The inter-plane struts, which are of elliptic cross-section steel tubes, are attached to the wing spars by a very neat and simple socket, and are held in place by a small split-pin. The manner of attaching the base plate of the socket to the wing spar is shown in one of the accompanying sketches. The wing bracing is effected by 1/4-in. B.S.F. R.A.F. wire, the lift and landing wires in the outer bay, and the landing wires in the inner bay being single. The lift wires in the inner bay are in duplicate, so as to withstand better not only the flying loads, but also the loads imposed upon the wing structure while landing. In order to minimize vibration and prevent the wires from twisting under the force of the wind a neat arrangement is provided at the points where lift wires and landing wires cross one another. In the outer bay this takes the form of a long tube, slotted at its ends to accommodate the crossed wires, which are locked in position by an "acorn" and a collar with a split-pin, as shown in one of our sketches. In the inner bay where, as already mentioned, the lift wires are in duplicate, two short tubes are employed, one for each three crossed wires, as shown in the sketch.
  The lower planes are attached to short wing roots built into the body integral with two very strong formers - one in front of the pilot's cockpit and one behind it. The two halves of the top plane are bolted to the apex of the same two formers, the detail of this attachment being shown in one of the sketches. The landing wires of the inner bay are attached to lugs on the side of the fuselage, these lugs being further braced from the top of the formers by means of long sheet steel strips in the manner indicated in one of our diagrams. In this way the rigging of these landing wires is greatly facilitated, while the steel strips transmit the load to the top of the formers. As already mentioned, the top plane has cut in it a circular hole, through which the pilot enters the machine, and by means of which he obtains a very good view in all but a downward direction. Ailerons are fitted to all four wings, and are operated in the usual way. The return cable is passed inside the top plane, and is exposed for a short distance at the front edge of the hole in the top plane.
  The undercarriage of the B.A.T. Bantam is, as already pointed out, of unusual design. The two strut Vees are attached, not to the fuselage, as is usual practice, but to the lower wing spars at the points where occur the inner pair of inter-plane struts. Each half of the divided axle is hinged to the body, and bent just before crossing the slot in the V struts. These are built up of multi-ply wood and bound with fabric, while the axles are circular section steel tubes, stream-lined with a hollow fairing of wood bound with fabric. A notable feature of this undercarriage is the absence of wire bracing of the two Vs. The function of bracing is performed by the axles, which really act as lateral radius rods for the Vs.
  On each side of the struts there is mounted on the axle a steel quadrant which serves the double purpose of housing the rubber cords and acting as guides limiting the lateral shifting of the Vs. The whole makes a very neat and simple job, offering small resistance, and yet being quite strong. Whether this arrangement would be advisable in a large machine is, perhaps, open to discussion, but for a small, light machine like the Bantam it certainly would be difficult to improve upon.
  The following particulars of performance, etc. should be of interest :- Weight of machine loaded, 1,335 lbs. Range, 425 miles. Speed near ground, 138 m.p.h.; at 10,000 ft., 134 m.p.h.; at 15,000 ft., 127 m.p.h. Climb to 10,000 ft., 7.2 mins.; to 15,000 ft., 14 mins. Ceiling, 25,000 ft.; landing speed, 50 m.p.h.; load/sq. ft., 7.2 lbs.; load/h.p., 7.85 lbs.; military load, 520 lbs.

  

Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 1. - The B.A.T. Bantam, 170 h.p. A.B.C. Wasp
  This machine, which was piloted by Mr. Clifford B. Prodger, is the standard Bantam. It has a monocoque body of excellent streamline shape, and is chiefly remarkable on account of the placing of the top plane low over the body and with no stagger in relation to the bottom plane. Also the undercarriage struts are attached to the bottom plane instead of, as is more usual, to the body direct. This placing of the chassis has the advantage of giving a very wide wheel track. The pilot is placed in a circular opening cut in the top plane, where his eyes are on a level with the plane. The view is, therefore, exceptionally good in all directions except straight down, where the bottom plane obstructs it to a certain, although small, extent. The machine is very fast, climbs well, and is manoeuvrable to a remarkable extent.

No. 3. - The B.A.T. Bantam, 170 h.p. Wasp
  With the exception of the short bottom plane, and consequent difference in strutting, this machine is a standard Bantam, similar to No. 1. It was flown by Maj. Draper, who was to have flown the little new B.A.T. sporting two-seater, the F.K. 27. This machine, however, was not finished in time and hence Maj. Draper flew No. 3. This fact deprived Capt. Vaughan of a mount, and as the B.A.T. five-seater, F.K. 26, was slightly damaged on Saturday morning, she 'was not able to start in the race, and thus another B.A.T. pilot, Lieut. Turner, was without a machine when the race started.
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - Side view
This BAT FK 23 Bantam, serial no F 1655, the third of nine production aircraft completed, proclaims its British Aerial Transport parentage in bold white lettering down its fuselage in place of the normal roundel, indicating that this photograph dates from after the war and that this was one of the machines sold as war surplus in 1919. The history of the Bantam is convoluted and starts in mid-1917 when Frederick Koolhoven left Armstrong Whitworth to join the newly formed Willesden-based BAT, taking his tell-tale FK design numbers with him. At BAT Koolhoven's first task centred on designing a company-funded single seat fighter venture, designated FK 22. First flown in the early autumn of 1917 this machine gained Air Board interest and a contract for six examples followed. Originally planned to use a 120hp ABC Mosquito radial, one of the four FK 22s known to have been built and flown during 1918 used a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape, subsequently replaced by a 110hp Le Rhone 9J rotary. To compound matters, virtually all of the FK 22s varied in airframe detail, but out of this melee emerged the 170hp ABC Wasp powered example in the spring of 1918, the change being considered great enough to warrant the new designation of FK 23 Bantam. Others of the original FK 22 were re-engined with the Wasp, but all of these machines were criticised for the ease with which they would enter a vicious, flat or autorotative spin. To cure this problem, the later nine so-called production aircraft incorporated a modified set of increased span wings and tail unit. The later FK 23s that initially appeared in October 1918 had the by now standard twin Vickers guns, along with a top level speed of 128mph at 6,500 feet, falling to 118mph at 18,000 feet. Time to reach 10.000 feet took 9 minutes. Time, however, was about to run out on the Bantam with the coming of the Armistice.
"The Bat," designed by Mr. Frederick Koolhoven, and tested by Mr. Peter Legh, climbing 20,000 ft. in 21 min. When aerial police get going, the "Bat" will, no doubt, be a scout which aerial lawbreakers will have to reckon with.
The B.A.T. Bantam. View of engine housing
K-123, the B.A.T. F.K.23 Bantam flown by C. B. Prodger on 21 June, 1919, in the Victory Aerial Derby. The engine is a 170 h.p. A.B.C. Wasp.
THE AERIAL WELCOME. - Mr. Clifford Prodger, on a B.A.T. Bantam, flew over Paddington on Sunday when the commander and crew of N.C. 4 arrived from Plymouth. Note the American flag on the fuselage.
THE CROSS-COUNTRY HANDICAP AT HENDON AERODROME ON WHIT-MONDAY: The five starters lined up for the race, at the other side of the aerodrome
Finish of the cross-country handicap at Hendon Aerodrome on Whit-Monday by Mr. C. Turner in a single-seater B.A.T. Bantam. Crossing the line at the enclosures at over 120 m.p.h. Inset, the judge, Mr. J. E. Withers, presenting the winner's cup of the Anglo-American Oil Co. to Mr. C. Turner
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - Sketch of the controls
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - On the left one side of the undercarriage. On the right the tubular guides which check vibration of the lift and landing wires
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - Outer front inter-plane strut attachment to bottom spar, and binge for aileron pulley
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - The landing wires of the inner bay are attached to the lugs on the side of the fuselage, from which point steel straps run to the top of the bulkhead, connecting the external landing wires to the top spar attachment. Inset is indicated the manner of attaching the top spars to the top of the bulkhead
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - On the left a sketch of the empennage, and on the right the opening in the top plane through which the pilot enters the machine. The straps of the safety belt are shown flung back in readiness for strapping over the pilot's shoulders
THE B.A.T. BANTAM. - Plan, front and side elevations, to scale
STARTERS IN HENDON'S AIR RACE ON SATURDAY: Left to right - B.A.T., piloted by Major Draper (winner; Avro, pilot Capt. D. H. Robertson, A.F.C.; Avro, pilot Major R. H. Carr, A.F.C., D.C.M. (second); G.-W. Bantam, pilot Capt. P. R. T. Chamberlayne (third); and Avro, pilot Lieut. G. R. Hicks, D.F.C.
Flight, April 17, 1919.

THE B.A.T. FOUR-SEATER BIPLANE

  ONE of the first, if not the first, post-War "commercial" aeroplanes has just been completed by the British Aerial Transport Co., Ltd., at their works at Willesden. By postwar commercial aeroplane, we mean a machine that has been designed since the Armistice, specially for commercial work - either passenger, mail or goods - and not a war machine converted for this purpose. In this particular case, the B.A.T. F.K. 26 has been designed either for passenger work or for carrying mails, there being accommodation for four passengers, besides the pilot in the former case, whilst for the latter purpose it is merely a question of adapting the passenger cabin to meet the requirements for this kind of work. Mr. Frederick Koolhoven, the designer of this machine, is to be congratulated on having succeeded in producing a machine that is original in many respects, but is at the same time of absolutely straightforward design, free from "cranky" features.
  F.K. 26 is a single-engined tractor biplane, and as may be seen from the accompanying scale drawings, the general lay-out of the "weight items" is efficient and well thought out. The position of the pilot, well aft of the main planes, is such that it enables him to have an excellent view in all directions.
  The fuselage, which is 30 ft. 10 in. in length, is of rectangular section, very deep near the wings and tapering to a vertical knife-edge at the rear. Two different forms of construction are employed in the fuselage, the front half, from the nose to the end of the passenger cabin, being built up of three-ply and formers in a similar manner to that obtaining in the German Albatross machines, whilst the rear half is of the conventional girder construction. Both systems, however, have many interesting features. There are four main longerons, of about 1 1/2 by 1 1/4 in. L-section (solid where necessary), running from end to end, and one additional longeron of similar section in the front half situated between the upper and lower longerons on each side, level with the line of thrust. These longerons are of ash in front and spruce in rear portions. In all there are five transverse formers in the front half of the fuselage, built up mainly of H-section members reinforced by three-ply, and varying in shape and structure as shown in one of the accompanying diagrams. There are also diagonal H-section struts between each former, on t he sides of the fuselage, and an outer covering of three-ply tacked to the formers and struts completes the construction. There is no wire bracing whatever in this portion of the fuselage. The first and second formers carry the strong ash engine bearers, the third and fourth are placed in line with the front and rear wing spars respectively - the fourth former being in the centre of the passenger's cabin is, therefore, left open, i.e., it has no cross members except at the top and bottom. The fifth former serves as the end wall of the cabin, and between this and the fourth former is what might be termed a false former of light construction. The engine and fuel compartments have a single outer covering of three-ply, whilst the cabin portion has a double (inner and outer) covering. Three separate compartments or bulkheads are thus formed, the first being the "engine room," the second housing the large fuel tanks (six hours), and the third the passenger's cabin.
  The latter is exceptionally roomy, measuring roughly, 3 ft. in width, 8 ft. in length, and just over 5 ft. in height. For passenger work, therefore, it affords great possibilities in the way of a luxuriously fitted-up and comfortable "saloon," with armchairs, tables, etc. In the present model there will be three armchairs and one folding seat, the latter being opposite the door, which is at the rear of the cabin on the port side. Windows, with sliding Triplex glass, are cut in the sides of the cabin between the top and middle longerons, three on the starboard, and two on the port sides, whilst portholes will also be let into the turtledeck roof at various points.
  The cabin is equally suitable for mail work, and one can easily visualise this roomy compartment fitted up with pigeon-holes and benches, with a P.O. clerk busy at work sorting out letters, depositing them in their respective parachute bags, and dropping them overboard above their destination!
  Aft of the cabin the fuselage is a girder of six bays, the first set of cress members being built up on the fines of the formers in the front half, as shown by No. 6 in the accompanying diagram. The other cross members are of the usual H-section, reinforced here and there by three-ply. With the exception of the last one, all the bays are braced with flat "streamfine" steel cable; the last bay, however, has H-section diagonal struts and a three-ply covering. The pilot and control are located in the second bay, being supported fairly high up in the fuselage by two channel-section bearers on a three-ply floor. This rear portion of the fuselage is covered with fabric, except for the. top, which has a three-ply turtledeck. At the end of the third bay a steel tube passes across the fuselage through the lower ends of the vertical struts and projects a few inches on either side of the fuselage, thus providing a means for lifting the tail.
  The control is similar to the well-known "Dep." type, and consists of a wooden n-bridge pivoted to the previously mentioned bearers, carrying at its upper end the peculiar shaped "wheel" shown in one of the accompanying sketches. The elevators are operated positively by flat elliptical-section steel tubes, anchored at the forward ends to each side member of the bridge and connected at the rear to a strong single crank arm on the underside of each elevator flap. The aileron cables are led from the "wheel" over pulleys down the arms of the bridge to its base, whence they pass down to pulleys a t the end of the cabin, just below the floor, under which they proceed to pulleys at a point just behind the front spar, where they are taken at right angles out of the fuselage through the lower plane to pulleys just beyond the outer interplane struts. From here they pass out underneath the plane to cranks on the underside of the ailerons. The upper and lower ailerons are connected by steel cables, and the upper port and starboard ailerons are connected by a balance cable passing along inside the top plane. The rudder is operated direct by cables from a wooden foot-bar reinforced by sheet aluminium. Except for the aileron and rudder cables, all other control connections (engine, etc.), are steel or aluminium tubing - all shafts or cranks being mounted in ball bearings. The engine control rods (aluminium) pass out from the cockpit through the turtle deck and pass along on top of the latter to the "engine room." The switches are mounted outside the cockpit on the port side of the turtle-deck.
  The angle of incidence of the tail plane can be adjusted whilst in flight by means of an aluminium wheel, at the pilot's left just below the seat, which operates through cables a screw and nut gear as shown in one of the accompanying sketches. The rear spar of the tail plane is hinged, so that the front of the tail is raised or lowered.
  The main planes are of equal span, and are made of four interchangeable sections and a centre section to which the upper planes are attached. The centre section is mounted on two pairs of steel struts sloping outwards from formers three and four. Each pair of struts is laterally cross-braced by flat, oval section steel wires. A steel strip also connects the lower ends of the port and starboard struts and takes some of the load from the landing wires which are taken from the base of the centre section struts to the lower plane. The lower plane is attached to short centre sections projecting from the sides of the fuselage, giving the same overall width as the top centre section. The centre section spars pass through the fuselage and are built integral with the respective former. In the front one the ends are cut short for the passage of the chassis strut, which passes through a welded steel box which replaces the cut away portion of the spar. The end of this box also forms the wing attachment fitting which is the same on all spars, and which is shown in one of the illustrations. Constructionally, the planes present nothing unusual, except, perhaps, in the tips. They have what might be described as a lateral washout, that is, the under surface curves up to meet the top surface which is level right to the tip. The spars of laminated I-section, solid where necessary, and the ribs are built up as usual of spruce webs and flanges. Each wing has four bays, the compression members being of the box type, and located at the interplane struts with a third in between. The internal bracing is of piano wire, the outer bay having a diagonal strut. Top and bottom planes are separated by two pairs of tubular steel s:ruts aside, and the whole of the external bracing is by streamline wire. Ailerons are fitted to both top and bottom planes, and these taper from root to tip.
  The tail plane is of high aspect ratio, and has a symmetrical streamline section. It is built in one piece and mounted just above the top longerons. The rudder is balanced, the vertical fin being cut away to receive the balanced portion. By far and away the most interesting feature of the F.K 26 is the landing chassis and its shock-absorbing arrangement. As may be seen from our illustrations, the wheels are each hinged by two stub axles to a cabane, consisting of a pair of V struts connected by a longitudinal member, mounted on the bottom of the fuselage. The front pair of these stub axles lies at right angles to longitudinal axis of the machine, and the other pair is inclined back to the rear V of the cabane. Extending upwards from each outer extremity of this "axle-Vee" is a steel tube which is connected at its upper extremity to the end of a lever projecting through the sides of the fuselage and hinged at its other end to the centre of the fuselage-former. Near the outer extremity of this lever is a lug from which connection is made to an oleo shock-absorber and to a pair of ordinary elastic shock-absorbers. There is a similar gear on each side of the fuselage. Thus, on landing, as the wheels rise, they also lift the levers against the action, first, of the oleo, and then of the elastic absorbers. The levers above referred to are of welded steel box construction, and it will be noticed that the wheels are splayed, so that when in flight they point inwards in a down direction, and when on the point of landing they are more or less horizontal, and when the machine is at rest, with its full weight on the wheels, they point inwards in an up direction. The general arrangement and construction of this landing gear is clearly shown in our illustrations.
  Another interesting feature is in the tail skid. This is of the steerable type, and consists of a short steel-shod wooden skid anchored at its upper end to a tube passing up through, and secured to, the rudder post. The "head" of the skid is connected to a lug some distance up the rudder post by two telescopic tubes passing up through the rudder, and containing a steel spring, which absorbs the shocks on striking the ground.
  The engine is a Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII, mounted, as previously stated, on two strong ash bearers between the first and second formers. It is enclosed by an aluminium bonnet, whilst a "manhole" in the bottom of the fuselage gives access to the engine from underneath.
  The cooling system is very efficiently carried out, and is made up of two long streamline-shaped "honeycomb" radiators, mounted, one on each side of the fuselage. They are connected top and bottom to two tanks within the fuselage, as indicated in one of the accompanying sketches. On the back of each radiator is a shutter, which can be opened or closed from the pilot's cockpit. A neat and simple oil-cooling radiator is also fitted; this is shown in one of our sketches, and consists of an extension of the oil tank next to the engine projecting through the starboard side of the fuselage, and having a series of tubes passing through it from front to rear. This projection also carries the oil filter and filling-cup. As previously mentioned, the fuel tanks are located in the compartment between the engine and the cabin. Petrol is delivered direct from the main tank to the carburettor through the agency of two windmill pumps mounted above the turtle deck and the tanks. There is, however, a small service tank, for emergency, let into the leading edge of the top centre section.
  The estimated maximum speed of the B.A.T. F.K. 26 is 110 m.p.h., whilst the landing speed is about 40 m.p.h.
SOME MORE BRITISH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 3. Thf Bat F.K. 26. Note the gentleman examining an aileron hinge
Loading up the B.A.T. commercial aeroplane at Hounslow for its recent emergency flight to Amsterdam, when it carried over 600 lbs. of freightage, including a consignment of Emaillite, urgently wanted by the Dutch Government, and ordered through Messrs. Tashe, the Emaillite representatives in Holland. Note the Customs officer in attendance to seal up the doors
A three-quarter front view of the B.A.T. four-seater biplane.
THE B.A.T. FOUR-SEATER BIPLANE. - The original landing chassis, showing on the left the shock-absorbing gear, and on the right, the hinged stub axles and hub at the top, and below, a general view of the chassis.
One of the radiators, with adjustable shutter, on the B.A.T. four-seater biplane
The oil radiator, filter and filler-cap on the B.A.T. four-seater biplane
THE B.A.T. FOUR-SEATER BIPLANE. - A diagram showing the arrangement of the formers in the fuselage
The B.A.T. Four-seater Biplane. - Some constructional details of formers 3 and 4 on the fuselage.
THE B.A.T. FOUR-SEATER BIPLANE. - On the left, a sketch of the pilot's seat and control. On the right, the tail plane trimming gear, and inset, a detail of the screw-gear of the latter
SOME CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF THE B.A.T. FOUR-SEATER BIPLANE. - On the left is the top plane attachment to the centre section, which i s similar to those on the lower plane. In the centre is a sketcn of the steerable tall skid, and on the right is the strong but simple elevator crank
THE B.A.T. FOUR-SEATER BIPLANE, F.K. 26. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

THE BRITISH AERIAL TRANSPORT CO.
  is showing two machines, one a B.A.T. Bantam with 170 h.p. A.B.C. "Wasp" engine, and the other a diminutive monoplane, called the B.A.T. "Crow," with 30 h.p. A.B.C. 2-cyl. "Gnat" engine. The former machine is well known to our readers, as it was described in FLIGHT recently. It is painted in white, as is also the "Crow," and looks very graceful and pleasing to the eye.
  The B.A.T. "Crow" is, probably, the smallest man-carrying aeroplane in the world. To those who remember the early days of flying, this machine may, perhaps, be described by saying that it is a Santos Dumont "Demoiselle," designed in the light of modern aeronautical knowledge. The Demoiselle, it may be remembered, was a short-span monoplane, with the pilot placed in a seat below the wings, immediately behind the propeller. This, in effect, is the arrangement of the B.A.T. "Crow," although naturally the detail design and construction is hugely improved.
  The A.B.C. Gnat engine is mounted on the leading edge of the wing, and drives a small Ebora tractor screw of about 5 in. diameter. The fuel tank is mounted on top of the plane, and is divided laterally, the oil being contained in the smaller front part, while the rear portion of the tank carries the petrol.
  As already mentioned, the "Crow" is a monoplane, and it should be added that the wings are of the cantilever type, with no external bracing. The consequence is that the machine can be dismantled or erected in a few minutes by undoing half-a-dozen bolts. It consists, in effect, of two units: The planes, and the tail planes and booms and the car. The wings, being of the cantilever type, are tapered from root to tip, and are fitted with ailerons for lateral control.
  Two tail booms, also cantilever beams, of built-up rectangular section carry at their rear end the tail surfaces, and in front are bolted to the wing spars. There is a small symmetrical tail plane and a divided elevator. The vertical fin extends above and below the tail plane, and to it is hinged the rudder,. In its present form it would appear that a twisting stress on the tail might be transmitted to the wings and cause trouble, but we understand that in the next machine of this type the tail boom bracing will probably be somewhat altered to overcome this difficulty.
  The pilot, as in the case of the Demoiselle, is seated below the wings, but is sheltered to a greater extent than in that machine, being installed in a small nacelle not unlike a sidecar for a motor cycle. The controls are of the stick type. The nacelle is carried on six steel tubes of circular section, coming down from the wings. Passing through the bottom of the nacelle is a flat laminated spring of wood, which carries at its ends short stub axles for the wheels. To the casual observer this arrangement may appear somewhat inadequate, but it should be remembered that the machine is extremely light (the weight empty is about 220 lb.), and that, therefore, the under-carriage need not be particularly strong, especially as the pilot is seated almost on the ground, and, hence, can judge his landings to a nicety. As she stands, and with a pilot of average weight, the "Crow" weighs, we believe, about 7 lb. per square foot of wing area, and about 10 lb. per horse-power, so that, judging by these figures, the performance should be very good. The machine has not yet been flown, but in view of the fact that the petrol tank is mounted on top of the centre section, i.e., at a point where the lift is probably greatest, the wing loading may prove somewhat on the heavy side, and it might be found advisable to increase the wing area of the next machine slightly.
  On account of its diminutive size, the "Crow" is one of the attractions of the show, and we understand that an enormous number of enquiries regarding price has been received. The first of these came from a Dutch carpenter working at the exhibition, who quite seriously asked the price as he wanted one of these machines. For use in Holland it is a question whether it would not be possible to design the little nacelle as a boat or float, thus enabling the machine to start from and alight on the rivers and canals with which Holland is so plentifully supplied. The flying tests of the "Crow" will be awaited with interest. On the aerodrome are two B.A.T. machines, a "Bantam" and the second machine of the F.K. 26 series.
The B.A.T. "Crow": This little machine, fitted with a 2-cyl. A.B.C. "Gnat" engine, attracts great attention at the E.L.T.A. Show. Briefly speaking, it is a "Demoiselle" brought up to date.
Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

   LIKE one or two other firms that date back to the beginning of aviation in this country, the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co., Ltd., of Leeds, as the firm is now styled, commenced their career as constructors of aeroplanes of the monoplane type. These machines had, at first, some resemblance to the famous French Antoinette monoplanes, with their tapered, square-ended wings set at a large dihedral angle, and with triangular-shaped rudders above and below the level of the elevators. They differed considerably from the Antoinette machines in many respects, however, not only in the matter of power plant, which was in those early days either Gnomes or Isaacson radials, whereas the Antoinette had Antoinette water-cooled engines, but also in the wing bracing. The characteristic feature of the Antoinette monoplanes was, it may be remembered, the king post type of bracing. The Blackburn monoplanes had the usual monoplane bracing, and also its undercarriage was of totally different design, being of what was known in those days as the Farman type - that is to say, a wheel and skid combination. The body was of triangular section throughout, braced by wood members instead of wires. Perhaps the most original detail of those early machines was the controls, which were in the form of a wheel mounted on a horizontal longitudinal shaft, which was secured at its forward end by a universal joint. Rotation of the wheel operated the wing warping, an up-and-down motion actuated the elevators, while the rudder was worked by shifting the wheel bodily in a sideways direction. The feet thus took no part whatever in the control of the machine.
   As time went on and aeroplane controls commenced to become more standardised, this unique form of controls was discarded in favour of one of more orthodox design. Also, the machines generally were "cleaned up," improving not only the appearance of the machine but also its aerodynamic qualities. At the Olympia Aero Show of 1914 was exhibited the most modern version of the Blackburn monoplane, which was thought a great deal of in those days, and in which the Antoinette influence was rapidly disappearing, the only feature in common being the comparatively large size (for monoplanes) of both machines.
   During the same year, 1914, the first Blackburn biplane made its appearance. This machine was a seaplane designed for the Daily Mail "Circuit of Britain," which was postponed owing to the outbreak of War. In a general way it resembled the Blackburn monoplanes, but instead of the triangular section body which had characterized the monoplanes, the seaplane had a rectangular section fuselage. As the race was called off, the biplane-seaplane, which was to have been piloted by Mr. Sydney Pickles, did not have an opportunity of showing its capabilities in peaceful competition, but quite early in the War she was modified to carry a machine gun, and hence became known as

The "Type L" Seaplane. (September, 1914)
   This machine was fitted with a Salmson Canton-Unne engine of the water-cooled radial type, the radiators being mounted on the sides of the fuselage. Considering the power loading (over 19 lbs./h.p.), the performance was quite good, and the flight range (445 miles) was rather out of the usual for those days.
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

  The next machine to be designed and tested was of very unusual design, and was produced as a result of instructions from the Admiralty to design a twin-engined machine for dropping darts. In those days the dart was considered quite a weapon, and certainly the number that could have been carried on a large twin-engine machine should have been sufficient to cause unpleasant punctures in the Hun.

The "Type T.B." Seaplane. (August, 1915)
  as this machine was called, represented a very drastic departure from usual practice. Instead of having a central fuselage, and the engines placed in nacelles on the wings, the T.B. had two fuselages, each with its engine and pilot. The fuselages were connected at their forward end by the main biplane structure and at the rear by the tail. As the machine was of the seaplane type, each fuselage had under its forward end a plain non-stepped float and a smaller tail float under its stern. In spite of the twin fuselage arrangement, which is not usually conducive to beauty of outline, the T.B. was, as will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, by no means an ugly machine, and her performance was very good, both as regards speed and climb. In fact, we understand that as regards the latter she established a record for altitude.
  The first experimental machine was fitted with two 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape engines, but these were replaced, in the production machines, by two 110 h.p. Clergets.
The Blackburn Type "T.B." seaplane, two 110 h.p. Clerget engines
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

The "G.P." Seaplane, or "Kangaroo" Seaplane. (July, 1916)
  Probably the best known of all the Blackburn machines is the "Kangaroo" land machine, and it is not generally known that the prototype of this machine was a seaplane. This is, however, the case, the machine which led to the production later of the famous "Kangaroo" being a seaplane with two engines placed on the wings, and otherwise being, generally speaking, similar to the land machine that was to follow. This machine was known as the "G.P." (general purpose) seaplane, and the first made its appearance in July, 1916. The experimental machine was fitted with two Sunbeam engines of 160 h.p. each. The second experimental machine had two Rolls-Royce engines of 190 h.p. each, and finally the production machines were fitted with two Rolls-Royce Falcon engines of 250 h.p. each. There was a plain, non-stepped float underneath each engine, and a single tail float under the stern of the fuselage. The crew consisted of three men, the pilot being placed about halfway between the leading edge of the planes and the nose of the fuselage. In front of him was a gunner armed with a machine gun on a gun ring, and farther aft in the body was another gunner whose duty it was to defend the machine against attacks from behind. In addition to the guns and their ammunition, the G.P. seaplane was designed to carry bombs, or even a torpedo, so that it was well armed for either offensive or defensive purposes.
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

The Triplane Scout. (December, 1915)
  In appearance one of the most extraordinary aeroplanes ever built was a little Blackburn triplane produced in 1915. At that time the synchronized machine gun had not been generally adopted, and consequently there was a demand for machines in which the pilot was free to fire in a forward direction. The D.H.2, for instance, was a reply to this demand, and the Blackburn triplane was designed with a similar purpose in view. The machine was provided with a machine gun firing forward through the nose of the nacelle, and consequently gave the pilot a very free field. In a rearward direction also the view was quite good, the middle plane being on a level only slightly lower than that of the pilot's eyes.
  The engine fitted was a rotary 100 h.p. Gnome or 110 h.p. Clerget, both being tried. Considering that the machine was a pusher, which type is not usually as fast as the tractor type of machine of the same power, the performance of the Blackburn was quite good, the maximum speed being 115 m.p.h. With the invention of the synchronising gear for machine guns the raison d'etre for the pusher type disappeared and the construction was discontinued.
The Blackburn triplane scout. 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

THE BLACKBURN STAND
  The Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co., of Leeds, have no space on their stand for exhibiting complete machines. Instead, they are showing three very good scale models. One is of a Blackburn "Kangaroo" (commercial type), with its fuselage made deeper in the centre to form a cabin for the passengers. The second model is of a "Kangaroo" type of machine fitted with floats instead of wheels, while the third is a model of a flying boat. On the aerodrome there is now a "Kangaroo" which on Friday and Saturday, August 8 and 9, was flown over from Leeds to Amsterdam by Mr. Kenworthy, who will be remembered as a pre-War pilot at the Beatty School of Flying at Hendon, accompanied by five passengers. The machine left Leeds on Friday, and flew to Hounslow, where the usual formalities were attended to. It then left for Amsterdam via Belgium, but was overtaken by darkness and had to land at Brussels, where it arrived at 8.30 p.m. The news of its landing quickly spread, and next morning King Albert of Belgium came out to inspect it. After giving an exhibition flight over Brussels, the "Kangaroo" left for Amsterdam covering the distance between the two cities in 1 hour 35 minutes. A safe landing was made at Amsterdam in spite of the somewhat soft ground, and Mr. Kenworthy succeeded in bringing the machine to her hangar without sinking in, the modus operandi being to taxi very fast right up to the tent, thus keeping a fair amount of the weight on the wings and but little on the wheels.


Flight, November 13, 1919.

THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA

  IN our last issue we published scale drawings and brief descriptions of the machines entered by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., and by Messrs. Martinsyde, Ltd., for the flight to Australia. Also a brief description of the Alliance machine. Scale drawings and a description of the Sopwith machine were published in our issue of October 16, 1919. This week we are able to complete the list by giving particulars and scale drawings of the remaining machine - the Blackburn "Kangaroo." The only machine to start so far is the Sopwith "Wallaby," which left Hounslow on October 21. This machine had to descend at Cologne, from which town a start was made again on October 31. Since then no news has been received from Capt. Matthews, but it is thought that he is weatherbound somewhere, far from any telegraph office, and no anxiety is felt for his safety.
  Of the five machines entered for this flight three are of the single-engined tractor biplane type, while the other two are twin-engined machines. Whether or not any of the machines succeed in winning the ?10,000 prize offered by the Australian Government - the conditions for which stipulate that the flight must be completed inside a month - some very valuable data should result, and it will be interesting to see which type of machine aquits itself the better, the single-engine or the twin-engined type. Both have their champions, who are convinced of the superiority of their own class of machine. The "twin-engineites" consider that two engines tend to more reliability, since in the case of one breaking down it only means one-half of the power plant out of commission. The other faction contends that a twin-engined machine cannot fly satisfactorily on one engine only, and that therefore no such safeguard is provided by fitting two engines, whilethey claim greater efficiency for the single-engined type. Time will show which side is right, although there is such a great element of luck in a flight like this that failure on the part of one type and the success of another will not necessarily be conclusive proof of the superiority of one type over the other.

The Blackburn "Kangaroo."

  Except in a few minor respects the Blackburn "Kangaroo" entered for the Australia flight is similar to the standard machine of that name. The tankage has been increased so as to give the machine a greater range of flight. This has been made possible by the fact that whereas the standard machine (commercial) carries eight passengers with its normal complement of tanks, the Australian machine carries a crew of four. The petrol system has been redesigned for gravity feed so as to minimise the risk of engine trouble arising out of failure of the petrol system.
  The two 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon engines are mounted on the lower plane, each driving a four-bladed tractor airscrew. The large petrol tanks are mounted inside the main fuselage, in the space ordinarily occupied by the passengers in the cabin type of machine. The landing wheels are exceptionally well sprung by telescopic struts and rubber buffers, and the machine is expected to be able to alight safely on grounds none too suitable for the purpose. Certainly, at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome at Amsterdam, on the occasion of the recent aero show there, the Blackburn "Kangaroo" made light of the soft condition of the ground, which was such as to worry much lighter machines.
  Needless to say, a number of smaller spare parts are being carried on board, and the machine is not altogether unarmed, should natives show signs of hostility.
  No actual figures as to range, speed, etc., are available, but the passenger type of machine has a speed range of 97 to 51 m.p.h., a flight range, with normal tanks, of 580 miles, and carries a load of eight passengers or 1,540 lbs. By decreasing the number of passengers to four, and increasing the tank capacity, the flight range can, of course, be very materially increased.

The Route

  The route followed will probably be as follows, although should conditions demand this may be deviated from: Hounslow to Paris, Marseilles, Nice and Pisa to Rome. Thence to Cattania, Malta, Benghazi and Solium to Afcoukir. Ramleh, Bagdad, Basra, Bushire to Bandao-Abbas. Charbah, Karachi, Nasrabad, Allahabad to Calcutta. Rangoon, Don-Muang, Sengora, Penang, Kuala-Lumpur to Singapore. Bandoeng, Bima, Kupang to Port Darwin. Thence via Brisbane and Sydney to Melbourne. Petrol supplies are being arranged for by the Air Ministry and foreign Governments as far as Calcutta - thereafter the arrangements are in the hands of the Asiatic Petroleum Co.

The Crew

  Capt. Geo. H. Wilkins, M.C. and bar :- Commanding officer and navigator. Second in command of the Stefanson Arctic expedition, 1913-1917. Engaged with Historical Section, Australian War Records, as official photographer, A.I.F., France, Gallipoli and Palestine from 1917. War correspondent with Turks in Balkan War, 1912-13. Three years as Temp. Commander, Canadian Naval Service. Is under agreement as Chief of Scientific Staff of the Cope British Imperial Antarctic expedition, which will leave England about the middle of 1920. Has personal knowledge of practically every country in the world.
  Lieut. D. R. Williams :- Second pilot. Fourteen years' experience as automobile engineer in N.S.W. Instructor at the flying school at Richmond, N.S.W. Ferry pilot and instructor with A.F.C.
  Lieut. G. H. Potts :- Engineer officer. Son of the Principal, Hawkesbury Agricultural College, Richmond, N.S.W. Electrical engineer with the Australian General Electric Co., Sydney. Gunnery officer, A.F.C., served with No. 3 Squadron, A.F.C. in France.
  Lieut. Vol. Rendle :- First pilot. Son of Richard Rendler, F.R.C.S. (Eng.), of Brisbane. Assistant electrical engineer with the Australian Meat Export Co., Balmain, Brisbane, Joined Queensland Volunteer Flying Corps, founded by T. Macleod in 1915. Came to England and enlisted (March, 1916) as air-mechanic, R.F.C. Commissioned to R.F.C. in 1917, and served in England and France as instructor test pilot and ferry pilot.


Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

The "Kangaroo" Bombing Aeroplane.
  As a direct result of the successful trials of the G.P. seaplane, the Blackburn firm received instructions to convert her into a land machine. By replacing the float undercarriage with two Vees under each engine this was very easily done. In her new form the "Kangaroo" was suitable for night bombing raids, and also, in spite of being now a land machine, for anti-submarine patrol, in which latter capacity she did very valuable work, accounting, we believe, for more than one Hun submarine. The standard "Kangaroo" carries a crew of three, a front gunner who has control of the bomb gear, a pilot, and a rear gunner who also acts as wireless operator. The engines fitted are Rolls-Royce Falcons.
  Since the Armistice the "Kangaroo" has done excellent work as a passenger carrier, notably at the E.L.T.A. Exhibition at Amsterdam, while another machine of the same type is now on its way to Australia in connection with the Australian Government's prize of ?10,000. As will be seen from the accompanying table, the performance of the "Kangaroo" is very good for the power loading (17 lbs./h.p.)
The Blackburn "Kangaroo," two Rolls-Royce engines
A HENDON PASSENGER CARRIER. - One of the Grahame-White Blackburn "Kangaroos."
Public Flying at London Aerodrome, Hendon: Passengers aboard a G.-W. "Kangaroo" ready for their flight
PASSENGER FLYING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: A G.-W. "Kangaroo" plane over the Welsh Harp, on Saturday
THE RAILWAY HOLD-UP AND MAILS BY AEROPLANE: Post Office officials and the despatch and receipt of mails at Hounslow. 2. The above Kangaroo from Grahame-White brought in mails from Leeds. Another Kangaroo of the North Sea Aviation Co. carried mails to Leeds.
R. W. Kenworthy taking off in the North Sea Aerial Navigation Company's first civil Kangaroo, G-EAIT, at the ELTA Exhibition, Amsterdam, in August 1919. Note full registration under both sides of tailplane.
Mr. R. Kenworthy at the "E.L.T.A." (Amsterdam) on the Blackburn Kangaroo, where he was busy carrying passengers continuously for six weeks or more. This machine was last week commandeered for Midlands and the North aerial-post work
THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: Start of the Blackburn Kangaroo from Hounslow on November 21
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: The Blackburn "Kangaroo." Plan, side and front elevations, to scale
Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

The "Blackburd" Torpedo 'Plane.
This machine, it will be seen, is of rather unusual appearance, resulting from the special requirements for which she was designed. As the title indicates, the chief function of the "Blackburd" is that of dropping torpedoes, and, consequently, the lifting capacity of the machine has to be considerable, as the torpedo weighs over half a ton. Also, she is designed for use from a "mother" ship, and hence is of small dimensions when folded. The use from a ship entails starting from the deck and alighting, on the deck or on the sea as circumstances dictate. To this end the "Blackburd" has a special undercarriage, the wheels of which can be dropped after rising, leaving clear two long skids which can be used for landing on the deck after the torpedo has been discharged. If, on the other hand, it becomes necessary to alight on the sea, the skids do not, we understand, have the same "tripping effect" as do wheels, and there is therefore less danger of the machine turning over on her nose. When in the water the machine is kept afloat by inflating air bags in the fuselage, which gives the necessary flotation to support the machine until she is "collected" by her mother ship.
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
Flight, December 11, 1919.

"MILESTONES"
THE BLACKBURN MACHINES.

The "N1b" Flying Boat
  The next machine to be laid down was a seaplane of the flying boat type, known as the "N1b." Owing to certain changes in Service requirements this machine was not actually completed, although we understand that both design and construction were nearly finished. It will therefore be understood that the figures of performance, etc., are estimated ones. The "N1b" was intended to act as escort to our large bombing flying boats.
Front elevations of the Blackburn machines
Side elevations of the Blackburn machines
Plan views of Blackburn machines
THE BOULTON AND PAUL "BOURGES." - A "snap" from another aeroplane during a test flight
Looping the loop, Norwich way, on the big Boulton and Paul machine
THE BOULTON AND PAUL "BOURGES" LOOPING. - A photograph secured by our photographer, showing the machine as she frequently appeared at Hendon during last week end
A photographic record when in a spinning nose-dive, taken from a Boulton and Paul "Bourges." Note the effect of the ground appearing to be above the machine
THE BOULTON AND PAUL "BOURGES." - Two views taken by the designer of the machine, Mr. J. D. North, during a recent flight from Norwich to Hendon. On the left: Looking aft. On the right: Snap of port "Dragonfly" engine
Lieut. Courtney, whose handling of the Boulton and Paul "Bourges" was admired alike by the public and by other pilots at Hendon during the week end.
Flight, April 17, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT

As the days go by, the interest in the race for t he Daily Mail L10,000 prize for the first man to cross the Atlantic by air increases. Mr. Harry Hawker, the pilot of the Sopwith-Rolls-Royce "Atlantic," and his navigator and assistant pilot Commander Mackenzie Grieve, having tested their machine and had it officially sealed, are ready for the start, watching anxiously the weather and wind, and awaiting with impatience the weather reports sent twice a day from the meteorological branch of the Air Ministry in London. To add to the impatience of t he Sopwith crew, Mr. F . P. Raynham and his navigator, Capt. Morgan, have arrived at Newfoundland with their Rolls-Royce engined Martinsyde, the "Raymor," and are getting their mount ready with all speed. Every day of bad weather increases their chances of getting ready before the Sopwith machine has had an opportunity to make a start, and if the unsettled weather conditions continue there is every probability that both machines may start more or less simultaneously. Then there is the Short machine, also with Rolls-Royce engine, which, as time is pressing, it is intended to start from this side. This machine also is now ready. It is therefore not an unlikely event that this machine may meet one or more of those making the eastward journey, although, as t he routes will probably differ in location as well as in direction, they are hardly likely to get within hail of each other. The Handley-Page giant machine with four Rolls-Royce engines, is stated to be ready for shipment, and the plans call for a start from St. John's about the middle of May. Mr. Handley-Page has stated that the attempt will be made under the best conditions without any regard to being first across. It has not, up to the time of writing, been definitely stated who will be the pilot and navigator of the H.P.
The Fairey seaplane, Rolls-Royce engine, which will be piloted by Mr. Sydney Pickles, is also nearing completion, but a certain amount of secrecy as to the plans of this entrant is being maintained. The same applies to the Whitehead contingent, from whom not a word concerning their plans has been vouchsafed.

A New Entrant.

While some of the early entrants are ready and waiting for the weather to improve, others are working night and day in order to get their machines ready. Thus it has been announced that Messrs. Boulton and Paul, Ltd., of Norwich have entered a twin-engined machine fitted with two 450 h.p Napier engines. This machine was originally designed as a passenger carrier, having all t he occupants, with the exception of the pilot, enclosed in a roomy cabin. By suitably arranging the wind screen the pilot can be very well protected outside. For the purpose of the Transatlantic journey the great amount of cabin space available will be used chiefly for housing the fuel tanks. It is estimated that she will have a range, when fitted with six tanks (containing 800 gallons of petrol) for the Transatlantic journey, of over 3,000 miles (in still air, of course), which should be ample for making the journey in either direction.
It is the intention of the firm to send two machines of this type to Newfoundland, and Maj. H. G. ffiske will take them over when they are ready, together with a staff of pilots and mechanics. The crew of the competing machine will number three, and has not yet been chosen.
Mr. J. D. North, the designer of the "B.P.," is confident that the machine can do the trip if she can be got ready in time. A special feature of the controls of the Boulton and Paul machine deserves to be mentioned. There is a locking device, mounted near the floorboards of the pilot's cockpit, by means of which the elevator and wing flaps are locked simultaneously in any desired position. The pull on the trigger at the same time automatically changes the rudder control over from the foot bar to the wheel which ordinarily operates the ailerons, the steering then being done exactly as in a motor car. This should relieve the pilot of a great amount of work, especially as the machine is very stable and will require little or no attention beyond that of keeping her on her course.


Flight, May 15, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC CONTEST
THE MACHINES

  IN our issue of April 10 we published scale drawings of the Sopwith and Short Transatlantic machines. At the time no further drawings were available, and other machines have been entered since then. This week we are able, through the courtesy of the various constructors who have given us facilities for obtaining particulars of their machines, to place before our readers scale drawings of three other entrants and a photograph of a fourth, as well as scale drawings of one of the American flying-boats which will attempt the crossing hors de concours.

The Boulton and Paul Napier-Machine

  ONE of the most important features of the Boulton and Paul machine (an illustration of which appeared in our issue of April 17) is that after a short time in the air (about two hours for the amount of fuel carried for the Transatlantic flight) the machine is able to keep aloft on one engine only. The importance of this can scarcely be exaggerated. It will mean, looking at it in another way, that after two hours the two Napier engines need only be run at half their power. This should mean an enormous increase in their chance to "stick it" for the whole journey. It is further to be noted that at the "cruising speed" the speed of the machine is as high as 116 m.p.h. This is probably the highest cruising speed of any machine entered so far for the race. When flying at the cruising speed the range of the Boulton and Paul machine has been calculated to be about 3,850 miles, so that there is an ample margin in hand for the Transatlantic journey.
  The fuel is carried in six separate tanks, each fitted with jettison valves operated by a lock control in the pilot's cockpit. These valves will discharge the whole of the fuel in 1 1/4 min. in case of emergency, and the tanks are so placed that when empty they will keep the machine afloat and right way up. The crew will consist of three, a chief pilot and two navigators, who will also be wireless operators and assistant pilots. The names of the crew have not yet been announced.
  Two independent wireless sets will be fitted, a "spark" wireless for sending and receiving messages, and a "directional" for navigation purposes. A small hydrogen bottle and a balloon will be carried so as to make it possible to send up an "aerial" for sending wireless "S.O.S." even after the machine is on the sea, should that emergency occur.
  The chief characteristics of the B.P. machine are as follow :-

Span 59 ft.
Length 40 ft.
Height 12 ft. 3 in.
Weight loaded 11,500 lbs.
Fuel capacity, petrol 800 gals.
Fuel capacity, oil 90 gals.
Cruising range 3,850 miles.
Engines Two 450 h.p. Napiers.
Maximum speed 148 m.p.h.
Cruising speed 116 m.p.h.


Flight, October 30, 1919.

THE BOULTON & PAUL COMMERCIAL MACHINE:
Two 450 h.p. Napier Lion Engines

  GENERALLY speaking, the Boulton & Paul Commercial biplane may be said to be similar to the machine built by this firm for the Transatlantic flight. The deep fuselage extends right up to the top plane, thus giving ample accommodation inside for passengers or/and goods. Since, however, the main fuel tanks are mounted inside the body, the cargo or passenger space is divided into two separate compartments, one in front of the tanks and one aft of them. As at present fitted up, the machine is not provided with its full complement of seats, etc., as it is intended to obtain a certain amount of experience with her in the air before finally deciding upon the arrangement of seats. Also the arrangement will be largely dependent upon whether the machine is to be used for passenger flying, for carrying mails, or for a combination of the two. It will, therefore, be understood that this part of the design is still left open, so to speak, and is subject to alterations as requirements demand. Obviously there is a wide choice according to the use to which the machine will be put. For instance, by fitting relatively small tanks and installing a large number of seats, the P.8, as this machine is called on the B. & P. series list, will be able to carry a large load for a relatively short distance. On the other hand, the tank capacity may be increased and mails substituted for some of the passengers. Or, again, all passengers and mails may be left out, the whole carrying capacity being taken up by fuel, in which case the machine would have a very long radius of action.
  Constructionally, there are no great innovations to be found in the P8, most of the constructional details being of more or less standard type. It might be pointed out, however, that very extensive use has been made of tubular rivets in place of threaded bolts. This method of securing parts has been found very economical, both as regards strength for weight and in the actual use, the tubular rivets being quick to make once the proper tools for their manufacture have been installed, while replacements take little, if any, longer than would the replacement of a bolt. These tubular rivets are employed for securing the metal fittings to the fuselage longerons, and in many other places in the body and undercarriage. They make a very neat job, as there are no boltheads or nuts projecting, but only a thin bell mouth where the ends are flanged out. Apart from the use of these rivets, the fuselage is of standard construction, with longerons and struts of wood, the structure being cross-braced with standard tie rods. In the front part this simple arrangement is varied occasionally as local requirements demand, but, fundamentally, the fuselage structure is of the simple girder type. One feature of the fuselage design should be pointed out. The upper longerons do not run along the top corners of the body, but are placed some distance down the side. As a matter of fact, the top longerons run straight, in side elevation, thus forming a good datum line for rigging and trueing-up purposes. From this it will be seen that only the lower part of the fuselage is braced, the upper portion being merely a fairing made up of formers and longitudinal stringers. This can be clearly seen in one of the accompanying photographs, which shows the rear portion of the body, looking aft from the rear cabin.
  As already pointed out, the main fuel tanks are mounted in the body, and as they are placed over the centre of pressure of the wings, so as not to alter the trim when the fuel is consumed, they divide the available space into two separate compartments. When fitted out as a passenger carrier, both front and rear cabins may be fitted with seats. Owing to the deep body and the possibility of placing the petrol tank high in the body, there is no need for any gravity tank, the main upper petrol tank performing this function. If more tanks are fitted for long duration work, some of them near the floor of the body, it will probably become necessary to provide means for transferring the fuel from these into the top tank, but at present the petrol system is simplicity itself, with gravity feed direct from the main tank.
  In the fore part of the body, in front of the fore cabin, is the pilot's cockpit, the wind screen for which is so arranged that if desired the pilot can have his head projecting into the open without being in a direct draught, while if desired, he can close a small skylight and be totally enclosed, as are the passengers. From this position he retains quite a good view in practically all directions except straight back, and as the machine is very fast - about 150 m.p.h. - he need not worry overmuch about machines overtaking him. Lateral control is by means of a wheel, and a fore and aft movement of the wheel operates the elevator. Rudder control is normally by foot bar, but by a very ingenious arrangement it is possible during a long flight to lock the ailerons and elevator in position and steer the machine by the wheel. One of our sketches shows the control column and wheel. The changeover from foot bar to wheel steering is done with one movement. The wheel is so held that the ailerons and elevators are neutral and, with the wheel and column in this position, the locking lever shown near the bottom of the sketch is pulled. This locks the lateral and longitudinal control surfaces while at the same time disengaging the foot bar and connecting the rudder cables to the wheel. As the machine is expected to be very stable, this should be a considerable advantage on a very long journey. The controls are instantly returned to the normal by pulling the locking lever in the opposite direction, an operation requiring a fraction of a second only. For use when one engine is pulling slightly more than the other, there is an arrangement, also shown in the sketch, for taking the load thus imposed off the pilot's feet. This consists of a small wheel mounted on the right-hand side of the control column, near the top. Pressing the wheel inwards causes it to engage with the rudder control cables, and turning the wheel then puts one rudder cable under tension, the amount depending upon the number of turns given to the wheel. In this manner the pilot does not have to be pressing constantly with his right or left foot, according to which engine pulls the harder, and the springs incorporated with the control cables ensure that for steering the rudder is as easy to move as if it were central. In case of total failure of one engine, the turning effort made possible by this arrangement would be insufficient, and provision has been made for this contingency by pivoted fins above and below the tail plane, operated by a wheel on the starboard wall of the pilot's cockpit. The usual tail plane trimming gear is provided, also actuated by a hand-operated wheel.
  One of the accompanying sketches shows the engine controls. These consist of two sets of duplicate levers. The rear set is for ordinary engine control, the right-hand lever being the throttle for the starboard engine, the left-hand one for the port engine. The front pair is for altitude control. From the way the levers are mounted, it will be seen that both engines may be throttled together or separately, by moving the two levers together or singly.
  As will be seen from the general arrangement drawings and photographs of the machine, the engines are enclosed in neat aluminium casings, giving a very low resistance. This has been made possible by fitting the radiator in the fuselage. To vary the cooling the radiator is mounted on two vertical worms which can be rotated from the pilot's seat by means of a wheel via chains and cables. A header tank is placed in the top plane, connected to the radiator by means of a flexible rubber pipe. This pipe is arranged in a series of zig-zags so as to allow of the raising and lowering of the radiator without getting kinks in the tube. Although the single radiator is not partitioned off, the water system of either engine can be cut off during flight. The manner in which this is accomplished will be understood from reference to the diagram of the water system. The water pumps on the engines draw the water from the bottom of the radiator, force it through the water jackets and hence up to a small tank in the top plane. From this it runs down a pipe to the side of the radiator. Here the water is not allowed to mix at once with that already in the radiator, but has to flow over the top of a small partition near the side of the radiator. The pipes leading from the radiator to the engine, and the return pipes from engines to radiator, are provided with cut-off valves, placed under the bottom of the fuselage and connected to controls in the pilot's cockpit. The actual cut-off valves are shown in one of the accompanying photographs.
  The main planes, of which the top one has a chord of 8 ft., while the bottom plane chord is 6 ft. 6 ins., are of standard construction. The spar fittings are very substantial, as may be gathered from two of our sketches, which show the front and rear fittings at the points where occur the attachments of front and rear chassis struts, inter-plane struts, diagonal engine bed struts, etc. All the struts, it will be seen, are pin jointed. Balanced ailerons are fitted to both top and bottom planes.
  The 450 h.p. Napier Lion engines are mounted on the bottom planes, the engine beds being of light although very strong design. The vertical supports of the engine bearers are in the form of a framework of wood, covered with three-ply. From the engine bearers diagonal tubes run outwards and downwards, providing a perfect system of triangulation, which is extended inwards by tubes running from the bottom plane spars to the upper longerons of the fuselage. The whole engine mounting has been very well thought out, care being taken to ensure that there are no offset moments. The consequence is that there is a marked absence of vibration under all conditions.
  One of our photographs shows the starboard engine in three-quarter rear view. It will be seen that the oil tank is mounted behind the engine. Mounted on the trailing portion of the bottom plane, behind the oil tank, is a hand-operated starting magneto for starting the engine when the machine is on the ground. The engine housing is in the form of sheet aluminium, and may be seen in the photographs of the complete machine.
  The undercarriage is in the form of two simple "Vees" of wood, hinged laterally to the bottom wing spars. The two axles are of the bent type, hinged at their inner ends to the bottom longerons of the fuselage, and carrying at their outer ends the Palmer Cord wheels. Springing is partly by shock absorbers of rubber and partly pneumatic, the cylinder being shown in one of the photographs.
  The control surfaces are of standard type, the rudder being balanced. The tail plane, as already mentioned, is of the variable incidence type for purposes of trimming the machine, and the only respect in which the tail differs from usual practice is in the fitting of two pivoted fins, above and below the tail plane, which serve to balance the turning moment set up when one engine is out of commission.
  The aerodynamical features of the P.8 have been thoroughly tested in the wind tunnel of Messrs. Boulton & Paul's experimental department, especial care being taken to ensure good stability, as this is a very important point in a commercial machine designed for long-distance flights. Special apparatus have been designed to facilitate the determination of rotary derivatives, and a great amount of stability work is being done by the B. & P. wind tunnel staff. When, therefore, this firm places a machine on the market it may be taken for granted that every effort has been made to ensure that she is absolutely "right," having that degree of stability which relieves the pilot of the greater part of his work on a long flight, without having the excessive stability that may cause a machine to "take charge" at a time when manoeuvrability is required.
  The main particulars of performance, etc., are as follows :-

Weight, empty 4,000 lbs.
" loaded 7,000 "
Speed at 10,000 ft. 149 m.p.h
15,000 ft 142 "
Climb to 10,000 ft. 8 mins.
Climb to 15,000 ft 15 mins.
Ceiling 25,000 ft.
Load/sq. ft 8.4 lbs.
Load/h.p 7.7 "

  At the time of writing the Boulton & Paul P.8 has just been finished, and her preliminary trials are due to take place any time. After them the machine will probably be heard of shortly, but of the exact nature of the flight we are not permitted to speak at present.
THE BOULTON & PAUL P.8 COMMERCIAL MACHINE: Three-quarter front view
THE BOULTON & PAUL P.8 COMMERCIAL MACHINE: Three-quarter rear view
THE B. & P. P8: Front view.
THE TRANSATLANTIC BOULTON AND PAUL-NAPIER MACHINE. - The fuselage being erected at the B.P. works at Norwich. The starboard Napier aero engine may be seen in place on the wing. Note the large tanks
The B. & P. P.8: View from behind of the starboard engine and its mounting
The B. & P.P.8: View of the cutoff valves, mounted underneath the bottom of the fuselage, by means of which the water system of either engine can be cut off.
THE B. & P. P.8: View inside the fuselage, looking aft.
THE B. & P. P.8: View of one of the undercarriage Vees with rubber and air shock-absorbing device.
The B. & P. P.8: View of the controls. The levers on the left are engine controls, while the large wheel just in front of them is for raising and lowering the radiator. The central wheel is the control wheel, which, by a very ingenious device, can be turned into an ordinary steering wheel, the aileron and elevator controls then being locked in position. The wheel on the right is for trimming the tail plane.
THE BOULTON AND PAUL TRANSATLANTIC MACHINE. - Two 450-h.p. "Napier-Lions" are fitted. Picture shows machine in original form as a passenger 'bus. For this flight the petror tanks will be fitted in the cabin space
The Boulton and Paul - Napier Machine. - A drawing showing the machine as she will appear in flight
THE B & P P8: Sketch of the controls.
THE B. & P. P.8: Sketch of the engine controls. One set of these is for normal control, the other for altitude control.
The B. & P. P.8: Above, diagram of the water system. On left, diagram of engine mounting structure, which is so designed that there are no offset moments.
THE B. & P. P.8: Combined spar and chassis fittings. On left, fitting on the front spar, and, on the right, the fitting on the rear spar.
THE BOULTON AND PAUL - NAPIER MACHINE. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale
THE B. & P. P8: Plan, side and front elevation to scale.
Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

Boulton and Paul, Ltd.

  Probably the centre of attraction of v this stand will be formed by the new Boulton and Paul all-metal machine, the P 10, with 100 h.p. "Lucifer" Cosmos engine. This machine is of very original design as regards its construction. The body is built-up of formers and longerons of rolled steel sections, as shown in the accompanying photograph. Between the formers and longitudinals are interposed panels of special fibre sheet, which is riveted to the metal parts. Extensive experiments in the rolling of sheet steel strips into suitable sections have enabled Messrs. Boulton and Paul to provide forms of metal construction which have excellent strength/weight ratios and which approach very close to the ideal rolled metal section - i.e., a section in which the full strength of the material can be developed.
  It is not only as regards the fuselage construction that P 10 is built of metal. The wings also are constructed entirely of steel, apart from the fabric covering, of course. The spars are of rolled-steel sections, the results of a number of experiments extending over a considerable period. Dr. Thurston, in his paper read before the Royal Aeronautical Society, mentioned and illustrated one of the Boulton and Paul spar sections, of which these new spars are a development.
  The ribs also are made of steel, each part being specially designed to fulfil its own particular function. The mounting of the 100 h.p. Cosmos "Lucifer" engine on the P 10 is of special interest. It is so arranged that by removing the vertical hinge-pin on one side the whole engine and its mounting may be swung about the opposite vertical hinge, thus allowing easy access to the back of the engine for inspection and adjustments. The piping, controls, etc., are so arranged that they do not require disconnecting when the engine is swung out.
  This feature of the design is one of the greatest importance from a practical point of view, and one to which other designers would do well to pay attention.
The Boulton and Paul P 10: This machine is built entirely of metal, and should prove a great attraction at the Show
The Boulton and Paul P 10,100 h.p. Cosmos "Lucifer"
THE BOULTON AND PAUL "P 9"
Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE "BRISTOL" MACHINES

  As one of the pioneer firms in the aircraft industry particular interest attaches to the products of the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd., of Filton, Bristol, who commenced their career quite in the earliest days with "box kites" of the Farman type, later followed by more original designs by, in succession, Prier, GordonT England, and Coanda. It was, however, to neither of these designers that the honour of designing the "Bristol" War machines fell. This responsibility rested upon Capt. F. S. Barnwell, R.A.F., who joined the firm as designer before the War, and produced, in collaboration, we believe, with Mr. Busteed, the little Bristol scout of pre-War days. The first of these machines was exhibited at the Olympia Aero Show of 1914, scale drawings of which were published in "FLIGHT" of April 25, 1914. Later in the year a similar machine was flown by Lord Carberry in the London-Paris-London race. The first Bristol scout was not greatly different from the type D scout illustrated herewith, although there are certain variations as regards dimensions, etc.

The Bristol Scout, Type D.

  The original Bristol scout had an area of only 156 sq. ft., whereas the type D shown in the accompanying illustrations has a total wing area of 200 sq. ft. In general outline the type D is very similar to the original Bristol scout, the rudder, tail plane and fins, as well as the body and main planes, being of almost identical shape. The body is somewhat deeper in front, and the cowling is slightly different, but otherwise the machine remains true to its prototype. Unlike several other makes of single-seater tractors, the Bristol has its wing bracing wires arranged in the plane of the staggered struts, a feature that has been considered undesirable on account of the extra drag stress it may impose on the internal bracing of the top plane, but in the case of the Bristol any such tendency is countered by fitting external drag wires running from the upper and lower ends of the rear inter-plane struts to the front of the fuselage. That this form of bracing is adequate would appear to be proved by the fact that to the best of our knowledge no Bristol scout has ever shed its wings in the air. Several variations of the Bristol type D have been built. With the exception of the fitting of different engines and minor alterations, they have not, however, been greatly different from the machine illustrated. To mention only one, there was the 110 h,p. Clerget-engined machine, which had a slightly different cowl, and had a rotating "spinner" fitted over the propeller boss. Unfortunately we have not received any particulars of the performance, etc., of this machine, and so are unable to include it in the accompanying tables.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Bristol Fighter

  Probably the best known of the Bristol products during the War is the Fighter (F2B). This machine has been extensively used for fighting, reconnaissance, etc., and will be more familiar to readers of "FLIGHT" than, probably, any of the other Bristol types. The impression one receives on examining the F2B is that it was designed in the first instance for the purpose for which it was intended, and not merely designed from the aero-dynamical point of view and afterwards rigged up for certain purposes, for which machines happened to be required. There is a decided difference between the two methods. Thus it will be observed that the designer quite evidently had in his mind to provide as free a field aft as possible, and to this end he chose to flatten the fuselage out to a horizontal knifes edge, bringing the various tail members down lower out of the way of the gun. Also the flat top of the body bears evidence of this intention. Again, it was desired to place the gunner and pilot high in relation to the top plane, and to do this would have meant, with the ordinary arrangement, a very deep body with consequent large maximum cross-sectional area. To avoid this the lower plane is not attached to the body, but runs right underneath and some distance below the bottom of the fuselage. This arrangement has resulted in a somewhat more complicated undercarriage attachment, but everything considered, there is little doubt that it has been worth while.
  From the table it will be seen that the performance of the F2B with Rolls-Royce "Falcon" engine is very good indeed. A feature of this machine which will not be found in the table and which cannot be put in table form owing to the absence of any standard of comparison, is the excellent stability of this machine. We are informed by pilots that although she is not in the least sluggish on the controls the Bristol Fighter is endowed with a remarkable amount of inherent stability, which renders her particularly easy to fly. It would, therefore, appear that Capt. Barnwell has managed to find the solution to the problem of good stability combined with ease of control, a fact which should be extremely valuable for post-war aeroplanes.
Fig. 29. - Two-seater fighter. Bristol Rolls-Royce.
The Bristol fighter, F2 B.
"STILL GOING STRONG": The short life of an aeroplane is a weapon much beloved by those who refuse to believe in the possibilities of commercial aviation. As a matter of fact, with reasonable care, the life of a well-built machine is much longer than is generally thought. By way of an example, we publish above a photograph of a Bristol Fighter which has been in continuous commission on the fighting front and in Holland for over two years without, we are assured, the expenditure of a single penny on renewals or repairs. Recently this machine paid a visit to this country, piloted by the famous Dutch pilot, Versteegh, who was accompanied by another Dutch officer. While in this country the machine paid several flying visits to places in various parts of the country, including its old home and birthplace at Filton, Bristol.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Bristol Monoplane

With the exception of the very earliest days of the War, there has been, at any rate in this country, a remarkable absence of aeroplanes of the monoplane type. Some of the first machines to go out were, it is true, of this type, as for instance the Bleriots and Moranes, but before many months of War had passed the biplanes were rapidly supplanting the monoplanes, and during the last two years of War the monoplane was hardly if ever seen. This may appear somewhat strange, especially as the monoplane has undoubted advantages for fighting purposes, giving as it does a much better view forward and upward. Especially is this true of the "parasol" type of monoplane in which the wings are on a level with the eyes of the pilot, but for some reason or other the type has not found general favour. Special interest, therefore, attaches to such few monoplanes as have been built during the war, among which is the Bristol monoplane. This machine, it will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, is of very pleasing appearance, with its streamline body and crescent-shaped wings. Efficiency is the keynote of its design, with head resistance reduced to a minimum. Thus the wing section employed is such as to allow of very deep wing spars which are capable of taking care of their load with a minimum of external aid, in the shape of one wire to each spar. Lateral control is not by means of wing warping, as was the general practice in monoplanes before the War, but by ailerons as in the biplanes. This form of lateral control is probably chosen in view of the deep wing section, which would tend to make a comparatively rigid wing structure difficult to warp and liable to excessive strain if warping were employed. In order to give the pilot a better view downwards - forward and upward is already as good as it is possible to make it - openings are provided in the inner portion of the wings, near the sides of the fuselage, and one is inclined to think that in this respect at least the Bristol monoplane is able to hold its own against any conceivable biplane combination. As regards performance: from the table it will be seen that near the ground the monoplane is capable of a speed of 130 m.p.h., which is distinctly good for an engine of only 110 h.p. At 10,000 ft. this speed has dropped to 117 m.p.h., which is not bad considering that the engine is a rotary. The climb also is quite good, the first 5,000 ft. only taking 3 1/2 mins., while 10,000 ft. is reached in 9 mins. As the landing speed is certainly not unduly high, it appears that taking it all round, the monoplane is able to hold its own against the biplane for performance, and there can be no doubt that as regards visibility the mono, has it all its own way. As a matter of fact, had the War continued it is not in the least improbable that this type of machine might have reconquered some of the prestige it appears to have lost, and in France at any rate there was not lacking indications to this effect, although this may not be common knowledge on this side of the Channel. For peaceful purposes we are not at all certain that the last has been heard of the monoplane type of machine.

  

Flight, April 10, 1919.

Flight over the Andes

  A MESSAGE from Santiago de Chile, dated April 5, states that Lieut. Cortinez, on one of the Bristol aeroplanes pre sented to the Chilean Air Service by the British Government, had flown over the Andes at a height of 6,000 metres (19,600 ft.). Last December Lieut. Godoy, also on a Bristol, flew across the Andes from the Chilean capital to Mendoza, in Argentina, in one and a-half hours.


Flight, April 24, 1919.

Across the Andes

  THE Chilean pilot, Lieut. Cortinez, who crossed the Andes recently from Santiago and landed at Mendoza (Argentina) has re-crossed the range on his return to Santiago, the journey occupying 2 hours. Lieut. Cortinez reached a height of over 20,000 ft.


Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 12. - The Bristol Monoplane, 110 h.p. Le Rhone engine
  This machine was briefly described in the Bristol "Milestones" series published in our issue of January 23, 1919. The chief feature of it is the unusual shape of the wings, which are of very deep section, and have their leading edges swept back in a curve which gives the wings an appearance of being crescent-shaped. For visibility this machine is excellent, since the pilot sits between the wing spars where these cross the body. The only direction in which the wings obstruct the view is downwards, but this has been remedied by cutting slots in the wings near the sides of the fuselage. The latter, it will be seen, is of circular, streamline shape, and the whole machine has been designed for low resistance. Thus the wing bracing has been reduced to one wire per spar on each side. This is rendered safe by the employment of a very deep wing section, as already mentioned. Lateral control, on account of the thick wings, is by means of ailerons and not, as was the case in nearly all monoplanes before and during the early part of the War, by warping.
THE AERIAL DERBY. - The competitors lined up at the starting line ready for the race.
OVER THE ANDES. - On April 4 Lieut. Cortinez crossed the Andes from Santiago (Chile) to Mendoza (Argentine) and back, attaining a height of nearly 20,000 ft. The machine he used was one of the "Bristol" monoplanes presented by this country to the Chilian Government
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Bristol "All-Metal" Biplane

From the earliest days of aviation the question of wood versus metal construction has been the subject of discussion, and both methods have had their supporters. Up till the present, however, the wood construction has been predominating, at any rate in this country. Particular interest therefore attaches to the few examples of the metal construction method that have been built. Among these is the Bristol type MR.1, shown in the accompanying illustrations. At the present moment we cannot, unfortunately, publish constructional details of this machine, this must be reserved until another time, but several interesting facts emerge from an inspection of the tables of particulars. Thus it will be seen that although the All-Metal machine is of somewhat larger dimensions than the Bristol Fighter, the loaded weight of the two machines is practically the same. Against this must be put the fact that the MR.1 has a 170 h.p. Hispano engine, while the F2B has a 260 h.p. Rolls-Royce. The All-Metal carries, however, slightly more fuel than does the B.F. The loading per sq. ft. is somewhat smaller for the larger machine, but the load per horse-power is considerably greater, thus accounting for the fact that the MR.1 has not so good a performance as the F2B. It might be added that the weight, empty, of the B.F., is 1,750 lbs., and that of the MR.1 1,700 lbs. It may, therefore, safely be concluded from these particulars that there is no reason to suppose that an all-metal aeroplane cannot be built as light, or nearly so, as one constructed in the ordinary way of wood. There can be little doubt that for use in tropical climates, such as will be encountered by the post-War commercial aeroplane, the metal construction will be better able to withstand the changes in temperature than will one built largely of wood, and while we should not care to assert that the days of wood construction for aeroplanes are over, we do think that metal construction will be more general in the future than it has been in the past.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Bristol Triplane.

While for her largest machines Italy has to a great extent pinned her faith in the triplane, as instanced by the large Caproni triplane bombers, there has been in this country a tendency, rightly or wrongly, to adhere to the biplane type, even for very large machines. That excellent results may be obtained by the biplane form has been amply demonstrated by the large four engined Handley Pages, but it may be doubted whether the triplane form has been as extensively tested as it deserves. The object of the Bristol Bomber was to provide a high-speed machine for bombing or passenger carrying, capable of lifting a considerable load in addition to the weight of crew and fuel. The "Braemar," as the Bristol Bomber is called, is driven by four Siddeley-Deasy "Puma" engines, developing a total of 1,000 h.p. at 1,500 ft. The manner of mounting the engines will be clear from the illustrations. Two drive tractors while the other two drive pushers, after the manner of the large Handley Page. The two tractors have a diameter of 9 ft. 10 in. and a mean pitch of 6 ft. 11 in., while the diameter of the pushers is 9 ft. 2 in., and the pitch 7 ft. 2 1/2 in. The two pilots' seats are placed side by side in the fore part of the body, some distance ahead of the leading edge of the planes, while the extreme nose of the fuselage is occupied by a gunner. Well aft in the body is another cockpit with two guns mounted on a turntable, while a fourth gun is mounted on another gun ring in the floor of the fuselage. The machine is thus well capable of looking after herself as regards defensive gun arrangements. The weight of the machine empty is 9,300 lbs., and she carries 400 gallons of petrol, 40 of oil, and 30 gallons of water. After allowing 360 lbs. for two pilots, the machine is still capable of lifting another 3,000 lbs., bringing the total loaded weight up to 16,200 lbs. The wing loading, it will be seen, is fairly high, 8 1/2 lbs. per sq. ft., and the load per horse-power is 16.2 lbs. The speed at ground level is 106 m.p.h., which is not bad for such a large machine, and the climb to 10,000 ft. only takes 35 minutes. Naturally the performance cannot compare with that of the smaller machines, but for a weight lifter it is not by any means poor, and the machine might make a good commercial aeroplane for carrying large loads.

  
  
Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd.

  From the very first days of flying and of aero shows, the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., of Filton, Bristol, have made it a rule to exhibit at the Paris Aero Salons. With the excellent workmanship for which Bristol machines were ever famous, it is not too much to say that this firm's stand has always been one of the attractions of the show, and on more than one occasion the Bristols have been the only British machines to be exhibited. This year, as usual, the Bristols are to be shown in Paris, and although the representation of Britain is not left solely to this firm, their stand will, nevertheless, be a conspicuous one, no less than three complete machines being shown, while a fourth, the Bristol Pullman, is so large as to prevent the actual machine from being exhibited. An excellent scale model of it will, however, be on view, and should, in conjunction with illustrations, enable visitors to form a very good picture of the luxurious "Pullman."
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The Bristol "Pullman"

  As already mentioned, there will be exhibited on the Bristol stand a very fine scale-model of the Bristol "Pullman." This large triplane is provided with a most luxurious cabin, seating 14 passengers, who obtain an excellent view of the country over which the machine is passing, through Triplex windows in the side. One of our photographs gives a very good idea of the comfort and spaciousness of the cabin, which has a height of 7 ft., and is heated and lighted by electricity.
  Fitted with four 410 h.p. Liberty engines, placed on the wings, the machine is capable of a maximum speed of 125 m.p.h., while the economical speed is 100 to 105 m.p.h. In addition to the two pilots (or pilot and engineer) the Pullman has a lifting capacity of 2,700 lbs., with a fuel capacity of five hours' flight, or 4,000 lbs. with fuel for two and a half hours' flight. These figures are based on an economical speed of 100 to 105 m.p.h., i.e. at three-quarter throttle, giving a sufficient reserve of power to reach a maximum speed of 125 m.p.h. if necessary. If desired, the seats may be removed and the machine used for carrying mails and cargo, the space available being then 570 cub. ft. The machine has an overall length of 52 ft. and a wing span of 81 ft. 8 ins. The weight empty is 11,000 lbs., and fully loaded 17,750 lbs. Climb to 5,000 ft. in 5 mins., and to 10,000 ft in 12 mins. The ceiling is about 15,000 ft. with full load.
Three-quarter rear view of the Bristol bomber.
Side view of the Bristol bomber.
"Braemar II," the huge Bristol triplane one-time bomber, now converted for passenger-carrying and fcommercial purposes, in flight during the Easter holidays. Photographed from an attendant Bristol two-seater
THE BRISTOL PULLMAN: This machine has a cabin seating 14 passengers.
ON THE STOCKS. - A view of the front portion of the fuselage of the Bristol passenger-carrying triplane. The usual transverse bracing has been modified so as to allow passengers to walk through the whole length of the cabin. There will be seating accommodation for 14 passengers, in addition to the two pilots.
THE BRISTOL PULLMAN: Photo shows one end of the cabin. Owing to lack of space on their stand, the Bristol firm are prevented from showing the actual machine, but a very fine scale model will be on view.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
The Bristol Pullman, four 410 h.p. Liberty engines
Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Bristol Scout, Type F

The development of the type D scout takes the form of a single-seater tractor, designed for a much more powerful engine than was the type D. In connection with the type F it should be pointed out that whereas the general arrangement drawings and the particulars in the two tables refer to a machine fitted with a 200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arab" engine, the photograph shows a slightly different arrangement, in which the nose of the machine is of different shape, owing to the fact that the engine is a radial air cooled, the Cosmos Mercury engine. In addition to the fact that it is fitted with a different engine, the type F Bristol scout shows variations in nearly all its other component parts, having, in fact, practically no resemblance to the original Bristol scout. Thus it will be seen that the type F has its lower plane of smaller chord and span than the top plane. The wing tips also are of different shape, while the various tail members are totally different in shape. Owing to the deeper nose and generally speaking greater side area in front, a fixed vertical fin is fitted in front of the rudder. The wing bracing is characterised by centre section and inter-plane struts of N formation, and the dihedral angle has disappeared. An examination of the accompanying table of performance, etc., is instructive. It will be seen that while the type D had a wing loading of 6.25 lbs/sq. ft. and a loading of 14.7 lbs. /h.p., the corresponding figures for the type F are 8.08 and 10 respectively. The speed near the ground is 100 m.p.h. and 138 m.p.h. respectively, while the climb to 10,000 ft. occupies 18.5 mins. in the case of type D, and only 8.5 mins. for the type F. It is thus seen that it would appear that "performance" is far more a question of load per h.p. than it is one of wing loading, and that it is in fact only the question of a reasonably low landing speed which prevents one from employing a much higher wing loading than is generally found.
A "BRISTOL" SCOUT, TYPE F, FITTED WITH 315 H.P. COSMOS "MERCURY" ENGINE: During recent tests at Farnborough this machine attained a speed of 143 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft., to which altitude it climbed in 5 mins. 25 secs. A height of 20,000 ft. was reached in 16 mins. 15 secs. It should be mentioned that this performance was attained without military load, the weight being 1,692 lbs.
The sole Scout F.1 B3991, with Cosmos Mercury engine in place of the Arab used in the original Scout F, at Filton in October 1918.
The Cosmos 300 h.p. "Mercury" engine in a "Bristol" scout.
A Bristol fighting scout fitted with a 350 h.p. A.B.C. air-cooled engine designed by Mr. Bradshaw.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd.

The Bristol "Babe"

  In some respects, perhaps, the small single-seater sporting machine, which will be known as the Bristol "Babe," will have a wider appeal than any of the other Bristols exhibited, as it is a serious attempt to provide the small, compact, handy and inexpensive sporting aeroplane of the future. It is of quite diminutive dimensions, the overall length being 15 ft. and the wing span 19 ft. 8 ins. The machine does not, therefore, require a large shed for its housing, while its light weight enables it to be handled on the ground with ease by one man.
  Ease of maintenance has been aimed at in the design by doing away with as much bracing as possible. Thus the fuselage is covered with three-ply wood, without bracing wires, and the tail is of the cantilever type, also without external bracing. The wings are of the usual type with lift and landing wires, running to the upper and lower ends of one set of Vee inter-plane struts on each side. The ailerons which are fitted to the top plane only, are of large area, running in fact right from the tip to the centre section. The power plant is a 40 h.p. two-cylindered Siddeley aircooled engine, which consumes about three gallons of petrol per hour at full throttle, when the speed of the machine is 80 m.p.h. At maximum speed, therefore, the machine does about 27 miles to the gallon, while at the economical cruising speed of 65 m.p.h. even greater economy is attained. The landing speed is as low as 40 m.p.h., which enables the machine to alight in and start from quite a small field.
THE BRISTOL BABE: Photograph of the machine in skeleton form
The Bristol Babe, 40 h.p. Siddeley engine
Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd.

The Bristol "Bullet"

  As the name indicates, this machine is one designed for high-speed racing. Its general appearance is indicated in the accompanying silhouette. Fitted with a nine-cylindered radial air-cooled Cosmos "Jupiter" engine, this machine is capable of a maximum speed of 160 m.p.h. As a racer, therefore, the "Bullet" should give a good account of itself in the events of the coming year. A feature - one might say the feature - of this machine, which is not apparent on a casual examination, is the exceptional strength of the wing structure. This is attained, chiefly, by the novel design of the wing spars, which are in duplicate. In this manner, while adhering to the employment of aerofoils of the usual section, extraordinarily high spar strength is maintained, and we understand that in the case of the "Bullet" the spars are so strong that any evolution of which the machine is capable may be carried out with perfect safety at the maximum speed of 160 m.p.h. As a racer and "stunt" machine the "Bullet" will probably be much in evidence during 1920. Considering the high maximum speed - 160 m.p.h. - the landing speed is reasonably low, i,e,. 50 m.p.h. The machine has an overall length of 24 ft. 1 in. and a span of 31 ft. 2 1/2 ins. The petrol tank has a capacity of 50 gallons.
The Bristol Racer, 450 h.p. Cosmos "Jupiter"
The Cosmos "Jupiter" engine, 450 h.p., installed in a "Bristol" Badger. In the left-hand photograph the engine cowl has been removed to show the mounting.
Flight, October 23, 1919.

THE "BRISTOL" COUPE:
275 H.P. ROLLS-ROYCE FALCON

  DURING the War the "Bristol" aeroplanes, notably the Bristol Fighter, type F. 2B, have established an excellent reputation for performance, stability and ease of handling. As every pilot who has flown the F. 2B knows, this machine is exceptionally easy to fly in straightforward flight, having a very great amount of inherent stability, and yet it is sufficiently quick on the controls to respond readily and perform any manoeuvre required in aerial fighting. For civilian flying stability is of far more importance than manoeuvrability, and as the "Bristol" Coupe illustrated below is a development of the F. 2B, it may safely be assumed that its stability is as good as was that of the War machine. This fact should render it particularly suitable for commercial flying, especially as it combines with this stability an excellent performance, both as regards speed and climb.
  From the illustration it will be seen that the Coupe is to all intents and purposes an F. 2B, in which the gunner's seat, gun ring, and other paraphernalia of the trade have disappeared to give room for a comfortable cabin in which the passenger is completely protected from the wind. The pilot, as before, sits in the front seat, from which he has an excellent view, while at the same time he is well protected from the weather by means of suitably shaping the cowl around his cockpit and by a wind screen. Thus by the simple expedient of adding a roof to the rear portion of the fuselage the machine is converted from an up-to-date fighting machine into an equally up-to-date touring aeroplane.
  With regard to the machine as an aeroplane, there is really no need for any comment, since it follows so closely the lines of the standard F. 2B which is already well known. The main feature distinguishing the F. 2B from other two-seater fighters, and which has been retained in the Coupe, is the high placing of the fuselage. Instead of attaching the two halves of the bottom plane to the sides of the fuselage, as is the usual practice, the bottom plane runs right through underneath the body. In this manner the maximum cross section of the body has been kept comparatively small, with, it may be assumed, a considerable saving in body resistance. It is, we think, to a very great extent to this arrangement that the "Bristol" owes her good performance and stability.
  Dealing with the cabin of the "Bristol" Coupe, this, although small, is very comfortable, the seat being well upholstered and the head room sufficient for all practical purposes. The cabin is entered from the top, the roof being hinged along the top port longeron, as shown in the illustrations. Not only the sides of the cabin but also the hinged roof is provided with windows so that the passenger can look sideways and downwards through the side windows and upwards through the skylight. There is, further, a small window in the front wall of the hinged roof, through which the passenger can give his instructions to the pilot, communication being facilitated, if desired, by the employment of a speaking-tube. Small cupboards are provided both in the front and in the rear of the cabin, suitable for the stowage of light luggage, while the upholstered arm rests are hinged to give access to two smaller receptacles in which may conveniently be placed papers and other light articles likely to be wanted during the journey.
  Hinged to the front wall of the cabin is a small writing-desk, which folds up flat against the wall when not in use. To ensure thorough ventilation of the cabin, adjustable ventilators have been fitted in the roof, ensuring that even during a long flight the air is fresh and pure. To the business-man who has to do a great amount of travelling the "Bristol" Coupe should offer an excellent means of doing so in comfort and at great speed. A very complete set of instruments is provided with this machine, including compass, altimeter, revolution indicator, air speed indicator, electric lighting set, starting magneto, oil pressure gauge, air pressure gauge, radiator thermometer, watch, cross level, and a Rolls-Royce doping pump with reservoir. The weight of the machine empty is 1,700 lbs.; fully loaded (including 200 lbs. of luggage), 2,800 lbs. The wing span is 39 ft. 3 in., and the overall length 25 ft. 9 in.; the maximum height is 10 ft. 1 in., and the total wing area 405 square ft. At ground level the maximum speed is 128 m.p.h., at 5,000 ft. 125 m.p.h., and at 10,000 ft. 115 m.p.h. The machine climbs to 6,000 ft. in 5 minutes, to 10,000 ft. in 11 1/2 minutes, and to 15,000 ft. in 21 ? minutes. The landing speed is 48 m.p.h. These figures relate to the machine as fitted with a 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon engine. If desired it can be modified to take either of the following engines: 300-h.p. Hispano-Suiza, 200 h.p. Hispano-uiza, 240 h.p. B.H.P. (Siddeley) Puma.


Flight, November 6, 1919.

THE "BRISTOL" TOURER

  THIS machine, which is a development of the famous Bristol Fighter, has been designed primarily to provide a machine of great dependability, and capable of maintaining a fairly high speed for a considerable period of time. Its petrol tanks, which carry 70 gallons, are sufficient to allow of the machine remaining in the air for a distance of about 560 miles.
  Dual controls are normally fitted to enable the passenger to take over the pilotage during a lengthy flight if desired, although the machine can be supplied fitted with pilot's controls only. When used for the transport of mails or cargo a load of some 300 lbs. can be carried in addition to the pilot and full complement of fuel and oil, although this weight can be increased should it be desired only to carry fuel for a shorter range of flight. The machine can be fitted either with a 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine or with a 230-240 h.p. Siddeley Puma engine. Fitted with the former the machine can attain a speed of about 125 m.p.h., with a normal cruising speed of about 90 m.p.h. When the latter engine is fitted the maximum speed is 120 m.p.h. and the cruising speed 85 m.p.h. With either engine the petrol consumption for the distance traversed is the same, although taking into consideration the difference in speed the consumption with the Rolls-Royce engine is 15 1/2 gallons per hour, and with the Siddeley Puma 15 gallons per hour.

Specification. (Weights and dimensions).
Weight, empty 1,750 lbs.
Weight, loaded 2,800 lbs.
Wing span 39 ft. 3 ins.
Wing area 405 sq. ft.
Wing loading 6.92 lbs, per sq, ft.
Chord of wing 5 ft. 6 ins.
Overall length 25 ft. 9 ins.
Maximum height 10 ft. 1 in.
Tankage - petrol 70 gallons
Ceiling 20,000 ft.


Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd.

The Bristol "Tourer"

  The third complete machine to be exhibited on the Bristol stand will be a two-seater of standard type, i.e. the "Tourer." This machine is a development of the famous F2B, and differs from it chiefly in regard to the rear cockpit, which is now minus the gun ring, while the flat fuselage deck aft has given place for a top fairing. The machine has already been described and illustrated in FLIGHT, and no lengthy reference to it will be required here. Its general lines will be clear from the accompanying illustrations, and it will suffice to point out that the machine is one of great dependability, with a cruising radius of about 560 miles. Owing to the fact that the firm, through the cancelling of War contracts, have on their hands considerable quantities of well-seasoned materials which are being employed in the construction of a large number of machines of the "Tourer" type, it has been found possible to place this machine on the market at the extremely moderate price of L1,200. Added to this it should be pointed out that quick delivery can be guaranteed and it would, therefore, appear probable that the demand for this machine should be very considerable. The machine can be supplied either as a two-seater, dual-control touring machine with a radius of 560 miles, or as a cargo and/or mail carrier, when the cargo capacity is 300 lbs., which can be considerably increased if the machine is to be used for shorter flights than the distance of which the standard machine is capable. The "Tourer" can be supplied either with 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon or with 230-240 h.p. Siddeley "Puma" engine. With the former engine the maximum speed is about 125 m.p.h., and with the latter 120 m.p.h. The cruising speeds are 90 and 85 m.p.h., respectively. The overall length is 25 ft. 9 ins. and the wing span 39 ft. 3 ins.
THE "BRISTOL" COUPE, 275 H.P. ROLLS-ROYCE FALCON III ENGINE: Three-quarter rear view
The "Bristol" Coupe: View into the passenger's cabin.
THE BRISTOL TOURER: This machine is similar to the famous F2B, except that it has a Siddeley engine
The Bristol "Tourer," 230 h.p. Siddeley "Puma"
Flight, March 6, 1919.

PEACE TIME AEROPLANES

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  The third model to which reference has been made is a twin-engine machine, designed as a passenger carrier seating eight passengers. This machine is of very pleasing appearance, and the engine power being comparatively low, two Beardmore engines of 160 h.p. each, should not prove excessively expensive to run. The cabin will have non-splintering windows of Triplex glass, and will be electrically heated, thus providing for the comfort of the passengers. If desired, the machine can be used for carrying half a ton of goods or mails instead of the passengers. With three hours' fuel on board the speed range is expected to be 40 to 90 m.p.h. This machine is now in course of construction.
  The Central Aircraft Co. will be pleased to give further information relating to delivery and prices of their various types upon application to their offices at 179, High Road, Kilburn. We might add that there is one more type coming through, of which we are not, however, permitted to give any particulars at present, but it is hoped to prove the last word in performance. This machine may be expected to go through its trials in the coming spring.


Flight, September 25, 1919.

THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT CO.'S 9-SEATER BIPLANE
Two 160-h.p. Beardmore Engines

  IN our issue of March 6, 1919, we referred briefly to a twin-engined passenger carrier which the Central Aircraft Co., Ltd., of 179, High Road, Kilburn, then had in contemplation. This machine is now an accomplished fact, having passed her initial tests at the Northolt aerodrome of this firm. In the issue referred to an illustration was published showing the machine as she would appear in flight. A comparison between this illustration and the photographs and drawings published herewith will show that some minor alterations from the original design have been made. Thus it was originally intended to enclose the engines and to place the radiators in the nose of the engine nacelles. As actually built, the radiators are placed behind the engines, which at present are left uncovered. Another respect in which the actual machine differs from the original design is in the matter of passenger accommodation. The intention was to provide a cabin for the passengers, while the pilots were to be in an ordinary open cockpit. In the first machine built, however, the cabin has been omitted, the passengers sitting in two open cockpits. There are two ways of designing an aeroplane - as there are of doing many other things - one, is to design the machine as an aeroplane first and to add the desired amount of refinement afterwards. This is the plan followed by Mr. "Tony" Fletcher, chief designer of the Central Aircraft Co. The other is to design the upholstery first and then to build the machine around it.
  By keeping everything simple the initial expense of the first experimental machine - and in spite of our considerable knowledge of the subject, experimental machines are not yet entirely superfluous - is kept down to a reasonable figure, while quite as much can be learned from such a simplified aeroplane as from the highly-finished article. Having then by experiment and experience discovered the aerodynamic and structural qualities, it is time enough to commence thinking about the upholstery. This is, we believe, approximately the reasoning which has led the Central Aircraft Co. to keep their first twin-engined machine as simple as possible, and as the accompanying illustration will testify, the procedure has by no means spoilt the lines, which, as a matter of fact, are very pleasing to the eye. Bearing in mind, then, that the machine is an experimental one, and judging it from this point of view, we may proced to an examination of its various features.
  Generally speaking, the C/F 2A, which is the series number of the machine, is an ordinary fuselage biplane with the engines placed on the wings. In general arrangement standard practice is followed, and the machine is, in fact, a straightforward, commonsense production, designed to be built at reasonable cost, and of sturdy construction to withstand hard wear. If there is anything unusual about the design it is mainly a matter of aerodynamic efficiency, which will allow a good load to be carried with a reasonably low engine power - 320 h.p. to carry nine people, including the pilot, at 90 m.p.h. - must be considered fairly good economy as aeroplane transport goes.
  The fuselage is constructed, as regards its front portion, of four longerons cross-braced with X struts of wood and covered with three-ply wood. The rear part, from the cockpit to the stern, also has four longerons, but is cross-braced by vertical and horizontal struts and bracing wire. The two top longerons run straight through, forming an excellent datum line for trueing up the fuselage. The three-ply covering of the front part of the body is extremely neatly done, especially the nose. A trap door in the floor of the fuselage gives access to the back of the instrument board, while the pilots' cockpit is reached via steps mounted on a tube suspended from the body. When the machine is in flight these steps are drawn up, the tube lying along the bottom with the steps projecting through slots in the floor. The two pilots are seated side by side and dual controls are provided. The rudder controls are in the form of foot bars, while elevator and aileron controls are by wheel mounted on a tubular column. All the usual instruments are fitted.
  Immediately behind the pilots' cockpit, separated from it by a bulkhead, is the petrol tank, which has a capacity of about 50 gallons, or sufficient for a flight of two hours at full throttle or two and a-half to three hours when flying throttled down. The oil tanks are mounted above the engines on the inter-plane engine struts.
  Behind the petrol tank are the passengers' cockpits, or, rather, there is one cockpit divided by a horizontal strut in the top of the body. The front part of this cockpit accommodates four passengers, each sitting in a corner, so that two face forward and two face aft. The rear portion of the cockpit seats three passengers, two facing forward and one facing aft. Just at present the seats are not over-comfortable, but it should be pointed out that the arrangement is a temporary one, and that when a cabin is fitted the seating arrangements will be given further consideration.
  The main planes, which consist of straight centre sections and end sections -set at a dihedral angle of 4 deg., have a span of 63 ft. 6 ins. and a chord and gap of 7 ft. 6 ins. There is no stagger. As already mentioned, the engines - 160 h.p. Beardmore's are mounted between the planes. The ash engine bearers are carried on stout transverse beams resting in slots in the inter-plane engine struts. The whole structure is well cross-braced and gives an impression of great strength. It was originally intended to have the engines cowled in and to place the radiators in the nose of the engine nacelles, but the present machine has the radiators placed between the rear pair of engine struts, and no cowling is fitted. Cowls may still be fitted if desired, as the exhaust collectors could be passed out through the openings left for this purpose in the radiators. In that case louvres in the cowls would have to be provided. Two instruments are fitted direct on the engine bearers and are placed at a slight angle, so as to be more easily seen from the pilots' cockpit. These are revolution indicators and radiator thermometers. The petrol leads, as well as the engine controls, pass out to the engines from the fuselage through fairings.
  As the machine is of somewhat large span the wings are made to fold back, in which position the overall width of the machine is reduced to about 27 ft. The hinge joints in the wings are of a simple but substantial type, as shown in one of the accompanying sketches. The space in front of the front spar joints is covered by an easily removable false portion of the leading edge, as shown in the sketch. All the inter-plane struts are of spruce, streamline, of course, and the wing bracing is in the form of stranded cables, duplicated in the case of the lift cables and single for the anti-lift cables. The attachment of these cables and of the pin-jointed interplane struts is shown in one of our sketches. Ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower planes, and in order not to upset the aileron control cables when the wings are folded, these are passed from the body to a pulley on the rear spar hinge, which forms the pivot for folding the plane, and hence outward and forward again to a pulley on the front spar, from which the cable passes to the aileron crank lever. The elevator cables are placed outside the fuselage, while the rudder control cables pass inside the body, where they are protected, in the space occupied by the passengers, by aluminium casings.
  The tail planes are of conventional type and do not call for any comment except to point out that the symmetrical tail plane is mounted on four brackets and is adjustable, although not during flight. The tail skid is mounted externally on a pyramid of steel tubes.
  Each of the two undercarriages consists of two vees of wood, attached to the lower wing spars immediately under the engines. The following is the specification of the Central Aircraft Co.'s nine-seater :- Span, 63 ft. 6 ins. (with wings folded, 27 ft.); length o.a., 39 ft. 3 ins.; height, 12 ft. 6 ins.; weight empty, 3,850 lbs.; weight fully loaded, 5,850 lbs.; weight/sq. ft., 6.6 lbs; weight/h.p., 16-7 lbs.; engines, two Beardmore, 160 h.p. each; petrol consumption about 25 galls, per hour; oil consumption, 2 galls, per hour; speed range, 40-90 m.p.h.; duration, 2-3 hours.
THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT CO.'S 9-SEATER: Three-quarter front view
THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT CO.'S 9-SEATER: Three-quarter rear view
THE CENTRAL 'AIRCRAFT CO.'S 9-SEATER: On the left, one of the undercarriages; on the right, view of the tail and tail skid
THE C.A.C. TWIN-ENGINE PASSENGER CARRIER. - Two 160 h.p. Beardmore engines. Sketch showing the machine as she will appear in flight.
SOME CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT CO.'S 9-SEATER: 1. The hinged interplane strut attachment. 2. Access to the two front seats is by means of steps secured to a tube which is drawn up during flight. The three steps then rest in slots in the floor of the fuselage. 3. The spar joints are of the binge type as the wings are made to fold back. Access to the joint in the front spars is by means of the easily removable section of the leading edge shown on the right-hand side of the sketch. 4. The attachment of the undercarriage struts to the bottom spar
THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT CO.'S 9-SEATER BIPLANE: Plan, side and front elevations, to scale
Flight, March 6, 1919.

PEACE TIME AEROPLANES

  OWING to the restrictions imposed by the order relating to aeroplane designs, which prohibited the getting out of anything except general arrangement drawings of a new design, the British Aircraft Industry has been greatly hampered in its change-over from war work to peace machines. These difficulties are now, it is true, partly overcome by the cancelling of the order which decreed that no firm was allowed to get out original designs except after obtaining an official permit. But great damage had already been done, not by the order itself, which was probably a necessary evil during the War, but by the fact that, even after it was quite certain that the Armistice would be signed, the Air Ministry refused to let constructors turn over some part of their works and drawing offices to post-War production problems. Had this been permitted there can be little doubt that British constructors would not now have been labouring under a great disadvantage compared with firms of other countries in the competition for after-the-War trade. The consequence has been that while our manufacturers are endeavouring to obtain permission to export machines and engines, and are being held up by vague and indefinite replies from the authorities, foreign firms are losing no time in establishing themselves abroad, and in getting their hands on any foreign orders that may be available.
  In spite of such handicaps, however, it is gratifying to know that British firms are quite alive to the possibilities of both home and foreign trade, and are getting out designs for post-War machines as rapidly as conditions will allow. Among the first firms to announce their post-War types of aeroplanes is the Central Aircraft Co., of 179, High Road, Kilbum, who have already settled on at least three types which will be produced in quantities, and of which the first is already ready. The Central Aircrat Co. has attained a splendid reputation for excellence of workmanship, the credit for which is due to Mr. Arthur J. Cattle, the Chief of the Company, for who is the best is hardly good enough. Under his energetic guidance the business is expanding rapidly and bids fair in the near future to assume very large proportions. The first of the trio is a two-seater school machine, fitted with a French 70 h.p. Renault, but so designed as to be adapted to take any engine of similar type, such as the Wolseley and R.A.F. engines. The first of these machines was finished recently, which is a highly creditable performance, considering the short time that has elapsed since the cancelling of the restrictions on private designs. The machine was tested by the firm's chief pilot, Mr. Herbert Sykes, O.B.E., at the aerodrome a couple of weeks ago, and at once showed that it was quite up to the expectations of its designer, Mr. "Tony" Fletcher, who is in charge of the design department of the Central Aircraft Co.
  The machine is a tandem two-seater, fitted with dual controls. The lines of the machine are quite pleasing, in spite of the difficulty of providing a neat nose where a Renault or similar engine is fitted. The designer has kept in mind ease and cheapness of manufacture, and this is obtained, not by any scamping in workmanship, which as a matter of course is excellent, but by designing for interchangeability wherever possible. Thus, for instance, all the inter-plane struts are identical, the one type of strut fitting anywhere in the wing cellule. In a similar manner the elevator flaps and the rudder are identical and interchangeable. As the machine is intended for school work - the Central Aircraft Co. are shortly starting a school with Mr. Sykes as chief instructor - the wing section has been designed with a view to giving a low landing speed, while at the same time reaching reasonably high maximum speed (the speed range is from 28 to 70 m.p.h.). The wing section is fairly deeply cambered, but the rather large travel of the centre of pressure usually associated with a wing section of this type is counteracted by giving a slight reflex curvature to the trailing edge. There is therefore no reason to suppose that the machine will not be quite easy to pull out of a nose dive, and although the elevator flaps are large, giving ample control, the large fixed tail plane should effectively prevent a pupil from too sudden flattening out after a dive. The machine should prove popular, not only at the Central Aircraft Co.'s School itself, but also among other firms who wish to obtain a good reliable type of school machine.
  In addition to the school machine, which is a fait accompli, the Central Aircraft Co. is marketing two more types. One of these is a touring model in which the pilot and passenger sit side by side. This machine will be fitted with a 100 h.p. Anzani engine, and the wings will be arranged to fold in the manner of most modern seaplanes, so that the question of storage becomes much simplified, the machine occupying quite a small space when the wings are folded. This machine is expected to have a performance of 30 to 80 m.p.h., and is very well suited to touring or sporting purposes.
  The third model to which reference has been made is a twin-engine machine, designed as a passenger carrier seating eight passengers. This machine is of very pleasing appearance, and the engine power being comparatively low, two Beardmore engines of 160 h.p. each, should not prove excessively expensive to run. The cabin will have non-splintering windows of Triplex glass, and will be electrically heated, thus providing for the comfort of the passengers. If desired, the machine can be used for carrying half a ton of goods or mails instead of the passengers. With three hours' fuel on board the speed range is expected to be 40 to 90 m.p.h. This machine is now in course of construction.
  The Central Aircraft Co. will be pleased to give further information relating to delivery and prices of their various types upon application to their offices at 179, High Road, Kilburn. We might add that there is one more type coming through, of which we are not, however, permitted to give any particulars at present, but it is hoped to prove the last word in performance. This machine may be expected to go through its trials in the coming spring.
TWO VIEWS OF THE C.A.C. SCHOOL MACHINE. - Inset is the machine in flight. In the bottom photograph Mr. Sykes is in the pilot's seat, while standing against the machine is Mr. "Tony " Fletcher, the designer.
Nurse McMaugh, at the Central Aircraft Co.'s aerodrome at Northolt, where she is taking her ticket, goes up with Mr. Sykes, O.B.E., for a spin. An Australian pupil at the school wishing her a good trip. Inset: A snap of the above pair in the air, taken from a sister Central Aircraft 'bus.
"TICKETS" AT NORTHOLT: The Central Aircraft Co. are busy out Northolt way giving passenger flights and doing school work. Our photograph shows two pupils who have just obtained their Royal Aero Club certificates. On the left is Mr. Tanner, whose actual flying time was 3 hours 15 mins., and on the right, Mr. Pool, who got his "ticket" after 3 1/2 hours in the air. Mr. Herbert Sykes, O.B.E., who is chief instructor, is seen between his two latest pupils. The machine used is the C.A. Co.'s "Centaur 4," with Anzani engine. As each pupil is allowed 10 hours' flying, Messrs. Tanner and Pool are looking forward to nearly 7 hours' flying before leaving the school
THE C.A.C. SIDE-BY-SIDE TOURING AEROPLANE. - 100 h.p. Anzani engine. A sketch of the proposed machine.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 1

  A FEW months before the outbreak of War the Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd., or, as the firm is now styled, the Airco., were fortunate enough to secure the services of Mr. (now Capt., R.A.F.) Geoffrey de Havilland, who had up till then been engaged as designer at the Royal Aircraft Factory (now Royal Aircraft Establishment) at Farnborough. At the time, "FLIGHT" mentioned the fact, and ventured to predict a more than usually good performance of the machines designed by Mr. de Havilland for the A.M. Co. To how great an extent our prophecy was correct has long been realised by those who have had an opportunity to follow closely the developments of the D.H. machines, and will, we hope, be generally appreciated by all readers of "FLIGHT" after perusing the following article. The first machine designed by Mr. de Havilland for the Airco. made its appearance early in 1915, and was described in "FLIGHT" for February 5th, 1915. It was a two-seater of the pusher type, and during the preliminary trials, piloted by its distinguished designer, the machine gave promise of very good qualities, judged by the standard of those days. Although originally designed for a more powerful engine, the D.H. 1, as it was called, had a very good turn of speed for its power - the engine fitted was a 70 h.p. Renault - and was inherently stable to a very great extent, de Havilland flying it repeatedly "hands off." The D.H. 1 had its seats so arranged in tandem that the gunner was in the front seat, from where he had an excellent view, and a free field for his machine gun. The pilot sat behind the gunner, and as his seat was placed somewhat higher, he also had a fairly good view.

The D.H. 1A

  The D.H. 1 was followed by the D.H. 1A, which was practically identical, except that it was fitted with a 120 h.p. Beardmore engine. On the D.H. 1 the shock-absorbing arrangement consisted of coil springs taking the load, while the rebound was taken by a piston working in a cylinder filled with oil. This arrangement was discarded in the D.H. 1A for the ordinary rubber shock absorbers. Another experiment which was tried on the D.H. 1 was discarded in D.H. 1A, namely the air brakes. These consisted, in D.H. 1, of two small monoplane wings, each of some 3 ft. span, mounted on the top longerons of the nacelle. In normal flight these wings were set a t no angle of incidence, but for landing they could be rotated so as to present an area normal to the direction of flight. They were not a great success, however, and were not incorporated in D.H. 1A. As will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, D.H. 1A was as neat in appearance as it is well possible to make a pusher. This was accomplished by careful streamlining wherever possible, as, for instance, around the engine, which, being water cooled, could be more enclosed than could the aircooled Renault. To preserve the clean appearance of the nacelle, the radiator was not mounted on the sides, but was built into the front portion of the engine housing, just behind the back of the pilot. In addition to providing the cooling, this placing of the radiator may possibly have assisted materially in keeping the pilot warm. The performance of D.H. 1A was very good for its power, the speed being 89 m.p.h., and the climb to 6,000 ft. taking 12 mins. 10 secs.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 2

After the D.H. 1A came a little machine which startled everybody by what was in those days considered a very fine turn of speed, and, especially, an excellent climb. This was D.H. 2, a little single-seater pusher scout with 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape engine. In general appearance it had a strong family resemblance to the previous machines, and the same clean design which had characterised these was noticeable in the scout. When D.H. 2 came to be turned out in quantities it soon became a favourite for certain classes of work, and was used with great success on the Western front in the days before synchronised machine guns became the fashion. When this happened, the raison d'etre for the pusher disappeared, and as this type could not be got to do the performance of tractors with the same power, it gradually ceased to be used. For comfort in flying, however, it is doubtful whether this type can be surpassed. There is no slip stream, and placed as he is in the extreme nose, the pilot can be seated low down and well protected from the wind, which, as a matter of fact, is only felt on a turn. The theory held at one time that this type is dangerous on account of the engine being behind the pilot is not, we think, borne out by experience, and we are not by any means certain that for pleasure flying the now rather despised pusher should be regarded as a thing of the past. As far as the Airco. is concerned, the D.H. 2 was their last single-engine pusher.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 3

While thus engaged upon the production of small pusher scouts, Capt. de Havilland foresaw the need for larger weight-carrying machines, and designed a twin-engine machine which became known as the D.H. 3. From the illustrations it will be seen that this machine was a fuselage biplane with the engines placed between the planes and the fuselage placed rather low down. The latter feature somehow gave the machine an appearance of being, as someone put it, "a flying-boat on wheels." The accommodation of the occupants - the D.H. 3 carried three - was designed with a view to giving the two gunners - or bomb-droppers, as the case might be - a good view in all directions. The front gunner's cockpit was in the extreme nose of the fuselage. The pilot occupied the middle seat, and the rear gunner's cockpit was placed well back, clear of the trailing edge of the planes. The engines, two Beardmore 120's, were mounted on Vee struts between the wings, and drove, through an extension of the shaft, the pusher screws, which both revolved in the same direction. The tank capacity was sufficient for a flight of 8 hours' duration, and as the military load was 680 lbs., the machine should have been quite a useful bomber, especially as her speed was 95 m.p.h. at low altitudes and only dropped to 88 m.p.h. at 9,500 ft. However, for some reason or other - we have no information on the subject, but it is not inconceivable that it may be connected with the frantic efforts that were about this time being made at the Royal Aircraft Factory to produce a satisfactory machine of similar type - the D.H. 3 was not produced in large numbers, and so it is really impossible to express an opinion of what would have been her capabilities on active service. Certainly in a later form - and along very similar lines except for the engine power, the type has been sufficiently successful. We are referring to the D.H. 10's and 10A's, which have an extraordinarily good performance. It might be mentioned that the body of the D.H. 3 was covered with three-ply wood, which further tended to make her resemble a flying-boat.
The D.H. 3. - A three-seater twin-engine pusher, with two 120 h.p. Beardmore engines. A lack of more powerful engines prevented the production in quantities of this machine, which is really the forerunner of the famous D.H.10a.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 4

The next design to leave the drawing-table of Capt. de Havilland was a two-seater tractor, D.H. 4. The power of the engine available had by then increased considerably, and it was possible to hope for much better performances from two-seaters than had hitherto been the case. This was the object of the D.H. 4. So as to give the gunner a better chance to use his machine-gun, his seat was placed far aft in the body, where he is well clear of the wings. The first D.H. 4 to make its appearance at Hendon was fitted with a B.H.P. engine of about 200 h.p., but later on engines of other makes were installed with great success. An examination of the accompanying tables will show the performance of the machine with the various engines that have been fitted from time to time. The high efficiency of the D.H. 4 has enabled the Royal Air Force to use it for nearly every purpose for which aeroplanes are used. It has done long-distance reconnaissance, bombing, photography, fighting, etc., and has also been extensively used for long-distance passenger carrying. According to the engine fitted the machine has varied a little from time to time, but the alterations have not been great. For instance, some D.H. 4's have had their exhaust collectors swept upwards so as to carry the fumes away over the top of the upper plane. Also the shape of the nose when fitted with a vertical B.H.P. engine has naturally been somewhat different from the nose of the R.-R. engined one. No fundamental changes have, however, been made. It might be mentioned, as it is not shown in the table, the figures of which refer to the standard performance - that a D.H. 4 with a 200 h.p. B.H.P. engine has actually been flown at speeds varying from 42 to 127 m.p.h., which is "some" speed range. As shown in the accompanying photograph, the covering of the fore part of the body of the D.H. 4 is of three-ply wood, which was a somewhat unusual feature in a British machine at that time. In our issue of June 20th, 1918, we published a translation of a description of the D.H. 4, which had appeared in a German aviation journal. This article was illustrated with a number of detailed drawings and photographs, from which it was possible to form a very good idea of the general construction, and which form a valuable supplement to the particulars given in the accompanying tables and illustrations.


Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 7. - The Airco (de H.) 4R., 450 h.p. Napier Lion
  In connection with racing it is customary to speak of "dark horses," and one of the dark horses of the Derby was the Airco 4 R., piloted by Capt, G. Gathergood. This machine was not, we believe, finished until the day before the race, and she was, therefore, somewhat of an unknown quantity. As will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, the machine is a de H. 4, with the bottom plane cut down to a minimum, with a consequent re-arrangement of the strutting. The large extensions of the top plane are supported by long sloping struts, while the fact that the greater part of the wing area is included in the top plane has rendered it necessary to get the thrust line placed higher than it is in the standard machine. This is accomplished by placing the Napier engine on the top of the nose of the fuselage, the radiator being placed below the engine, across the nose. Judging from the speed of the machine this arrangement seems to have been successful ae regards performance, although the uncovered engine and the flat nose cannot be said to have improved the appearance. The whole thing gave the impression of a compromise, hurriedly carried out, having for its object the obtainment of speed by piling on power and cutting down wing surface. In so far as winning the race is concerned, this object was attained, but the machine should be looked upon from that point of view only.

No. 8. - The Airco (de H.) 4, 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle
  This machine, piloted by Mr. M. D. Manton, is a standard Airco (de H.) 4, with the passenger's seat covered in so as to reduce resistance. In its time this type was one of the most successful two-seater fighters of the War. It has been fully described in FLIGHT, and for particulars of it we would refer our readers to the Airco "Milestones" series in our issue of January 9, 1919, and to a detailed description published on June 20, 1918. In one form and another this type has already done much commercial work since the signing of the Armistice; as, for instance, the Airco 4A (with enclosed cabin for the passenger) which has been regularly employed in carrying Peace Delegates to and from Paris. A later edition, the Airco 16, is very similar to the 4A, but carries four passengers.
The D.H.4. - A two-seater tractor, fitted with B.H.P. or Rolls-Royce engines. The pilot sits between the planes, whereas the gunner is placed far back in the body.
Fig. 17. - Artillery machine. De Havilland 4; Eagle VIII.
Two views of No. 7, the Airco 4R, 450 h.p. Napier Lion, flown by Capt. G. Gather good. This machine was the winner of the Aerial Derby.
THE AERIAL DERBY. - The winner, Capt. G. Gathergood, A.F.C., on Airco 4 R, 450 Napier Lion engine, crossing the finishing line.
THE AERIAL DERBY. - The competitors lined up at the starting line ready for the race.
A D.H. 4, one of those constructed by Palladium Autocars, Ltd., of Putney, en route for delivery. Certain of these D.H. 4's by the Palladium Co. are being used in the Peace Conference journeys between Paris and London for conveying Ministers and despatches.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 5

The pusher scouts having become obsolete, partly on account of the relatively poor performance of this type of machine, and also by reason of the adoption of the synchronised machine-gun, Capt. de Havilland set to work to produce a tractor scout in which he aimed, not only at drawing full advantage of the better performance inherent to the type, but also at providing, to as great an extent as possible, the same good view in a forward and upward direction as that enjoyed in the pusher scout. The outcome of these efforts was the D.H. 5, in which the chief characteristic was the negative stagger. This feature lent a curious appearance to the machine, and when she first appeared there were those who were inclined to regard her as a freak. It was not very long, however, before flying tests demonstrated that her performance was very good for her power, and from the reports of pilots who had flown her it appeared that she was not unduly difficult to handle. That she had her own little idiosyncracies which had to be learned and humoured may be admitted, every machine has, but after pilots got into her ways she soon became popular, and during 1917 she was used in great numbers and with good success. Although fitted with a slightly more powerful engine than was the pusher scout - a 110 Le Rhone against a 100 Gnome monosoupape - it is interesting to compare the performance of the two types. The ground speed of D.H. 2 was about 93 m.p.h., while D.H. 5 does 105 m.p.h. at 6,500 ft. The climb to 10,000 ft. was accomplished by the pusher in 18min. 30 sec, while the tractor does it in 12 min. 4 sec. It would, therefore, appear that the advantage of the tractor is greater in the case of speed than as regards climb. In our issue of October 24th, 1918, we published a detailed illustrated description of the D.H. 5 which, in conjunction with the data of this article, forms a very complete exposition of the general construction of this machine. One of the features of the body design which is out of the usual run of bodies is the manner in which the rectangular section fuselage is faired. In section it is an irregular octagon, while in side view the corners of this octagonal section forms straight lines.
THE BALLOON STRAFER: A D.H. 5 at work.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 6

Towards the end of 1917 the question of training pilots became pressing, and the need for a machine designed especially for school work became apparent. To meet this demand the D.H. 6 was designed. The objects kept in view in designing her were: Simplicity, and therefore ease of manufacture, maintenance and repair, interchangeability of parts, low landing and stalling speeds. Hence the straight tips and control surfaces. The flat, and nearly vertical, nose of the fuselage might be thought to offer unnecessary resistance. It should be remembered, however, that this is a school machine, and we believe we are correct in saying that this detrimental surface was intended to assist in safeguarding the machine against being dived at too high a speed by inexperienced pupils. For the same reason plain cables are used in the wing bracing. An ingenious quick-release dual system of control is fitted, by means of which the instructor can cut out the pupil completely by the movement of a single lever, and it should be particularly noted that this quick-release includes not only aileron and elevator, but also rudder control. A remarkable feature of the D.H. 6 is the low speed at which it can be flown. The standard machine has a maximum speed of 75 m.p.h., and lands at about 30 m.p.h., while it may be actually flown at speeds below 30 m.p.h. The standard model is intentionally made slightly unstable for purposes of teaching, but a few slight modifications will turn it into a stable machine. Furthermore, by fitting streamline wires instead of the wing bracing cables, and by cowling-in the engine the maximum speed can be increased to 90 m.p.h. In this form the machine should be very well suited to pleasure flying, especially as it was primarily designed for cheapness of manufacture.
The D.H. 6. - A school machine, two-seater, dual controls. Has a very low minimum speed, (about 30 m.p.h.), and is not easily stalled. The head resistance is purposely kept high, but by using stream-line wing bracing wires and by cowling in the engine, the speed can be raised to 90 m.p.h., when the machine should be very useful as a moderate priced pleasure plane.
THE CROSS-COUNTRY HANDICAP AT HENDON AERODROME ON WHIT-MONDAY: The five starters lined up for the race, at the other side of the aerodrome
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Line-up of the machines before Saturday's race of the day
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Start on Saturday of the first heat. Capt. Gathergood first away on an Airco, followed by Lieut. Park on an Avro, Capt. Robertson (Avro) and the winner of the final, Capt. Chamberlayne, on a G.W. Bantam.
Capt. Gathergood on a D.H.6 crossing the line in front of the enclosures in the cross-country handicap at Hendon on Monday. He was, however, disqualified, having passed the wrong side of one of the route flags when starting. Note the Pylone, erected for the first time since the War
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: First heat on Saturday as seen from No. 1 Pylon. High up in the air, Capt. Chamberlayne (final winner), below Capt. Gathergood (21), first in the heat, followed by Lieut. Park (4)
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos.1 to 6 inclusive.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 9

  The experience gained with the D.H. 4's demonstrated that placing the pilot in between the planes did not tend to give him an ideal position for fighting, and also when bombs had to be carried little space was left in the part of the machine where they could be most suitably placed, i.e., in the neighbourhood of the c.g. These drawbacks were remedied in the D.H 9, by rearranging the pilot's seat considerably farther aft than it was placed in the D.H. 4, and, of course, readjusting the position of other weights in relation to the wings so as to maintain the longitudinal trim of the machine. The fitting of a vertical engine instead of a Vee enabled the designer to narrow down the front portion of the fuselage considerably, which resulted in a fuselage of beautifully clean lines and with, it may be assumed, a comparatively low resistance. One of the features which has helped to give this machine its clean appearance is the placing of the radiator, not in the nose as in the D.H. 4, but in the floor of the body. In the photograph a portion of the radiator may be seen projecting beyond the bottom of the fuselage. An ingenious feature of this radiator mounting is that the radiator can be moved up or down, thus varying the cooling to any desired extent by blanketing a larger or smaller portion of the cooling surface. For sheer graceful appearance nothing has, in our opinion, ever left the drawing-board of the Airco.'s distinguished designer, which has equaled the D.H. 9. With the exception of the front portion of the fuselage the main units of the D.H. 9 axe similar to those of the D.H. 4. The machine has been extensively used for fighting, reconnaissance, photography, etc., and also by the Independent Air Force for long-distance bombing by day and by night. It was the D.H. 9 which was largely used for the day bombing raids on German towns.
  In connection with the D.H. 9 it is of interest to note that one of these machines fitted with a 420 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine did a speed of 140 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft., which altitude it reached in the extraordinarily short time of 8 min. 10 sec. The same machine furthermore had a ceiling of 29,000 ft., although with a load slightly lighter than the standard.


Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 9. - The Airco (de H.) 9, 230 h.p. Siddeley Puma
  Except for the fact that an extra seat has been fitted for passenger work since the War, the Airco 9, flown by Capt. H. J. Saint, is the standard Airco 9. It is a very pretty machine, and has a good performance for its power. Owing to the fact that a vertical engine is fitted, it has been possible to keep the nose of the fuselage very narrow and pointed, which gives the machine a very graceful appearance. The radiator protrudes through the covering of the bottom of the body, and it can be raised or lowered to vary cooling. With the new seating arrangement the pilot occupies the middle seat, the passengers sitting in front and behind him respectively. As all the seats are placed well back, a very good view is obtained, which is a great advantage for a machine used for passenger carrying.
THE BRITAIN BELGIUM AERIAL GOODS SERVICE. - Conveying Woollen and Cotton Goods and Foodstuff to our Ally's country, at the request of the Belgian Government. This service has been undertaken by Aircraft Transport and Travel, Ltd. - one of Mr. Holt Thomas' very live companies - with the approval of the Government. A squadron of service D.H. machines with R.A.F. pilots left Hawkinge aerodrome for the Belgian aerodrome outside Ghent, carrying nearly two tons of goods, urgently needed by the Belgian people, but obtainable only at prohibitive prices. It is intended that these first Aerial Goods Services, conducted at an average speed of 100 miles an hour, shall be extended to Anthwerp and Brussels as well as Ghent. Our photograph shows the machines ready to start. The aeroplane nearest the camera is seen loaded with stores.
THE KING AND QUEEN OF BELGIUM'S VISIT TO COLOGNE BY AEROPLANE. - The Queen chatting with her pilot at the Bickendorf Aerodrome, Cologne, on April 28, before leaving. Facing the camera is General Sir W. Robertson, G.C.B., etc.
THE KING AND QUEEN OF BELGIUM'S VISIT TO COLOGNE BY AEROPLANE. - The Queen is entering the machine at the Cologne Aerodrome, and the King is seen on the left in flying rig
Fig. 31. - Day bomber. De Havilland 9.
No. 9. - The Airco 9 , 230 h.p. Siddeley Puma, flown by Capt. H. J . Saint.
HENDON FROM ABOVE. - A view of the sheds and enclosures snapped by our photographer from an Airco (de H. 9) machine, the wings of which can be seen in the foreground. Note the machines on the ground in readiness for "flipping."
The Pilot's and the Observer's cockpits on the D.H.9 machine with which on January 3 an altitude record of 30,500 ft. was put up at Martlesham by Capt. Lang, R.A.F., as pilot and Lieut. Blowes as observer, both of whom are inset. At the nose of the machine is seen the Napier "Lion" engine which enabled the height to be attained, whilst the many gauges and instruments installed on the pilot's dash and in the observer's cockpit form in themselves a useful study for the uninitiated.
"THE FOOD-CARRIERS." - Three D.H. 9's with Siddeley "Puma" engines returning from a trip to Belgium.
Landing Across Wind.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos. 9 and 10. The plan view of D.H. 10A is the same as that of the Liberty-engined D.H. 10.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 10 and 10a

  The object in designing this machine was to produce a high performance, sell-defending, long-distance daylight bomber. The armistice came along before the D.H. 10's were built in great numbers, and so this type has not had the opportunity of proving itself to the same extent on active service as have the other types of D.H.'s. Judging from its performance, however, it is safe to say that it would have proved a formidable antagonist. It will be seen from the table that when carrying three men, 1,000 lbs. of bombs, full military equipment, and sufficient fuel for a flight of 700 miles, the performance is so extraordinarily good as to be superior to any German machine of any type whatsoever. The machine would, therefore, be able to go out over the lines with its tanks full for a long journey and with a heavy load of bombs, and yet be entirely immune from enemy attack by aeroplanes. This may be regarded as an achievement to be proud of in a daylight bomber. The manoeuvrability of the D.H. 10A is as good as is its performance, and one of these machines has been looped by the late Capt. B. C. Hucks.
  It should be pointed out that whereas the drawings show the earlier type - the D.H. 10 - the photograph illustrates the D.H. 10A. Practically the only difference, however, is that in the 10 the engines are mounted some distance above the bottom plane, whereas in the 10A they rest direct on the lower plane. Other minor differences will be apparent from the illustrations.
  As a post-War machine the D.H. 10A should be capable, with little alteration, of being turned into a very fine machine for the carriage of mails and passengers. For the latter purpose it might be found advisable to increase the width of the body so as to give more room for passengers. This brings the list of Airco. machines up to date, but we feel sure that it will not be long before Capt. de Havilland furnishes proof of his ability as a designer of machines destined for peaceful pursuits, and that these will be found as efficient in their own sphere as were his war planes.
Fig. 33. - Day bomber. De Havilland 10a.
5. Capt. Gathergood, on a D.H. 10, sets out for Glasgow.
A batch of R.E. 8's in the works of the Siddeley-Deasy Motor Car Co., Ltd., where large numbers of these machines have been built in addition to quantities of the B.H.P. type aero engines, known as "Siddeley-Puma." In the alleyway on the right is the partially completed fuselage of a D.H.10A.
Fig. 9. - Three-ply covered fuselage. De Havilland 10.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos. 9 and 10. The plan view of D.H. 10A is the same as that of the Liberty-engined D.H. 10.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 9a

  With the insistent demand for better and still better performance the necessity of fitting engines of greater power became urgent, and the D.H. 9A was produced to meet these demands. Except for the front portion of the body it was not greatly different from the D.H. 9. It has, however, a somewhat larger area, so as to obtain the same landing speed for the heavier weight. The object had in mind when designing the D.H. 9A was to provide an improvement on the 9, namely to carry a greater load while maintaining a high performance. Apart from being extremely useful for long-distance reconnaissance, photography and fighting, this machine has been largely used for long-distance day bombing raids. The accompanying table will give a good idea of the manner in which the designer succeeded in attaining his purpose, and it is of interest to mention the following facts in addition: By increasing the military load from 545 lbs. to 945 lbs. the speed at low altitudes is reduced to 125 m.p.h., and at 10,000 ft. to 114 1/2 m.p.h. The climb to 10,000 ft. with this load occupies 15.05 min. and the ceiling is 19,000 ft. The range is reduced to 620 miles. (The reduction in speed is largely due to the fact that the extra load in bombs is carried outside.) By way of showing the weight-carrying capacity of this machine it is of interest to note that it has flown successfully with a military load of 1325 lbs.
  A machine of this type has also been fitted with a 360 h.p. Rolls-Royce engine, and, carrying a military load of 1,745 lbs., reached a ceiling of 16.500 ft. with a speed of 107 1/2 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft. This machine differed from the standard 9A in that its petrol tankage was only 71 gallons, having a larger margin for load. It should also be noted that the above speed was reduced by about 4 m.p.h. owing to the bombs and carriers being put outside.
Fig. 32. - Day bomber. De Havilland 9a.
THE AIRCO 4R: This machine, fitted with a 450 h.p. Napier Lion engine, is a development of the machine on which Capt. Gathergood won the Aerial Derby, which flight is officially declared a British Speed Record for a flight in a closed circuit. On this machine Capt. Gathergood, who is shown in the photograph, flew to Amsterdam in 2 hours 10 mins., which is, we believe, the fastest time for this journey. While at Amsterdam Capt. Gathergood won a race in a closed circuit, his speed working out at 145 m.p.h. The Napier Lion is rapidly building up for itself an excellent reputation, having established these fast times. It also has the distinction of having been up to an altitude of nearly six miles in an Airco (De Havilland) machine, as well as a non-stop flight from London to Madrid in 7 3/4 hours.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos. 9 and 10. The plan view of D.H. 10A is the same as that of the Liberty-engined D.H. 10.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING CO. (AIRCO),
  owing to lack of space, has not been able to show a complete machine, but this is to a great extent made up for by the astounding variety of exhibits displayed on this stand. The centre of attraction is formed by an Airco (D.H.) 16, which is minus its wings but otherwise complete. It is fitted with a Rolls-Royce engine which has seen a great amount of active service, although the casual onlooker would scarcely guess it, as the engine has been cleaned up and painted until it looks like new. The whole machine is very highly finished, what with polished aluminium, glossy enamel and plated fittings and exhaust pipes. The luxuriously finished cabin has seating accommodation for four passengers, the seats being arranged in pairs, of which the seats of each are facing, and staggered in relation to, one another. This feature of the Airco 16 was shown in a photograph published in FLIGHT recently. For communication with the pilot there is a small door in the front wall of the cabin, through which the foremost passenger can give his orders to the pilot. For flying at night the machine is provided with a generator which furnishes current for the navigation lights as well as for the bulbs illuminating the cabin.
  In addition to the Airco (D.H.) 16, there is shown on this stand a number of Airco metal fittings and other parts, and the rear portion of a. fuselage, showing the detail construction. A Napier "Lion" attracts a great deal of attention, as the "broad arrow" type of aero engine evidently is not a familiar sight in Holland.
  Another exhibit on the Airco stand which is greatly appreciated is a large glass case containing an excellent model of the Hendon Aerodrome, and a number of small-scale models of Airco machines and of a kite balloon. There is even a neat little scale model of a Hucks starter. A number of large coloured photographs of Airco machines completes the exhibits of this firm. On the aerodrome, however, there are two Airco machines, a 4A flown over by Capt. Saint and a 9 brought across by Mr. Lawford.


Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE LONDON-PARIS AIR SERVICE

  MONDAY last saw the inauguration of the daily air service between London and Paris organised by Messrs. Aircraft Transport and Travel, Ltd. Two Airco machines set out from this side and one machine from Paris.
  An Airco 4 machine, fitted with Rolls-Royce engine, left Hounslow at 9.10 a.m.; it was piloted by Lieut. E. H. Lawford, and carried Mr. G. M. Stevenson-Reece, of the Ereuing Standavd, as well as a full load, including a number of daily newspapers, a consignment of leather from a London firm to a firm in Paris, several brace of grouse, and a considerable number of jars of Devonshire cream. It arrived at Le Bourget, the Paris terminus, at 11.40.
  At 12.30 p.m. an Airco 16, fitted with Rolls-Royce engine, left Hounslow for the regular journey to Paris, the landing being made at 2.45 p.m. Major Cyril Patteson was the pilot, and four passengers were carried.
  One machine - an Airco 4A - left Paris at 12.40 p.m., and, piloted by Lieut. J. McMullin, with Lieut. Lawford and Mr. V. M. Console of the Daily Mail as passengers, it arrived at Hounslow at 2.45 p.m.
  Although the Handley Page service does not start its regular running until Monday next, a preliminary trip was made last Monday. The machine used was of the twin-engined type and the pilot was Maj. Foot, while the 14 passengers included Mr. L. A. Northend, of The Times; Maj. C. C. Turner, Daily Telegraph; Mr. E. A. Perris, of the Daily Chronicle; Mr. Harold Begbie, Daily Chronicle; Mr. Tourtell, Daily Express; Mr. Bartholomew, Daily Mirror; and Mr. Crosfield, Daily News.
  The machine started from Cricklewood at 8.20 a.m., called at Hounslow for Customs formalities, was away at 9.20 a.m., and landed at Le Bourget at 1.15 p.m. Owing to difficulty in obtaining petrol the return journey was postponed to the following day.


Flight, October 2, 1919.

THE "ARRIVAL" OF THE REGULAR AIR SERVICE

The D.H. (Airco) 16
  is a development of the original D.H. 9A. This machine also is fitted with a Rolls-Royce "Eagle," but is of considerably greater area and carries four passengers in addition to the pilot. One of these machines was exhibited at the E.L.T.A. show at Amsterdam, when we referred to it briefly. As in the Airco 4A the pilot sits between the planes, which are, however, staggered and project, in the case of the lower one, some little distance along the sides of the cabin. In this, which is formed similarly to that of 4A, are housed four passengers. The seats are slightly staggered in relation to each other, the first passenger facing aft, the second forward, the third aft, and the fourth forward. The weight of this machine is approximately 3,000 lbs. empty but including water, while with full load of pilot, 4 passengers, and fuel for about 3 hours, the total weight is about 4,400 lbs., or 10 lbs. per sq. ft.
  In addition to the 4A and 16, a certain number of D.H.9's are also used. These are of the open type, and in the main differ from the original D.H.9 in that three seats are fitted instead of two. The engines fitted are Siddeley "Pumas."


Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (Airco)

  The main exhibit on this firm's stand will be the new Airco (D.H.) 16. Machines of similar type are, of course, already familiar from extensive use on the London-Paris air route, but the show machine will differ in several respects from the standard type. The chief alteration will be found in the engine unit, which, in the show machine, will be a 450 h.p. Napier Lion instead of the Rolls-Royce with which the standard machine has been doing such excellent work. The fitting of the Lion has necessitated a slight alteration to the nose of the machine, as the new engine is of the "broad arrow" type instead of the usual Vee. The result is a slightly shorter and somewhat differently shaped nose, as shown in the accompanying silhouette. The radiator is no longer fitted in the nose of the fuselage, but is placed some distance back, and protrudes through the floor of the body, much in the same manner as that of the Airco 9R on which Capt. Gathergood recently established a series of British records. The employment of the higher-powered engine has naturally resulted in a considerably increased performance. The machine is to be shown in full "show finish," with white body, polished aluminium cowl and nickel-plated exhaust pipes, black undercarriage struts and tail skid, and cream wings and tail surfaces.
  The cabin, as in the standard Airco 16, is designed to accommodate four passengers, two facing forward and two facing aft. It is most luxuriously finished, and will give visitors an excellent idea of air travel de luxe.
  In addition to the complete Airco 16, there will be shown on this stand a series of coloured photographs, similar to those shown at the E.L.T.A. exhibition at Amsterdam, which were greatly appreciated, as well as an entirely new series taken on the London Paris air service route. A small section of the stand will be devoted to aerial photography, a new branch of the varied interests of this firm. Not the least interesting exhibition this stand will be a small scale-model of Hendon aerodrome, with the Airco works in the background, machines of different types standing about on the aerodrome, and one having its engine started by the Hucks starter.
  On this stand Messrs. Airships, Ltd., will also exhibit, among other items, the aeroplane flotation gear upon which this company is specialising, as well as a model of one of their small non-rigid airships, or "aerial yachts."
SOME MORE BRITISH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 1. The Airco 16. This machine is shown on the Airco stand minus its wings
SIDE VIEW OF THE NEW AIRCO (DE HAVILLAND) PASSENGER CARRIER. - As the illustration shows, there is seating accommodation in the cabin for four passengers. The engine is a 350 h.p. Rolls-Royce, and with full complement of passengers the machine has a speed of 126 m.p.h. Mr. M. D. Manton is seen in the pilot's seat
THE AIRCO 16: This photograph shows the cabin of the standard machine which has been used extensively on the London-Paris air service. The Show machine is similar, except for the engine, which is a 450 h.p. Napier Lion
THE LONDON-PARIS AIR SERVICE: Start of the service for Paris from Hounslow Aerodrome on August 25. The Airco machine embarking its passengers, and on the right the first Airco machine just leaving for the journey. Below Gen. F H. Sykes and Gen. Festing, who were present at the inauguration of the service.
THE LONDON-PARIS AIR SERVICE: (1) A de H. (Airco) 16 arrives from Paris, carrying, among others, Miss Edie Thomas, the American concert singer. (2) Lieut. H. Shaw descending from his Airco 16 after piloting a load of passengers safely across from Paris. (3) One of the Airco 16 machines used on the London-Paris service.
A French lady designer of one of the greatest London emporiums goes a flipping at Hendon in a D.H. enclosed machine, no doubt with designs on designs aviatic.
THE AIRCO (DE H.) 16. - On the left a lady passenger is seen, on the side ladder, entering the cabin, and, on the right, a view looking into the cabin, showing how the four seats are arranged
THE D.H. (AIRCO) 16 MACHINES USED ON THE LONDON-PARIS ROUTE: Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
The Airco (D.H.) 16, 450 h.p. Napier Lion
Flight, January 23, 1919.

THE ENCLOSED D.H. 4

  IN our issue of April 19, 1917, we commenced a series of articles describing the "Totally-Enclosed" aeroplanes that had been built up to that time. We then pointed out that when the problems of peace flying have to be tackled, there is every probability that the occupants of an aeroplane will be comfortably seated inside a cabin, out of the rush of air. This appears now to have come about, as instanced by the Airco or D.H. 4 biplane, which has been converted into a comfortable touring machine, seating two passengers inside a cabin provided with windows. These machines are intended to take Peace Delegates and their secretaries to and from Paris. The simple manner in which this conversion into an enclosed machine has been carried out will be clear from the photographs.


Flight, October 2, 1919.

THE "ARRIVAL" OF THE REGULAR AIR SERVICE

The de H. (Airco) 4A
  has been altered for passenger-carrying by doing away with the stagger, and by raising the deck of the fuselage to form a roof over the cabin. The pilot occupies his original position between the planes, while the cabin is well aft, clear of the trailing edge of the wings. The two passengers face one another, the front one facing aft. Entrance to the cabin is obtained through the roof, which is hinged to fold back, and a short ladder of tubing leads up to the cabin. The engine is a Rolls-Royce "Eagle," mounted behind a nose radiator. As fitted up for the London-Paris service, the D.H.4A has a weight of 2,600 lbs. empty but including water, and with pilot, two passengers, and fuel for a 3-hours' flight, the weight "all up" is about 3,720 lbs. This gives a loading of about 8.6 lbs. per sq. ft., so that the machine does not land at an unusually high speed, although the loading is by no means light. However, at the end of the journey the fuel will have been used up and the loading be somewhat heavier.
The D.H.4 ENCLOSED MACHINE CLIMBING. - The manner in which the two passengers are seated facing one another is clearly seen in this photograph.
SOME MORE BRITISH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 2. The Airco 4A
MAJ. STUART-WORTLEY'S D.H 4a AT INTERLAKEN, SWITZERLAND: Maj. Stuart-Wortley took this machine over with a view to giving demonstration flights
Hounslow - Switzerland: Mr. Stewart Wortley, who is the Swiss representative of Aircraft Transport and Travel, Ltd., about to leave for Switzerland.
The New Mode of Travel. - Three Generals flew over to Hendon on Saturday from Stonehenge in a converted de H. 4, piloted by Mr. M. D. Manton of the Aircraft Manufacturing Co.
THE LONDON-PARIS AIR SERVICE: (1) Mr. M. D. Manton discussing matters with Capt. Baylis as the latter is leaving for Paris on a de H. (Airco) 4A. (2) Lieut. Eric Lawford has just arrived with the mail from Paris in a de H. (Airco) 4A. (3) The Airco 4A just before leaving for Paris.
FIRST INTERNATIONAL AERIAL MAIL: This week marks a milestone in aviation, inasmuch as the commencement ot official international mail-carrying was inaugurated. Our photographs show the Paris mails being loaded into an Airco 4A, and the Government pennant, bearing the legend, "Royal Mail," being fixed to the rudder of the machine
THE D.H. (AIRCO) 4A MACHINES USED ON THE LONDON-PARIS ROUTE: Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
Flight, April 10, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE

THE preparations for the great race to be first to cross the Atlantic by air are progressing apace. By way of summary, the Sopwith machine, to be piloted by Mr. H. Hawker, who will have with him as navigator and assistant pilot Capt. Grieve, is already at the starting point in Newfoundland, and is only awaiting favourable weather conditions before making a start. The Martinsyde biplane, with its pilot, Mr. F. P. Raynham, and his navigator, Capt. Morgan, is on its way across, and may, by the time these lines appear in print, have arrived at St. John's. The Fairey machine, up till now the only seaplane entered from this side, is rapidly nearing completion, being, in fact, a standard Fairey 3C type especially adapted for the race. The pilot, as already announced, will be Mr. Sydney Pickles, so well knows to all readers of FLIGHT. The name of the navigator who will accompany him has not yet been disclosed, but will, we understand, be announced shortly. The Short machine entered, and which will be piloted by Major Wood, who will have with him as navigator Capt. Wyllie, has the distinction of being the only entrant which, so far, it is proposed to start from this side, the starting point chosen being Bawnmore, near Limerick, in Ireland. This machine, which has been undergoing severe tests during the last couple of weeks, is to be flown first to Ireland, whence the final start will be made.
As to the probability of one or all of the competitors succeeding in getting across, there is of course, a certain element of luck involved, but arrangements, as announced elsewhere, are being made., by the Air Ministry and Admiralty, to take all possible precautions, and to ensure that, even in cases of engine failure, the occupants should have a very good chance of being picked up by passing vessels.

THE MACHINES

As interest centres more and more in this race, a few words dealing with the British machines entered will, we feel sure be welcomed by readers of FLIGHT.

<...>

The Fairey Machine

As already pointed out, the machine entered by the Fairey Aviation Co. has the distinction of being the only seaplane entered. It is of more or less standard type, resembling the well-known type 3C Fairey seaplane. The most remarkable feature of this machine is, of course, the variable camber wings fitted. This forms a Fairey patent, and has been used with good results on machines employed by the Navy. Briefly speaking, the variable camber is obtained by having the entire trailing edge of the planes hinged along the rear spars in such a manner that the pilot can, by turning a wheel, pull down the whole trailing edge to give greater lift, and again raise it to provide less resistance and hence greater speed. In the ordinary way the chief aim of this variable camber is to provide a low speed on alighting and getting off, but for the Atlantic flight it will also be found useful in providing greater lift while the machine is heavily loaded, allowing of gradually flattening out the wing section as the load becomes less owing to the fuel being consumed. In this manner the first part of the flight will probably be made at a slower speed than that obtained towards the finish of the journey. The engine is, as in two of the other machines entered, a Rolls-Royce "Eagle" of 375 h.p., and the speed of the machine is stated to be about 120 m.p.h. This figure probably refers to the speed with the trailing edge in line with the rest of the wing section. With the trailing edge pulled down the speed will be considerably lower.
Flight, September 4, 1919.

THE JACQUES SCHNEIDER CUP RACE

The Machines

The Fairey Seaplane

  Concerning the seaplane entered by the Fairey Aviation Co. little information is at present available. The machine, as shown in the accompanying photograph, has a strong family resemblance to previous Fairey machines, particularly to the type 3. As, however, the Schneider race is chiefly a speed contest, the wing surface has been reduced, while a higher-powered engine - a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" - has been fitted.
  The race is of such a comparatively short duration that the amount of fuel to be carried is very much smaller than the standard load of the type 3, and consequently the wing loading will probably not work out very much heavier than the standard. The main feature of this, as of previous Fairey seaplanes, is the variable camber wings.
  The manner in which the camber is varied during flight is very simple and effective, and constitutes, we believe, a Fairey patent. The whole trailing portion of the wings hinges to the rear spar after the fashion of the usual aileron. It is divided some distance out, and the outer portion constitutes the aileron and works independently of the position of the inner portion, which is operated by a wheel in the pilot's cockpit.
  For quick taking-off and for alighting, the trailing portion is pulled down so as to form an angle with the fixed part of the wing, thus virtually increasing the camber; the curve formed is not, of course, a smooth one, but has a marked break in it. For speed work the hinged trailing portion is pulled up to, or above, the line of the actual wing section, thus giving if desired a reflex curvature to the trailing portion of the section. The speed variation obtainable in this manner is very considerable, and results in a reasonably low landing speed, even with a high loading per square foot.
  The undercarriage of the Fairey seaplane is of very strong construction, and if the day of the race happens to be a very rough one, the Fairey machine may be able to negotiate a sea which would prove difficult to smaller and more lightly-built machines.
THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE. - The Fairey seaplane is similar in general design to the F 3. It is fitted with a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine.
SCHNEIDER CUP: Starting up. The Fairey seaplane is here seen just before getting away from the beach.
THE START FOR THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: 1. The Fairey seaplane getting away.
THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE. - Up to the present the Fairey - Rolls-Royce machine is the only seaplane entered in this country. This photograph shows the standard Fairey 3 C type. The machine to be used for the Transatlantic attempt is very similar in general appearance, although differing in various details. The insets show the machine in flight and Mr. Sidney Pickles, the pilot. Capt. A. G. D. West, R.A.F., has been selected as the navigator.
Fig. 8. - Braced N-girder fuselage. Fairey.
Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

THE GOSPORT AIRCRAFT CO.
  At the time of writing, the exhibits on this firm's stand consist chiefly of large panels giving particulars of the various types of Gosport flying boats. As these particulars were published in our issue of July 31, 1919, there is no need to repeat them here. One of the Gosport flying boats arrived by air on August 8, and was anchored in the Ij, close to the exhibition, where it was in the company of a large British Royal Air Force flying boat, also, we believe, built by the Gosport firm, although technically belonging to the Air Force. During Saturday and Sunday the small Gosport boat made flights over the river and harbours, to the great enjoyment of the Amsterdammers, who look with interest on any craft connected with water transport, and especially so when such craft combines water and air transport. The little Gosport flying boat gets off very well on the smooth waters of the Ij, and this firm, as being the only one to have a flying boat in commission at present, should do very good business in Amsterdam. During last week this boat was brought up to the show and placed on the Gosport stand.
The U.S. Naval Seaplane N.C. 4 arrives at Plymouth, completing the crossing of the Atlantic by the air. The N.C. 4 is to the left in Plymouth Harbour, and taxying is British Seaplane N 4499, flying the British and American flags, on its way to greet the voyagers.
OFF TO LOOK FOR FRITZ. - A British Flying Boat taxying along the surface.
A GOSPORT-BUILT FLYING BOAT OF THE F TYPE: This machine, which still belongs to the R.A.F., flew across from England, and is now anchored in the IJ.
THE BUSINESS END OF A FLYING BOAT. - The gun ring and BOMB sight may be clearly seen in the nose of the boat.
Manhandling the Ganymede C3481 at Hendon early in 1919. The photo emphasises the size of the exhaust stacks above the engines, and also shows well the unusual configuration of the tail unit.
THE GRAHAME-WHITE DAY BOMBER "GANYMEDE." - This machine is fitted with three Sunbeam "Maori" engines of 270 h.p. each. Near the ground the speed is 105 m.p.h., and at 10,000 ft. 93 m.p.h. The landing speed is about 52 m .p.h. The total weight of the machine loaded is 16,000 lbs., and she has an endurance of nine hours at 10,000 ft. The photograph shows the machine being wheeled out in readiness for a flight.
THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF IT. - The Grahame-White "Bantam" standing under the wing of the G.W. bomber "Ganymede."
Three-quarter rear view of the Grahame-White day bomber "Ganymede."
Flight, September 11, 1919.

THE GRAHAME-WHITE "AERO-LIMOUSINE"

  WHAT may be described as the first item on the post-War programme of the Grahame-White Co. has made its appearance, and looks like making a success of the future before it. We refer to the "Aero-Limousine," which has just successfully emerged from its initial trials at Hendon, and which is illustrated and described herewith.
  Although in general design and construction it presents nothing of a startling nature, a close inspection reveals a careful consideration of every detail that makes for efficient and thorough design. The ultimate use to which this machine is to be put has been borne in mind in the design of each detail throughout. It has been the aim of the designer, M. Boudot, to produce in this machine the safety, combined with the comfort, of the passengers, and reliability rather than mere performance, and the question of weight has not been allowed to predominate over strength, utility and comfort.
  The "Aero-Limousine" is a fuselage biplane fitted with two engines, one mounted between the upper and lower planes on each side of the fuselage, driving direct four-bladed tractor screws. The passenger's cabin, which is in the extreme nose of the fuselage, is, so far, the most comfortable and luxuriously fitted one we have seen. It is apparent that the Grahame-White Co.'s experience in motor car body work - which, by the way, has been one of the firm's "side-lines" for some time back - has come in useful. The whole cabin, in fact, is exactly similar to a first-class motor-car body, even to the outside finish. In this first model provision is made for four passengers, seated in pairs tandem fashion, the left-hand front seat being hinged so as to swing back and give access to the front seats. In future models, however, it is proposed to lengthen the cabin and provide two additional tip-up seats giving a seating accommodation for six passengers on the lines indicated by one of the accompanying drawings. The whole of the interior of the cabin is upholstered in a neat grey Bedford cord, whilst large Triplex windows, extending completely round the sides and front of the cabin, give plenty of light and afford an excellent view in every direction. A large door on the port side of the cabin - well clear of the tractor screw - and a strong foot-step allow of easy access. There is an adjustable ventilator in the nose of the cabin, and two air-outlets in the rear of the roof for ventilation, whilst the temperature can be regulated by means of an electrically heated carpet. Communication can be made with the pilot by means of a speaking tube, and an air speed indicator and altimeter are fitted in front of the cabin.
  The pilot's cockpit is situated at the rear of and immediately above the cabin. It is exceptionally roomy and comfortable, and ample protection is provided by means of a sort of conning tower. The view, too, from the pilot's cockpit is quite good. All the instruments are neatly disposed around the cockpit, and the engine and petrol controls are located on the right and left-hand sides respectively. The engine switches, which can be operated either separately or simultaneously, are mounted slightly forward on the left-hand side of the pilot.
  The control is of the wheel and rudder bar type, the arrangement of the rudder bar being most noteworthy. In this the bar is mounted below the cockpit floor, in which are cut two slots having their edges reinforced on the top by steel plates. Working in these slots, and sliding on the plates, are the foot pedals, which are connected to the rudder bar by a spindle extending below each and working in a slot in the rudder bar. The rudder bar is of wood reinforced by steel plates with lightening holes. On the left of the pilot's seat is a hand-wheel operating the tail plane incidence gear, which is of the usual nut and worm type.
  In construction the fuselage follows more or less standard practice, the rear portion aft of the cabin being of wire-braced girder construction with square section longerons and channel-section struts, the last bay being braced laterally by three-ply. The fore portion of the fuselage is built up on hoop-formers of ash reinforced with three-ply, thus giving a "straight-through" construction with no wire cross-bracing. Where the formers are exposed to view inside the cabin, they are covered with a thin veneer of mahogany, which, when polished, gives a neat finish to the decoration of the cabin. The outer covering is three-ply and fabric for the cabin, and doped fabric for the rear portion. The fabric covering is "laced" on the under side by means of a novel quick-fastening arrangement sometimes used for fastening raincoats, overalls, dresses, etc., an arrangement that can only be described as consisting of a length of "tape" which on being pulled along the edges of the covering - to which it is connected - joins the latter together.
  The main planes are of standard construction, and are built up in seven sections, comprising a centre section of about 20 ft. span and two outer sections for the top plane, and a similar arrangement for the lower plane, except that the centre section is divided into two by the fuselage. The outer sections are hinged at the roots of the rear spars so as to fold back, thus facilitating housing, the overall width folded being 28 ft. The tubular compression members are all of the same diameter, but vary in gauge according to the stresses imposed. The same fittings are thus employed in each case. Both upper and lower outer sections are given a dihedral angle of 4 degrees, but have neither stagger nor sweepback. The interplane struts are steel tubes with built-up wood fairings giving a deep streamline shape. External bracing is by cable, streamlined by wood fairings. Unbalanced ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower planes.
  The tail plane, which is rectangular in plan form, is of symmetrical streamline section, and, as previously mentioned, its angle of incidence can be varied during flight. The elevators are unbalanced and divided, whilst the rudder, which is of ample proportions, is balanced. A large vertical fin is mounted above the fuselage. All the tail surfaces are of standard construction, and are braced by cable and steel struts, which are streamlined. The tail skid is very neat and well throughout, as may be seen by one of the accompanying sketches.
  An exceptionally strong and efficient landing chassis is fitted, the general arrangement of which is clearly shown in the illustrations. It consists of two separate units, the main landing gear, and what may be termed an emergency gear. The latter, which comes into action only to prevent the machine from tipping on her nose, and to take the weight of the machine should the main chassis fail, consists of two large wheels rigidly mounted on the fuselage, slightly in advance of the main wheels.
  The two wheels of the main landing gear are situated under the engines, and are connected to the main plane and fuselage by a neat and very effective triangular system of tubular members. The shock-absorbing device is incorporated into the front strut of the vee, and consists of a set of steel springs combined with an oil dashpot.
  The power unit consists of two Rolls-Royce Eagle Mark V engines, of 320 h.p., mounted one on each side of the fuselage between the top and bottom planes. They are carried in strong tubular steel mountings, with the radiators in front. The total horse-power available is well above that required to fly the machine, so that it is possible to fly comfortably at three-quarter throttle, thus considerably increasing the life of the engines, to say nothing of making tor reliability. The engines can be started either by means of a starting handle, mounted on the rear of each engine, or else by way of a magneto-starter from the cockpit.
  It is worthy of note that all the petrol has been stored as far away as possible from the engine and passengers, in order to reduce the risk of fire to a minimum. The main tank is located immediately behind the pilot's cockpit, whilst the gravity tanks are mounted in the centre section of the top plane. The petrol supply is maintained by two windmill pumps mounted in the slipstream of each tractor screw just below the lower plane centre section. There is also an auxiliary pump operated from the cockpit.
  The following is the general specification and performance of the G.-W. "Aero-Limousine" :-

Span 60 ft.
Chord 6 ft. 7 ins.
Gap 6 ft. 5 1/2 ins.
Dihedral 4# top and bottom wings.
Overall length 39 ft.
Overall height 11 ft.
Span with wings folded 28 ft.
Total area, including ailerons 725 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 106 sq. ft.
Area of tail plane (fixed portion) 52 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 32 sq. ft.
Area of fin .. 11.25 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 25 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 21 sq. ft.
Side area of body 162 sq. ft.
Engine, No. and type 2 Rolls-Royce Eagle
   Mark V, 320 h.p.
Tank capacity in gallons 125 galls.
Fuel weight (petrol, oil, water) 1,162 lbs.
Useful load 1,000 lbs.
Weight of machine, empty 5,785 lbs.
" " fully loaded 7,947 lbs.
Surface loading 10.96 lbs. per sq. ft.
Power loading 12.4 lbs. per b.h.p.

  Performance Speed
Maximum speed at ground level. 116 m.p.h.
Maximum speed at 10,000 ft. 105 m.p.h.
Speed at 3/4 throttle 104 m.p.h.
Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
Climb to 5,000 ft., 4 mins.;
   to 10,000 ft., 9,9 mins.
Ceiling, 17,000 ft.
Three-quarter front view of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine."
Three-quarter rear view of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine."
THE GRAHAME-WHITE "AERO-LIMOUSINE": Two views showing, on the left, a general view of the cabin, and on the right, the port engine and mounting.
One side of the landing chassis of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine."
Sketch showing the pilot's "conning-tower" on the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine."
View looking into the cabin of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine,'' showing the rear seat.
THE GRAHAME-WHITE "AERO-LIMOUSINE": An alternative six-seating arrangement for the cabin.
The Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine": Sketch showing the rudder-bar, which is mounted below the cockpit floor and pedals.
The double switch for the two engines on the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine."
General arrangement of the landing chassis of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine." Note the diagonal strutting of the fuselage to take landing stresses.
One of the wing attachment lugs, showing the ash packing, of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine."
Sketch of the tail-skid of the Grahame-White "Aero-Limousine." Note the protecting block beneath the stern-post.
THE GRAHAME-WHITE "AERO-LIMOUSINE": Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 2. - The Grahame-White Bantam, 80 h.p. Le Rhone
  Two of these machines started in the race. Except for the colours in which they were painted, the two machines were alike. No. 2 was piloted by Capt. P. R. T. Chamberlayne, while the other machine, No. 5, was flown by Maj. R. H. Carr. The G.W. Bantam was described in FLIGHT recently, when sketches of constructional details were given. It has a top plane of slightly greater dimensions than the bottom one, the two being separated by one pair of interplane struts on each side. These struts are of N formation, as seen in the side elevation. The machine is very small, in fact it was the smallest machine entered for the Aerial Derby as regards size, although not as regards power. It is very sensitive on the longitudinal controls, and gives the impression that it could do with a larger tail plane, or smaller elevators, or possibly both.

No. 5. - The Grahame-White Bantam, 80 h.p. Le Rhone
  For this machine, see note dealing with No. 2.
THE G.W. "BANTAM." - Three-quarter rear view.
Front view of the G.W. "Bantam."
Rear View of the G.W. "Bantam."
The G.W. "Bantam" in flight, piloted by Capt. Chamberlain.
THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF IT. - The Grahame-White "Bantam" standing under the wing of the G.W. bomber "Ganymede."
THE CROSS-COUNTRY HANDICAP AT HENDON AERODROME ON WHIT-MONDAY: The five starters lined up for the race, at the other side of the aerodrome
THE AERIAL DERBY. - The competitors lined up at the starting line ready for the race.
STARTERS IN HENDON'S AIR RACE ON SATURDAY: Left to right - B.A.T., piloted by Major Draper (winner; Avro, pilot Capt. D. H. Robertson, A.F.C.; Avro, pilot Major R. H. Carr, A.F.C., D.C.M. (second); G.-W. Bantam, pilot Capt. P. R. T. Chamberlayne (third); and Avro, pilot Lieut. G. R. Hicks, D.F.C.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Start on Saturday of the first heat. Capt. Gathergood first away on an Airco, followed by Lieut. Park on an Avro, Capt. Robertson (Avro) and the winner of the final, Capt. Chamberlayne, on a G.W. Bantam.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: First heat on Saturday as seen from No. 1 Pylon. High up in the air, Capt. Chamberlayne (final winner), below Capt. Gathergood (21), first in the heat, followed by Lieut. Park (4)
Capt. Chamberlain, the G.W, pilot of the Grahame-White "Bantam,'' in the cockpit, and standing against the machine, M. #. Boudot, the designer.
A SKETCH OF THE GRAHAME-WHITE "Bantam." - The man standing in front gives a good idea of the small size of this machine.
SOME CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF THE GRAHAME-WHITE SPORTING MODEL. - 1. The spar box and lug for attachment of interplane strut. 2. The wiring plate and socket for tubular compression strut of internal bracing. 2 is secured to 1 by two horizontal bolts. Fig. 3 is an external view of the attachment to the bottom front spar of the interplane struts. The controls are shown in Fig. 4, details of which are indicated in Fig. 5. Fig. 6 shows the fuselage clip. Details of the undercarriage are shown in Figs. 7 and 8.
THE GRAHAME-WHITE "BANTAM." - Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
ENGLAND TO INDIA. - Photograph of the Handley-Page biplane, fitted with two Rolls-Royce engines, which flew from England to India, landing at Delhi on the 12th December, 1918. Its first flight was made from England to Egypt during the War, when it had some interesting experiences. On arrival in Egypt, it took an active part in the final advance of the British Forces in Palestine, one of its feats being the dropping of large bombs on the Headquarters of the Turks. Owing to the rapid advance of the British, it was difficult to establish advanced aerodromes, and as there were no roads it was difficult to bring up the supplies of petrol. On the arrival of the H.P. this machine was successfully employed for taking petrol up to the aerodromes, thus greatly assisting the British machines. On being congratulated on the flight, General Salmond paid a tribute to the Rolls-Royce engines, and, excellent as the machine is, the Rolls-Royce motors undoubtedly were, to a very great extent, responsible for the success of the flight.
The England-India Handley-Page's arrival at Calcutta Racecourse, from Allahabad, the last stage of the journey from England. The Viceroy and the Governor of Bengal advancing to receive Generals Salmond and Borton immediately upon the landing of the "H.P."
THE MARCH OF THE GUARDS. - A snap of a Handley-Page machine as it passed over Buckingham-Palace and the Victoria Memorial.
DESCENDING BY PARACHUTE FROM AN AEROPLANE. - Miss Sylvia Borden is seen on the left immediately after leaving the Handley Page at 1,000 ft. Note at this first stage of the opening of the "Guardian Angel" parachute, the position, head downwards, of the parachutist. On the right the next stage is seen with the parachute fully inflated and the Handley Page machine travelling away in the near distance
And It Came To Pass. - The following quotation from Ezekiel, Chapter I, seems curiously appropriate to the above picture :# Verse 13: And under the firmament were their wings straight, the one toward the other: every one had two which covered on this side, and every one had two which covered on that side, their bodies." Verse 24: And wnen they went I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, a noise of tumult like the noise of an host: when they stood, they let down their wings."
Flight, April 10, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE

  THE preparations for the great race to be first to cross the Atlantic by air are progressing apace. By way of summary, the Sopwith machine, to be piloted by Mr. H. Hawker, who will have with him as navigator and assistant pilot Capt. Grieve, is already at the starting point in Newfoundland, and is only awaiting favourable weather conditions before making a start. The Martinsyde biplane, with its pilot, Mr. F. P. Raynham, and his navigator, Capt. Morgan, is on its way across, and may, by the time these lines appear in print, have arrived at St. John's. The Fairey machine, up till now the only seaplane entered from this side, is rapidly nearing completion, being, in fact, a standard Fairey 3C type especially adapted for the race. The pilot, as already announced, will be Mr. Sydney Pickles, so well knows to all readers of FLIGHT. The name of the navigator who will accompany him has not yet been disclosed, but will, we understand, be announced shortly. The Short machine entered, and which will be piloted by Major Wood, who will have with him as navigator Capt. Wyllie, has the distinction of being the only entrant which, so far, it is proposed to start from this side, the starting point chosen being Bawnmore, near Limerick, in Ireland. This machine, which has been undergoing severe tests during the last couple of weeks, is to be flown first to Ireland, whence the final start will be made.
  As to the probability of one or all of the competitors succeeding in getting across, there is of course, a certain element of luck involved, but arrangements, as announced elsewhere, are being made., by the Air Ministry and Admiralty, to take all possible precautions, and to ensure that, even in cases of engine failure, the occupants should have a very good chance of being picked up by passing vessels.

THE MACHINES

  As interest centres more and more in this race, a few words dealing with the British machines entered will, we feel sure be welcomed by readers of FLIGHT.

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The Handley-Page Machine

  Just as we are going to press, news is received that Mr. Handley-Page has entered a machine for the race. The machine is one of the standard type four-engined bombers, slightly altered in details, and fitted with a very large petrol tank in the fuselage. As readers of FLIGHT will already be aware, the four engines in this case Rolls-Royce "Eagles" - are placed between the planes, one behind the other. The front engine of each pair drives a tractor screw, while the engine behind it drives a propeller. As the pusher screw has to deal with air ahead}- set in motion by the tractor, its pitch is made slightly greater than that of the tractor.
  The amount of petrol carried will be about 2,000 gallons. Assuming that each engine develops 365 h.p., and that the petrol consumption is .5 lb./h.p./hour, this amount of fuel should last for 21 hours at open throttle. The speed at full power may be expected to be in the neighbourhood of 100 m.p.h., which would give a range of about 2,100 miles. Since, however, the machine will fly at a somewhat lower power for the sake of fuel economy, and the prevailing winds are westerly at this time of the year, it is reasonable to suppose that this speed of 100 m.p.h. may be maintained with the engines partly throttled down, thus further increasing the margin in hand. After a few hours' flight two of the four engines will probably be sufficient to keep the machine going, although at a reduced speed, and this would give the engineers a chance to put right any little defect that one or more of the engines might develop. The number and names of the crew have not yet been announced, but one of them will be a Marconi operator, who will attend to the directional wireless set, which will have a range of about 250 miles. An installation of smaller radius will also be carried to facilitate communication with ships. To provide for emergencies, a small wireless set is installed in the tail of the machine. The reason for placing it here is that in case of a descent in the sea, the tail will probably stick up out of the water, thus enabling S.O.S. messages to be sent. In view of the fact that four engines are fitted, it is improbable that complete engine failure will be encountered.
  The following brief particulars of the Handley-Page machine should be of interest :- Span, 130 ft.; length, 75 ft.; height, 23 ft.; weight, empty, 14,000 lbs.; weight, fully loaded, 32,000 lbs.


Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

HANDLEY PAGE, LTD.
  This firm is represented, at the actual exhibition, by one machine only, but what the exhibit lacks in numbers it makes up for in size. The machine is one of the V 1500 types, with four Rolls-Royce Eagle engines. The starboard wings are folded back, but even so, the machine towers over the adjoining stands and passages. The V 1500, as so many other machines, was flown across via Brussels, the various stages being covered in the following times :- London to Brussels, 2 hours 40 minutes; Brussels to Soesterberg, 1 hour 25 minutes; Soesterberg to Amsterdam, 25 minutes, giving a total flying time of 4 1/2 hours, as against the 20 hours or so taken by the train-and-steamer mode of travel. Considering the load which the H.P. can carry, this speaks well for the future of commercial aerial transport.
  On landing, the Handley Page proceeded to sink into the soft ground of the aerodrome, but luckily no damage was done. There still, however, remained the question of how to get the machine into the exhibition building. In order to do this, it was necessary to take down a portion of the board fence surrounding the aerodrome, to take down the ticket offices in front of the forecourt of the exhibition and other office buildings, and, finally, a portion of the front of the exhibition building itself. All this was done, and the buildings erected again behind the machine. There is certainly this advantage in its size, that there is no fear of anybody coming along after dark and purloining the Handley Page.
  Naturally, this huge machine attracts great attention, and there is always a big crowd around it, clamouring to be permitted to look through the trap door in the floor of the fuselage. Mr. Cogni, who is in charge of the H.P. exhibit, is kept busy answering questions, which he does with unfailing good nature, in spite of the fact that some of the queries are not exactly calculated to improve his temper. One bright youth quite seriously expressed the opinion that the machine would fly very lop-sided with one pair of wings sticking back alongside the fuselage. Mr. Cogni agreed that probably it would. Generally speaking, however, the public is showing a very intelligent interest in the various machines exhibited, and the publicity value of the aero show is indubitable.
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Fig. 36. - Night bomber. Handley Page V/1500.
A side view of the centre of one of the Handley-Page bombers, which were to have "pilled" Berlin about Armistice time.
HOW THE ROLLS-ROYCE ENGINES ARE PLACED IN THE HANDLEY PAGE 'PLANES. - Note the two front engines drive two-bladed tractor screws, whilst the two rear engines drive four-bladed propellers.
THE TRANSATLANTIC HANDLEY-PAGE. - The illustration gives a good idea of the size of the machine and also shows the mounting of the four Rolls-Royce engines
BELFAST TO FOLKESTONE NON-STOP FLIGHT. - The Rolls-Royce engined Handley Page which made the trip, at Folkestone, with the pilot, Mr. Clifford P. Prodger (left), and one of the passengers, Mr. Bernard Isaac
Beardmore-built E8290 at Hendon on 17 May, 1919, after being flown nonstop from Inchinnan in 6 1/2 hours by (inset) Clifford Prodger and Bernard Isaacs.
Fig. 12. - Tandem propellers. Handley Page V. 1500.
Flight, June 12, 1919.

LONDON AND BOURNEMOUTH AIR SERVICE

  FRIDAY last saw the opening of the aerial passenger service between London and Bournemouth, which has been inaugurated by the Bournemouth Aviation Co. The machine used was one of the twin-engined Handley-Page biplanes, and the pilot was Lieut. Walker. Four passengers were carried, and, as was fitting for the occasion, three of these Were Mr. E. E. Bishop, Mayor of Bournemouth, ex-Mayor Alderman Robson, and Mr. Herbert Ashling, the Town Clerk. FLIGHT photographer made the fourth passenger, and some of the photographic records of this trip which he was able to secure appear in this issue.
  Cricklewood aerodrome was left at 4.15 p.m. (a little later than was arranged), and flying at various heights up to 2,000 ft. the machine made a steady, uneventful journey, in ideal - if somewhat soporific - weather, arriving at Bournemouth aerodrome at 6 p.m. Most of the time visibility was poor, owing to heat mist, but many well-known landmarks - such as Brooklands, Winchester Cathedral, Southampton Docks with its large liners, etc. - were nevertheless spotted. Arriving over Bournemouth, a tour of inspection was made of the "front" from Southbourne to Bournemouth West Cliff before landing in the aerodrome. On landing, the Mayor received a very hearty welcome from the many hundreds of people who had gathered to await his arrival. As a sample of air travel the trip was a delightful experience, and we can well believe that the vogue of tripping to Bournemouth by the air-way should be very pronounced.


Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

HANDLEY PAGE, LTD.
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  On the aerodrome is one of the 2-engined H.Ps. of the O-400 type, similar to those delivered to the Chinese Government. It has a luxuriously fitted-up cabin seating 14 passengers, who look down upon the country below through a series of windows in the sides. There are curtains over the windows, and for use at night the cabin is lighted by electricity. The machine is also provided with all necessary conveniences. Owing to the present soft condition of the aerodrome, the machine is not doing any flying, but as soon as the ground has hardened sufficiently, there is not the slightest doubt that it will be kept very busy carrying passengers.


Flight, October 2, 1919.

THE "ARRIVAL" OF THE REGULAR AIR SERVICE

The Handley Page Machines
  Both the London-Paris and the London-Brussels machines used by the Handley Page Company are of the O/400 type, modified, of course, to accommodate passengers instead of the "eggs" which this type used to lay on the Huns during the War. As many as 18 people can be carried, 14 inside the cabin and 4 outside. As used for the Paris and Brussels services, however, 10 passengers are carried with their luggage, and the machines have a further disposable lift of 500 lbs., which may take the form of mail, general freight, etc. The passengers' cabin is comfortably fitted out, as shown in one of the accompanying photographs, wicker seats being provided along each side. Through windows in the side of the cabin an excellent view is obtained of the country over which the machine is passing. The two Rolls-Royce engines are placed between the planes, and drive each a tractor airscrew.
LONDON-PARIS AND LONDON-BRUSSELS: The Handley Page firm are now running two continental air services, one to Paris and one to Brussels. In connection with the Paris service Breguet biplanes now alternate with the Handley Pages, the British machines leaving London on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, the French machines on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The Paris-London service is in the reverse order. Our photographs show : (1) Passengers in the nose of the Handley Page which opened the London-Brussels air service on Wednesday of last week, piloted by Capt. Shakespear.
CRICKLEWOOD-BOURNEMOUTH BY AIR: Last week end the public air-service between Cricklewood and Bournemouth by Handley Page aeroplane was inaugurated, when "Flight" representative joined in the initial journey. The above photographs show - (1) One of the H.P. service machines with propellers ticking over and the passengers. Left to right, "Flight" representative, Lieut. Walker (the pilot), Mr. H. Ashling (Bournemouth Town Clerk), Ex-Mayor Alderman Robson, Mr. Bishop, Mayor of Bournemouth, and the Cricklewood Aerodrome representative. (2) The H.P. starting on its first journey to Bournemouth. 3. In the nose of the H.P., "Flight" photographer, Pilot Lieut. Walker and Mr. Ashling. (4) The Ex-Mayor of Bournemouth, Alderman Robson, and Mayor Mr. E. E . Bishop, in their seats ready for the start
BRITISH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 2. The Handley Page passenger machine
BRITISH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 1. Visitors are interested in the Handley Page cabin
(2) Passengers entering the Handley Page.
THE RAILWAY HOLD-UP AND MAILS BY AEROPLANE: Post Office officials and the despatch and receipt of mails at Hounslow. 1. The Handley Page had a busy time. Two, fully loaded with passengers, set out for Paris. Our snap shows various members of the American Express Co. about to go aboard. Later a mail 'plane, loaded with 2,185 lbs. of mail, 250 lbs. of baggage, pilot and the mechanic, left for Brussels.
(4) The Handley Page biplane, two Rolls-Royce engines, used on the London-Paris and London-Brussels routes.
(3) The interior of the Handley Page, which carries 10 passengers and 500 lbs. of general freight.
Flight, December 18, 1919

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

Handley-Page, Ltd.

  The main feature on this stand will be one of the new Handley-Page biplanes, type W 8, one of which flew to Paris in 2 hours 10 mins. recently, after a brief test flight of only 20 mins. duration. The W 8 is much smaller than either the O 400 or the V 1500, having an overall length of 60 ft. and a span of 75 ft. It is thus quite a "baby"! Fitted with two Napier Lion engines of 450 h.p. each, the machine is capable of a maximum speed of 112 m.p.h. With the engines throttled down to 350 h.p. each the cruising speed is about 90 m.p.h., while the landing speed is as low as 45 m.p.h. The machine is thus capable of alighting in and starting from comparatively small fields.
  The engines are mounted comparatively high up in the gap between the planes, and drive two tractor air screws. Effective silencers are fitted so that it is quite possible for the passengers to converse in an ordinary voice during flight. Sufficient fuel is carried for a flight of 6 1/2 hours' duration, or somewhat over 500 miles, and it is claimed that the machine is capable of flying on one engine entirely, should the other fail.
  The passenger cabin is extremely roomy and comfortable, and provides seating accommodation for from 15 to 20 passengers. The seats are well upholstered in velvet, and have on the back pockets in which the passenger sitting behind can keep maps, books, papers, etc. Each passenger is provided with a porthole covered with Triplex glass, while at intervals windows are placed in the floor, giving the passengers a view straight down. The cabin is entered through doors in the sides, and there is also a trapdoor in the floor for the loading and unloading of freight when the machine is to be used for the carrying of goods. In that case the seats are removed and the cargo space available is no less than 470 cub. ft. The lifting capacity is then about two tons. As will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, the Handley-Page W 8 is of very pleasing appearance, and should soon become a favourite with travellers who appreciate speed and comfort.
THE NEW HANDLEY PAGE W.8 BIPLANE: For some considerable time there have been rumours of a new type of H.P. which was going to surpass anything hitherto seen in the way of luxury and comfort. The machine is now an accomplished fact, as will be seen from our photograph, and for once rumour has not been far from the truth. The new H.P., which is fitted with two 450 h.p. Napier Lions, is smaller and faster than the War types, and has a magnificent saloon cabin seating from 15 to 20 passengers. A feature of this is that there is no transverse cross bracing, so that the passengers have ample room to move about, while, if the machine be used for the carrying of cargo, the space available is 470 cub. ft. The machine has a maximum speed of 112 m.p.h., and a cruising speed of 90 m.p.h., while the landing speed is as low as 45 m.p.h. After a short test flight of only 20 minutes' duration, the machine was flown to Paris in 2 hours 10 minutes.
THE HANDLEY PAGE W 8: Three-quarter front view
THE HANDLEY PAGE W 8: View inside the cabin
The Handley Page W 8, two 450 h.p. Napier Lions
AT THE LONDON AND PROVINCIAL AERODROME, STAGG LANE, HENDON: An L. and P. machine taking over visitors to see the racing at the London Aerodrome
Arrival of Pilot Lieut. Stacks with the Jazz band instruments at the L. and P. Stagg Lane Aerodrome, where, between flights, they helped visitors later to pass the time at tea, tennis, etc.
Fig. 30. - Day bomber. Martinsyde 160 h.p.
Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 10. - The Martinsyde, F 4, 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon
  In the main the Martinsyde biplane flown by Lieut. Robert Nisbet was the standard F4, which type has to its credit the fastest climb and speed at great heights, as well as the speed record for the Paris-London flight (1 hr. 15 mins.). The F . 4 is one of the most beautiful aeroplanes we have ever seen, quite apart from her qualities as a flying machine. There is positively not an ugly line or curve in her. As all the Martinsyde productions, she is beautifully finished in every detail, yet the construction is such as to be a sound production job. The body, which is very deep in front, is covered with three-ply in front, and shows the numerous external duralumin fittings which one always associates with the Martinsyde machines. The deep coaming in front of the pilot has "tumble-home" sides, and as the body is not very wide the pilot's view forward is not restricted to nearly the extent that might be expected. The top fairing of the fuselage behind the pilot comes to a sharp edge, which adds greatly to the appearance of the machine. A feature of all the Martinsyde biplanes is the manner of attaching the bottom plane to the fuselage. There are short wing roots permanently attached to, and situated below, the bottom of the fuselage. To these roots are attached the two bottom wings. The break in the lines caused by the bottom spars below the body is faired off with an aluminium plate which is so bent as to carry the fuselage bottom along from the nose to the pilot's seat in easy curves. All these things may appear of little importance, but they contribute their share towards the graceful appearance of the machine, and, incidentally, they probably have quite a lot to do with the performance.
Fig. 25. - One-seater fighter. Martinsyde F. 3.
Flight, April 10, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE

  THE preparations for the great race to be first to cross the Atlantic by air are progressing apace. By way of summary, the Sopwith machine, to be piloted by Mr. H. Hawker, who will have with him as navigator and assistant pilot Capt. Grieve, is already at the starting point in Newfoundland, and is only awaiting favourable weather conditions before making a start. The Martinsyde biplane, with its pilot, Mr. F. P. Raynham, and his navigator, Capt. Morgan, is on its way across, and may, by the time these lines appear in print, have arrived at St. John's. The Fairey machine, up till now the only seaplane entered from this side, is rapidly nearing completion, being, in fact, a standard Fairey 3C type especially adapted for the race. The pilot, as already announced, will be Mr. Sydney Pickles, so well knows to all readers of FLIGHT. The name of the navigator who will accompany him has not yet been disclosed, but will, we understand, be announced shortly. The Short machine entered, and which will be piloted by Major Wood, who will have with him as navigator Capt. Wyllie, has the distinction of being the only entrant which, so far, it is proposed to start from this side, the starting point chosen being Bawnmore, near Limerick, in Ireland. This machine, which has been undergoing severe tests during the last couple of weeks, is to be flown first to Ireland, whence the final start will be made.
  As to the probability of one or all of the competitors succeeding in getting across, there is of course, a certain element of luck involved, but arrangements, as announced elsewhere, are being made., by the Air Ministry and Admiralty, to take all possible precautions, and to ensure that, even in cases of engine failure, the occupants should have a very good chance of being picked up by passing vessels.

THE MACHINES

  As interest centres more and more in this race, a few words dealing with the British machines entered will, we feel sure be welcomed by readers of FLIGHT.

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The Martinsyde Machine

  The machine entered by Messrs. Martinsyde, Ltd., is more or less of standard Martinsyde type, with the occupants placed very far aft to allow of mounting a large petrol tank in the middle of the fuselage, in the neighbourhood of the centre of lift where the decrease in fuel weight as the fuel is used up will not alter the trim of the machine. Unfortunately we have not been able to obtain any illustrations of the Martinsyde machine, but in outward appearance it does not present any radical departures from the standard. It has the distinction of being the lowest powered machine in the race, the engine being a Rolls-Royce "Falcon" of 285 h.p. As the Martinsyde machines have always been known for their great efficiency, this is an advantage inasmuch as less fuel will have to be carried, and in spite of the lower power the speed is over 100 m.p.h. A military Martinsyde machine with the same engine is the holder of speed records for machines of this type, and it may safely be assumed that the trans-Atlantic type is not inferior in any way to the standard type.


  
Flight, May 15, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC CONTEST
THE MACHINES

  IN our issue of April 10 we published scale drawings of the Sopwith and Short Transatlantic machines. At the time no further drawings were available, and other machines have been entered since then. This week we are able, through the courtesy of the various constructors who have given us facilities for obtaining particulars of their machines, to place before our readers scale drawings of three other entrants and a photograph of a fourth, as well as scale drawings of one of the American flying-boats which will attempt the crossing hors de concours.

The Vickers "Vimy-Rolls"

  A BRIEF description and two photographs of this machine were published in last week's issue of FLIGHT. The "Vimy-Rolls," as the Transatlantic type is called, is very similar in general arrangement to the standard "Vimy." Minor changes have naturally been made, but the general appearance is the same. Among the changes made the most important is the substitution of larger tanks, which now have a capacity of 850 gallons of petrol and 50 gallons of oil. A further alteration which has been made is the addition of a turtle back to the fore part of the fuselage, resulting in a cleaner outline with, presumably, smaller resistance. Two standard Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engines are fitted, which at full throttle give the machine a speed of over 100 m.p.h. The cruising speed is, however, in the neighbourhood of 90 m.p.h., and at this speed the machine has been estimated to have a range of 2,440 miles. Of other alterations reference may be made to the substitution, in the "Vimy-Rolls," of a front wheel mounted on a pyramid of steel tubes, instead of the front skid fitted on the standard "Vimy." The general arrangement drawings of the machine published herewith will give a good idea of the lines of the "Vimy-Rolls." As announced last week, the pilot is Capt. J. Alcock, D.S.C., who will be remembered by our readers from the days before the War, when he did a great amount of flying on a Maurice Farman biplane with Sunbeam engine. The navigator, Lieut. A. W. Brown, recently wrote a very interesting article for FLIGHT, dealing with elementary navigation for aircraft pilots.


Flight, November 6, 1919.

THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA

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  In addition to the Sopwith "Wallaby" three other machines are now all but ready for the attempt, and are mainly waiting for an improvement in the weather before making a start. These are: A Martinsyde, an Alliance, and a Vickers-Vimy. As all the machines must start from Hounslow it would appear that the arrival of better weather will mean the start of all three machines more or less together, and an exciting race may therefore be looked to.

The Martinsyde Machine

  With the exception of a few alterations in the seating arrangement, the machine entered by Messrs. Martinsyde, Ltd., of Woking, is similar to the standard Martinsyde Commercial Type "AI." It is fitted with a Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine, of 275 h.p. Like all Martinsyde aeroplanes this machine is of extremely pleasing outline, as will be seen from the accompanying illustrations.
  On the present venture, in addition to Capt. Howell and his mechanic, the machine will carry fuel for 10 hours - giving it a range of about 1,000 miles - spare parts for engine and machine, tool kits, etc.; a total weight of about 1,000 lbs. With this load the machine's most economical cruising speed is 100 m.p.h. Capt. Howell will use the land route so far as Calcutta, where he will fit floats and use the sea route from there onwards. These floats are interchangeable with the standard land under carriage, and do not entail any alteration or adjustment to the machine, the same fittings being used for both types of undercarriage.
  On test these floats behaved exceedingly well, the machine rising off the water quickly and showing no tendency to porpoise; nor did the floats affect the handling of the machine in the air. The floats add about 400 lbs. to the weight of the machine, but no difficulty is experienced in carrying the full load.
  Capt. Howell thinks the sea route from Calcutta onwards solves the difficulties of bad flying country and the complete lack of landing grounds, prepared or otherwise.
Three-quarter front view of the Martinsyde-Rolls-Royce "Raymor"
THE "RAYMOR." - Running the engine of the Martinsyde-Rolls-Royce Transatlantic machine
The Martinsyde plane, "Raymor," at St. John's, Newfoundland, in which Capt. W. Morgan, R.N., R.A.F., is attempting a Transatlantic flight. Capt. Morgan is seated in his machine ready for a trial flight
THE MARTINSYDE MACHINE ENTERED FOR THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: Three-quarter rear view
THE AUSTRALIAN FLIGHT: On the left, the start from Hounslow of the Martinsyde 'plane on December 4. "Goodbye-ee!" At top: Mr. Nesbit of the Martinsyde firm wishes good luck to Capt. C. E. Howell on his journey. On the right: The Martinsyde 'plane gets away at 9.35 a.m.
THE MARTINSYDE-ROLLS "RAYMOR." - Plan, side and front elevations to scale
THE MARTINSYDE MACHINE ENTERED FOR THE ENGLAND-AUSTRALIA FLIGHT: Plan, side and front elevations to scale
THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: Side elevation of the Martinsyde machine fitted with floats for the last stages of the journey
Flight, January 16, 1919.

THE NIEUPORT "NIGHTHAWK"

  AMONG the machines of which it has not hitherto been permissible to give any particulars is the little tractor scout called the "Nighthawk," designed and built by the Nieuport and General Aircraft Co., Ltd., of Cricklewood. We are pleased to be able to publish this week photographs of this interesting machine.
  The first Nieuport Nighthawk was built and tested some time ago, and the machine represented in the accompanying photographs is the second of the type to be constructed. It is expected to have a speed of 135 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft. and a ceiling of somewhere about 28,000 ft. The engine fitted is the famous A.B.C. "Dragonfly" of 320 h.p.
  The Nieuport Nighthawk is of particular interest as having been built to the first specifications issued by the Royal Air Force. When it was decided that the time had come for concentrating on a limited number of types to finish the war, the Nieuport Nighthawk was included in the single-seater fighter class, to be fitted with the "Dragonfly" engine. The points in favour of its adoption are that it has the performance required, that its structural strength has been proved by loading tests on every part of the machine; that the general arrangement of the machine is such as to give the best possible facilities to the pilot for fighting, such as a minimum of blind area and a good position and accessibility for guns, instruments, &c, and that the detail design has been got out with a view to quick and easy production. It might also be mentioned, as being somewhat out of the ordinary, that complete engineering drawings and schedules had been prepared beforehand, while materials' lists could be issued to contractors from the beginning, thus saving much valuable time.
  We might mention that the design was carried out by Mr. H. P. Folland, chief engineer and designer of the Nieuport and General Aircraft Co., who was formerly Assistant Chief Designer at the Royal Aircraft Factory, where he got out the designs for the F.E.2 and the S.E.5. Another machine for which Mr. Folland was responsible was the S.E.4, a small tractor scout with stream line body and single I struts, fitted with 160 h.p. Gnome engine. This machine was flown by Maj.-Gen. Sir J. M. Salmond in 1914, and is said to have developed a speed of 135 m.p.h., while climbing the first 1,500 ft. in one minute. Two photographs of this machine appeared in "FLIGHT" of January 20, 1916. The S.E.4 was not, however, adopted for the Flying Services.


  
Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 11. - The Nieuport L.C. 1, 320 h.p. A.B.C. Dragonfly
  Generally speaking, the Nieuport biplane entered for the Aerial Derby was very similar to the standard Nieuport Nighthawk. It is, however, designed as a two-seater, although in the race it had the passenger's cockpit covered in. As recorded elsewhere in this issue, the machine, which was piloted by Lieut. L. R. Tait-Cox, had engine trouble and was obliged to retire from the race, but this is not necessarily any criterion of the capabilities of the machine. The cause of the engine trouble was one that might have happened to any engine, on any machine, and certainly the Nieuport L.C. 1 shows a very good performance, both as regards speed, climb and manoeuvrability. It might be mentioned that the letters L.C. 1 stand for Land Commercial No. 1. A feature of the L.C. 1, which it shares with the Nieuport Nighthawk, is the extensive employment of wood, the number of metal parts having been reduced as far as possible, while in no single instance are any of the few metal fittings that carry loads built up by the use of welding. In spite of the relatively small cross section of the fuselage, the cockpits are very roomy, and the arrangement of the various instruments, etc., has been most carefully thought out.


Flight, November 27, 1919.

THE NIEUPORT "NIGHTHAWK"

  As a type, the "Nighthawk," designed and built by the British Nieuport and General Aircraft Co., Ltd., of Cricklewood, belongs to the single-seater fighter class, of the modern type in which the size of engine fitted has resulted in the employment of two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side. It is a machine which was just beginning to come through in quantities when the Armistice was signed, and, had the War continued, it would doubtlessly have played a considerable part in the air-fighting on the Western Front. Its performance is excellent, and its detail design has been most carefully thought out with a view to ease of production in quantities.
  In reviewing the Nieuport "Nighthawk," it is a matter of some difficulty to make up one's mind as to whether the machine is most remarkable for its performance and manoeuvrability, or for its detail construction. Perhaps on balance construction has it, and this is said with no intention to belittle the aerodynamic side of the design. It has, however, been proved that performance is chiefly a matter of loading per horse-power, and, given reasonably careful design, machines do not differ greatly when judged on this basis. There are still the questions of stability and manoeuvrability, and in the "Nighthawk" is found as great an amount of stability as is compatible with the extreme manoeuvrability demanded of a machine which is to be used for fighting.
  It is, however, in the matter of detail design, that there is the greatest scope for originality, as well as for sound engineering practice. In this respect the "Nighthawk" offers many interesting features, and, by the courtesy of the designers, we have been able to examine in detail, and sketch, some of the constructional details that go to make the "Nighthawk" such an interesting structure.
  A feature which is noticed at once on examining this machine is the absence of welding. Mr. H. P. Folland, chief engineer and designer, has managed to do without this, almost entirely. In its place, where different pieces of metal have to be joined together, riveting and dip-brazing have been employed. The only parts that have been subject to welding are such as do not carry any load, and where, therefore, welding is perfectly safe. Another feature of the "Nighthawk" is the extensive employment of tubular rivets instead of threaded bolts. Special tools have been designed for the production of these tubular rivets, the manufacture of which is carried out in an extremely efficient manner. The use of these rivets instead of threaded bolts has several advantages in addition to cheapness. For instance, the small flanged ends of the rivets project above the wood to a much smaller extent than do the nuts and bolt-heads of ordinary threaded bolts. Where a fabric covering comes into contact with the rivets, this results in a smooth surface without the unsightly projections caused by the bolt-heads.
  The fuselage is a girder structure of rectangular section, to which are added, as regards the front part of the body, streamline fairings built up of light longitudinal stringers supported on light three-ply formers. The four main longerons are of ash throughout, lightened in some places by spindling. The vertical and horizontal struts are of spruce, of square section, tapered towards the ends, where they fit into circular sockets. The cross-bracing is by tie-rods, the forked ends of which fit over lugs on the very simple fuselage fittings.
  In the nose the fuselage terminates in a roughly circular engine plate made of multi-ply wood, reinforced on its front face by a circular strip of steel, through which pass the bolts securing the A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engine to the plate. The attachment of this engine plate to the longerons is by very substantial fittings, the pull on the upper ones of which is transmitted via steel strips along the sides of the top longerons to the first vertical strut fitting, to which the strips are secured. Owing to the weight of the engine, the lower fittings are not subject to the same amount of pull, and the lower longerons are not, therefore, thus reinforced. The multi-ply engine plate is lightened by cutting away portions of it, and has, further, at the top two notches for the machine guns.
  The arrangement of the petrol tanks is unusual, and very well thought out. Instead of carrying them inside the body, where they are in the way, and where, moreover, they are difficult to get at, the tanks are housed in the streamline fairings on the sides of the body. Here, if a tank becomes damaged during a fight or through any other cause, by simply removing the aluminium covering and undoing the straps securing the tanks, these can be removed and repaired, or replaced by new ones. There are two of these side tanks - of the Imber variety of course - and a third, the gravity tank, is housed in the centre section of the top plane, where it rests on a three-ply floor, and is held in place by the diagonal cross-bracing to the centre section. The manner of supporting the tanks, and of securing them in place, by straps, is illustrated by some of the accompanying sketches.
  The pilot's cockpit, in spite of the fact that the fuselage is of the ordinary girder type with external fairings and of only ordinary maximum cross-section, is extremely roomy, surprisingly so, and the disposition of the various instruments as well as of the two machine guns, has been most carefully thought out, so that all are clearly visible and within easy reach, without, however, being in the way to the slightest extent. The machine guns are easily accessible, yet are sufficiently far removed from the pilot to avoid any danger of him being thrown against them in the case of a bad landing. The wind screen is in the form of a Vee of narrow angle, terminating at the back in two narrow aluminium strips, which are given a slight outward curve so as to deflect the air, even when the pilot is looking slightly past the sides of the wind-screen. In case of the screen becoming covered with moisture, therefore, the pilot is still able, by leaning his head slightly to one side, to see past the screen without being worried by any strong draught of air. The cartridge cases are mounted just in front of the dashboard, and are provided with chutes through the floor of the fuselage.
  The controls, as regards type, are of the usual form, but in detail design show several interesting features. Thus the control lever is mounted on ball-bearings in an aluminium casting of the form shown in one of our sketches. This makes a very sound, strong, and at the same time simple, job. The foot-bar is of wood, covered with aluminium plates top and bottom, as shown in the sketch. An interesting feature of the foot-bar is the ease with which adjustment for different pilots can be made. It will be seen that the shape of the foot-bar itself provides means for varying the distance from the pilot's seat by reversing the bar, while further adjustment is provided by the bolt holes in the bracket supporting it.
  The tail-plane trimming gear is of somewhat unusual type, the lever operating it being held in any desired place by cables passing over pulleys, no notched quadrant or similar locking device being needed. The tail-plane is hinged around its rear spar, the front spar being provided with fittings which engage with the blocks on the two rotatable worms as shown in some of the accompanying sketches. The whole arrangement is well thought out and impresses one as being a very good engineering job.
  The under-carriage is of the usual "Vee" type, with struts of wood, the apices of the vees being connected by two transverse members, also of wood, between which rests the axle, which is housed in a fairing of three-ply, the top of which is hinged to allow of the travel of the axle when the machine is taxying. Springing is by rubber cord shock-absorbers, and the axle is free to move in an opening cut in the spruce block which fills the angle at the lower end of the vees. Aluminium plates cover and reinforce the vees at their lower end. The method of attaching the under-carriage struts to the body is shown in two of our sketches. The front chassis strut is secured to the fitting on the engine bearer at the point where occurs the attachment of the lower longeron. The rear chassis strut is bolted to one of the fuselage strut fittings, as shown in the sketch. Both are pin-jointed, as will be seen, so as to adapt themselves to any small irregularity in the fitting up of the vees. To those who have had any experience of welding up together an undercarriage built of streamline steel tubes, in which the accuracy has to be on the right side of half a degree, this point will specially appeal.
  The tail skid is of similar type to that fitted on the S.E. 5 biplanes, steering with, but forming no part of, the rudder. The tail plane, which is of symmetrical cross-section, is so mounted as to be capable of having its angle of incidence altered during flight. The rear spar forms the hinge, and one of our photographs shows, incidentally, the manner in which the rear spar bearings are supported. Instead of being mounted on the vertical struts, the spar bearings occur between struts, and are pivoted on a short length of steel tube held in sheet steel lugs in the middle of the side-bracing. The elevator has a circular leading edge of wood, to which the elevator ribs are attached by wood blocks and aluminium strips. The U-clips which form the supports for the elevator leading edge are of channel section, as shown in one of our sketches. To protect the wooden leading edge from wear it is surrounded by a thin brass sheet. At certain points this brass binding is flanged so as to locate the elevator, the other bindings being smooth, thus allowing a fair amount of latitude in workmanship without endangering the smooth working of the elevator.
  The vertical fins, of which there is one above and one below the fuselage, as well as the rudder, are of very light wood construction, the trailing edge of the rudder being of sheet aluminium bent to a U-section with small flanges turned inwards, which gives great lateral rigidity to the trailing edge.
  In general construction the main planes follow usual practice. The main spars are of spruce, spindled out to an I-section. The ordinary ribs are very lightly built, of spruce webs and flanges. The compression ribs are of I-section spruce, with additional flanges glued to top and bottom. In between the compression ribs that are in line with the interplane struts are other ribs of the box type, as there is a double bay of internal drag bracing between each pair of struts. As the rear spar is situated fairly far forward in the wing section, the ailerons are not hinged to the rear main spar, but to a false spar some distance farther back. Ailerons are fitted to both top and bottom planes, and the controls are in the form of R.A.F. wires inside the wings. These wires pass through fibre guides, and where they have to pass over pulleys on their way back to the crank levers a short length of stranded cable is used.
  The attachment of the end sections to the centre sections allows of a certain amount of play, as will be seen from one of the sketches. The ends of the centre section spars carry two horizontal lugs which pass on each side of the horizontal trunnion on the end of the end section spar. A vertical bolt secures the two together, and while the front spar trunnion is the full length of the distance between the sheet-steel lugs, that on the rear spar is somewhat shorter, so that any slight variation in the distance between the spars does not prevent the two parts from being bolted together.
  An interesting feature of the centre sections is that they have a slight dihedral angle This does not extend over their entire length, the central portion being horizontal, while the ends are slightly turned up. The top centre section is supported by four tubular struts, streamlined with wood. The manner of securing the lower centre section spars to the lower fuselage longerons is illustrated in a sketch. The front spar is held by a simple clip, while the rear spar, which occurs between two vertical struts, has its support reinforced by sloping tubes going to the points on the longeron where occur the struts. In this manner there is no fear of the lower longeron deflecting under the load of the rear spar.
  The wing bracing is everywhere in the form of R.A.F. wires. The only remarkable feature of the bracing is that in the outer bay there is only one anti-lift wire, running from the top of the rear inner strut to the bottom of the outer front strut. There are two lift wires, which, in the outer bay, are in the plane of the struts, while in the inner bay they run from front and rear chassis strut attachments respectively.
  The main characteristics of the Nieuport "Nighthawk" are as follows: Weight, empty, 1,700 lbs.; useful load, 400 lbs.; total weight, 2 100 lbs.; load per sq. ft., 7.8 lbs.; load per horsepower, 6.6 lbs; speed at 5,000 ft., 150 m.p.h.; speed at 20,000 ft. 130 m.p.h.; climb to 20,000 ft. in 20 minutes; ceiling, 29,000 ft.; endurance, 3 hours at 20,000 ft., including climb; radius of action, 180 miles at 20,000 ft.
Side view and front view of the Nieuport "Nighthawk," 320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engine.
Three-quarter front and rear views of the Nieuport "Nighthawk," a small, fast, single-seater fighter with a very good performance.
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Three-quarter rear view
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Three-quarter front view
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Front view
No. 11. - The Nieuport L.C. 1, 320 h.p. A.B.C. Dragonfly, flown by Lieut. L. R. Tait-Cox.
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: On the left is shown the mounting of the A.B.C. Dragonfly engine, and on the right the multi-ply engine-bearer
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: The rudder and fins, and the rear portion of the fuselage
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Sketch of the engine mounting, and, inset, the manner in which the side bracing in the front bay of the fuselage crosses the first vertical body strut
The Nieuport Nighthawk: Sketches showing front and rear chassis strut attachments. Note the universal joints.
The Nieuport Nighthawk: Some details of the bracket-and-strap mounting of the Imber tanks on the side of the fuselage
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Diagrammatic sketch of the petrol supply system
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Sketch of the cockpit, machine-guns, windscreen, etc.
The Nieuport Nighthawk: On the left the aluminium bracket which supports the control lever, and on the right the adjustable foot bar
SOME TAIL PLANE DETAILS OF THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: 1. An elevator hinge; 2. The elevator crank; 3. One of the rotatable worms of the tail plane trimming gear; 4. The roots of the tail plane. Note the lugs on the front spar which engage with the blocks on the worms shown in 3
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Sketch showing the attachment of the end section spars to those of the centre section
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Front and rear bottom spar attachments
THE NIEUPORT NIGHTHAWK: Plan, side and front elevations, to scale
Fig.10. - Typical monocoque fuselage. Parnall Panther.
Fig. 13 - B.E. 2a.
Fig. 27. - Two-seater fighter. F.E. 2b.
ERECTING SHOP IN THE AUSTIN WORKS. - Shown a number of R.E.7 biplanes.
Fig. 15. - Reconnaissance machine. R.E. 8.
A batch of R.E. 8's in the works of the Siddeley-Deasy Motor Car Co., Ltd., where large numbers of these machines have been built in addition to quantities of the B.H.P. type aero engines, known as "Siddeley-Puma." In the alleyway on the right is the partially completed fuselage of a D.H.10A.
Pancaking.
A couple of the aeroplane-building departments of Wolseley Motors, Ltd., illustration of which has hitherto been restricted under Dora. One of these shows an erecting shop with a batch of S.E. 5's in course of construction, whilst in the other the S.E. 5's are being fitted with Wolseley "Viper" engines. It hardly needs emphasising that the Wolseley company supplied a very large number of these machines during the War, and the work of these little single-seater fighting planes, fitted with a Vickers gun in the fuselage and a Lewis gun in the top plane, was very remarkable, and had an appreciable effect upon the final collapse of the enemy.
ERECTING SHOP IN THE AUSTIN WORKS. - A large batch of S.E.5's.
A corner of a batch of machines, chiefly S.E.5's, for disposal at Hendon. These are a varying quantity, the numbers being added to each day, whilst those disposed of balance more or less the new-comers.
The position of the control stick when running engine on the ground. One of the series of drawings prepared by the Air Technical Services for using at the R.A.F. Schools.
Flight, July 24, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SAGE MACHINES

  THE entry of Messrs. Fredk. Sage and Co., Ltd., into the world of aircraft manufacture dates back to 1915, in which year a contract for building Short seaplanes of the 184 type was received. The manager of the aviation department was Mr. E. C. Gordon England, who is well known both as a designer and pilot, having at various times during his long career been associated with, among others, the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., of Bristol, with Mr. James Radley, of Huntingdon, and with J. Samuel White and Co., Ltd., of Cowes. Isle of Wight. In January, 1916, Mr. Clifford W. Tinson - who for three years previous to the War was Capt. F. S. Barnwell's assistant - left the Air Department of the Admiralty with the sanction of Commodore Sueter, who was then Director of Air Services, and joined the firm as designer. The design of the first Sage machine was at this time already in hand under the direction of Mr. Gordon England and Mr. L. Bonnard.

The Sage Bomber, Type 1 (1916)

  For some reason unknown to us this machine was never finished, and the figures of performance, etc., in the accompanying table must, therefore, be taken as estimates, and not as accomplished facts, although they are probably not far wrong one way or the other. As the machine was not finished no photographs of her are in existence. The plan and elevations of our general arrangement diagrams, however, give a very good idea of the lines of the machine. It will be seen that Type 1 was a twin-engine tractor, with the engines placed between the wings. The two Rolls-Royce engines - of 190 h.p. each - are placed very high in the gap between the wings, the thrust line being approximately half-way between top and bottom planes. This disposition arises from the fact that, although the fuselage is placed very low, the top plane is of much greater span than is the bottom one, the centre of resistance being, therefore, raised to a certain extent. Apart from their high position the engine mountings are of interest in that there is no part of the landing carriage placed under the engines. The weight is taken, when the machine is on the ground, by the antilift wires going from the foot of the engine-struts to the top of the centre section body struts. Whether this arrangement is advisable is, perhaps, open to doubt.
  As regards the undercarriage of Type I, this is, it will be seen, arranged along rather unconventional lines. The two main wheels are mounted direct on the body, through the bottom of which they project. The consequence of this arrangement, which obviously has for its object the reduction to a minimum of under carriage resistance, is that the wheel track is very narrow indeed, and as the lower wing is very close to the ground it has been protected by wing tip wheels of smaller diameter. In order to protect the fuselage, should the machine tend to turn over on her nose, another pair of wheels are mounted near the nose of the body, projecting through the floor in the same manner as do the two main wheels. The tail it will be seen, is chiefly remarkable as being of the biplane type. The armament of the Type 1 was to consist of three machine guns, one placed in the nose and one between the trailing edges of the planes, while a third was to be mounted immediately below the upper rear gun, and was to be fired through an opening in the floor of the fuselage. For its time, therefore, the Sage Bomber, Type 1, was very well armed, but as it was never finished its merits as a fighter were never ascertained. The estimated performance was quite good for the power and loading.
Side and front elevations of the Sage machines.
Plan views of the Sage machines.
Flight, July 24, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SAGE MACHINES

The Sage Scout, Type 2 (1916)

  Before synchronised gun-gears became generally adopted the tractor type of machine was of comparatively little use as a fighter, in spite of its inherent advantage over the pusher type as regards performance. In order to overcome the difficulty the Sage Type 2 was designed. As already mentioned, when this machine was first conceived, the synchronized gun had not become generally accepted, there being at the time, not unnaturally, a certain doubt as to the feasibility of devising a mechanism which would prevent the gun from being fired while a screw blade was in line with it. We say not unnaturally because on the face of it the problem of designing such a gear is a serious one, considering the speed of revolution of the screw and the rate of firing of the gun. However, at the time Sage No. 2 was conceived this problem was still being tackled, and so instead of experimenting with gun gears this firm turned their attention to the design of a machine which should mount its gun in such a position as to provide a free field of fire. It may be remembered that quite early in the War the French Nieuport firm produced a little two-seater in which the observer could stand upright with his head and shoulders projecting through a circular opening in the top plane. This was more or less the type adopted by the designer of Sage No. 2, but realizing the discomfort caused to the gunner by standing upright in the slipstream of the propeller, and the effect this draught would have on the gunner's sighting, provisions were made for sheltering the gunner inside an enclosed cabin. How this was accomplished will be seen from the accompanying illustrations.
  The Type 2 is a small machine, and may be said to belong to the scout class as regards dimensions, although it is designed as a two-seater. The upper plane is of greater span and chord than is the bottom one, and the inter-plane struts are of the Vee type, with but one pair on each side. The top plane, it will be seen, has its centre section mounted on and forming the roof of a streamline structure enclosing the heads and shoulders of pilot and gunner. When standing up in his cockpit the gunner can just see over the top of the top plane, where his gun is mounted. He thus has an uninterrupted field of vision extending through the whole of an upper hemisphere. It will no doubt have been noticed that the gap of the Sage Type 2 appears to be greater than is called for by aerodynamical reasons. This is occasioned by the desire on the part of the designer to provide the gunner with a free field in a forward direction also. This - without some form of synchronised gear - was only possible by placing the gun so high that it would fire over the tips of the propeller.
  It is interesting to note that in spite of the large amounts of side area presented by this cabin the machine was, we are informed, quite easy to handle and appeared to be reasonably stable. During a trial flight the rudder post gave way, with the result that the machine became unmanageable and in landing it crashed into a tree with somewhat serious results to its wings. It was not, we think, perpetuated, probably because by then the synchronised gun-gears had been found to work well in practice.
TWO VIEWS OF THE SAGE TYPE 2: In the photograph showing the machine uncovered the gunner may be seen standing up taking aim with a machine gun.
Side and front elevations of the Sage machines.
Plan views of the Sage machines.
Flight, July 24, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SAGE MACHINES

The Sage Type 3

  The next Sage machine to be designed was a two-seater tractor intended for training purposes. It was, therefore, designed with a view to good visibility, ease of handling, and low landing speed. As the machine was intended for instruction purposes she was fitted with dual control. The most unusual feature of the Type 3 is the undercarriage, which as will be seen is fitted with an extra pair of wheels in front to prevent overturning when in the hands of a novice.
The Sage Type 3 training tractor.
Side and front elevations of the Sage machines.
Plan views of the Sage machines.
Flight, July 24, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SAGE MACHINES

The Sage Seaplanes (1917)

  Following on Sage 3 came a seaplane, which was produced in July, 1917. This machine was designed for wireless work with the Fleet. In general lines it was very similar to Sage 3, but it was fitted with a 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine instead of the 75 h.p. Rolls-Royce Hawk. Also it had single control, in the front cockpit, leaving the rear cockpit clear for the wireless installation and operator. The floor under the rear cockpit was made to slide out of the way so that the wireless operator could look straight down. As in the Type 3 a very good view was obtained from both cockpits, and the type was recommended for training purposes. This entailed the fitting of dual controls, while also the nose of the fuselage had to be modified to take either a Hispano-Suiza of a Sunbeam Arab engine. Consequently by the time this had been done the machine was a good deal different from the original, and it was given a different series number. While the original experimental machine was known as the Sage 4A, subsequent models were called 4B and 4c respectively. The latter two models were very similar in appearance, but whereas the 4B type had rigidly fixed wings, the 4c type was provided with folding wings. The increase in power, of from 140 h.p. to 200 h.p., naturally improved the performance, in spite of the additional weight of the engine and dual controls. The last machine turned out before the Armistice had a speed range of from 45 m.p.h. to 97 m.p.h., and climbed 10,000 ft. in 21 minutes.
  The chief feature of all the Type 4 machines is the ease with which they can be stunted, and at the same time they are very stable, the pilot on one occasion leaving the machine to itself at 400 ft. and flying for a distance of about 50 miles.
The Sage Type 4b seaplane.
THE SAGE TYPE 4c SEAPLANE: This machine is very similar to the Type 4b , except that it has folding wings.
Side and front elevations of the Sage machines.
Plan views of the Sage machines.
Flight, April 10, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE

  THE preparations for the great race to be first to cross the Atlantic by air are progressing apace. By way of summary, the Sopwith machine, to be piloted by Mr. H. Hawker, who will have with him as navigator and assistant pilot Capt. Grieve, is already at the starting point in Newfoundland, and is only awaiting favourable weather conditions before making a start. The Martinsyde biplane, with its pilot, Mr. F. P. Raynham, and his navigator, Capt. Morgan, is on its way across, and may, by the time these lines appear in print, have arrived at St. John's. The Fairey machine, up till now the only seaplane entered from this side, is rapidly nearing completion, being, in fact, a standard Fairey 3C type especially adapted for the race. The pilot, as already announced, will be Mr. Sydney Pickles, so well knows to all readers of FLIGHT. The name of the navigator who will accompany him has not yet been disclosed, but will, we understand, be announced shortly. The Short machine entered, and which will be piloted by Major Wood, who will have with him as navigator Capt. Wyllie, has the distinction of being the only entrant which, so far, it is proposed to start from this side, the starting point chosen being Bawnmore, near Limerick, in Ireland. This machine, which has been undergoing severe tests during the last couple of weeks, is to be flown first to Ireland, whence the final start will be made.
  As to the probability of one or all of the competitors succeeding in getting across, there is of course, a certain element of luck involved, but arrangements, as announced elsewhere, are being made., by the Air Ministry and Admiralty, to take all possible precautions, and to ensure that, even in cases of engine failure, the occupants should have a very good chance of being picked up by passing vessels.

THE MACHINES

  As interest centres more and more in this race, a few words dealing with the British machines entered will, we feel sure be welcomed by readers of FLIGHT.

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The Short Machine

  Fundamentally the Short machine entered for the race does not differ greatly from their standard torpedo carrier known as the "Shirl." It is, as will be seen from the general arrangement drawings, a land machine fitted with wheels. In the place between the chassis struts usually occupied by the torpedo in the standard "Shirl" is slung a large cylindrical petrol tank which, should the necessity arise, can be quickly emptied so as to form a float of sufficient buoyancy to keep the machine afloat for a considerable period. In order to be able to carry the extra weight of fuel necessary for the long journey larger wings have been fitted, having three pairs of struts on each side instead of the two pairs fitted on the standard machine. A feature which is unique for this machine is the sweepback of the planes, which is very pronounced. This should form a very good feature by which to identify the Short machine, although from the fact that up to the present she is the only machine entered on which the westward flight will be attempted, she can scarcely be confused with any of the other entrants.
  As in the case of the Sopwith machine, the Short is fitted with a Rolls-Royce "Eagle," and the petrol capacity is, we understand, sufficient for a flight of 3,200 miles; in still air, of course. As the distance across is a little under 2,000 miles, this leaves a fair margin for adverse weather conditions, the prevailing winds in this part of the Atlantic being westerly at this time of the year. It will, therefore, be seen that the decision to make the westward flight may not be so dangerous as many are apt to imagine, and certainly considerable time will be saved by avoiding the delay of shipping the machine across before a start can be made.
  The cockpits are arranged in the usual fashion in this machine, i.e., in tandem. A directional wireless set will be fitted as well as all the navigation instruments of the usual type. The maximum speed is expected, to be about 95 m.p.h., but flying at cruising speed, and allowing for head winds, the actual speed may be expected to be considerably lower.
THE TRANSATLANTIC ATTEMPT. - Three-quarter front view of the Short "Shirl." The machine with which this firm will make the attempt is very similar to the "Shirl," but differs in various details. For instance, the wings will be of greater area than those shown in the photograph. The engine is a Rolls-Royce "Eagle."
The Short Transatlantic machine to be flown from East to West, piloted by Major Wood, with Capt.Wyllie as navigator
Three-quarter rear view of the Short Transatlantic machine
General arrangement drawings of the Short Trans-Atlantic machine.
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith Bat Boat. (1914)

Although not included in the drawings, the Sopwith Bat Boat merits brief mention here on account of the good work done by this type of machine before the War. Thus it may be remembered that the Sopwith Bat Boat, which was first exhibited at the Olympia Aero Show of 1913 and which had a 100 h.p. Green engine, won the Mortimer Singer Trophy by starting off the sea, coming down on land, and starting from the land alighting on the sea again. This was accomplished by fitting it, in addition to the boat, with a collapsible wheel undercarriage. We are not quite certain but what this was the first flying boat to be built in Great Britain. A later type of bat boat is shown in another photograph. This was fitted with a 200 h.p. Salmson engine and differed from the previous type in various details. Thus, for instance, it had a straight top plane, while the bottom plane had a pronounced dihedral. Also it had a single rudder instead of the twin rudders of the previous model. Also the tail booms were so arranged as to form a Vee when seen in plan view. Boats of this type were ordered by Germany before the War, and from photographs later published in German aviation papers it would appear that the Germans made several copies of this machine, imitating the original down to the smallest details.
A later type Bat boat with 200 h.p. Salmson engine.
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

  ALTHOUGH OUT "Milestones" series are primarily intended to include machines built during the War, we reserve ourselves the privilege of referring, when it seems advisable to do so, to machines built before the outbreak of hostilities. This is sometimes necessary in order to fully grasp the significance of the development that has taken place. A case in point, when dealing with the machines built by the Sopwith Aviation Co., Ltd., of Kingston, is the Sopwith "Tabloid" biplane. This machine, although built in 1913, has had such an extraordinary effect on aeroplane design in general, and in particular was certainly the beginning of the greatness of the House of Sopwith, that it undoubtedly merits inclusion in this series of articles. We, therefore, make no apology for including the "Tabloid," although it antedates the War by some twelve months.

The Sopwith "Tabloid"

  In its original form the Sopwith "Tabloid" was built as a side-by-side two-seater, with an 80 h.p. Gnome engine. It was built for Mr. Hawker, the famous Sopwith pilot, to be taken out to Australia in 1914, but very soon after its triumphant appearance a number of single-seaters of similar type were ordered by and built for the Army. The machine in its original form was described in FLIGHT for December 20, 1913, when scale drawings of it were published. This machine, as shown in the accompanying illustrations, had a skid type undercarriage and a balanced rudder, while there was no fixed vertical fin. The pilot and passenger sat side by side, the pilot on the left. Lateral control was by means of wing warping. When this machine paid its first visit to Hendon it left everyone agape, as such speed as it developed had certainly never been seen, nor probably been believed possible, with a biplane type of machine. In those days the general opinion was that for speed one must have a monoplane, and it was not until the advent of the "Tabloid" that this fallacy was effectively cleared up. After that the small fast single-seater biplane received a great impetus, and the type began to become general all over the world. It will, therefore, be seen that the world at large, and British aviation in particular, owes a debt of gratitude to the Sopwith firm for having demonstrated the possibilities of the small biplane. In addition to its great maximum speed - 92 m.p.h. - the "Tabloid" was remarkable in those days for its great speed range, as it would fly as slowly as 36 m.p.h. This was a range of speeds which none of the contemporary monoplanes were capable of.
  In its single-seater form the "Tabloid" underwent various minor alterations. Thus one of our photographs shows it with skid undercarriage, but with the front struts slightly more raked than they were in the original machine. Another slight alteration - which, unfortunately, does not appear in the photograph - was the addition of a vertical fin in front of the rudder, which latter was not balanced. The next step in the evolution of the "Tabloid" was seen when the late Mr. Harold Barnwell flew a "Tabloid" in the aerial Derby. This machine, although similar to its prototype, was fitted with a Vee-type undercarriage. Finally, the "Tabloid" entered the last stage of its development by being fitted with ailerons instead of warping wings, and in this form it was a most successful single-seater scout.
Three stages in the evolution of the Sopwith "Tabloid." - The top photograph shows the machine in its original form as a side-by-side two-seater. On the left is a later type, single-seater, in which the chassis struts are slightly more raked, and which has a non-balanced rudder, in front of which is a triangular fin. On the right the Sopwith "Tabloid" in which the late Mr. H. Barnwell flew In the aerial Derby. This machine had a Vee-type undercarriage.
A HISTORICAL EVENT. - Mr. Hawker, on the first Sopwith side-by-side two-seater "Tabloid," pays bis first flying visit to Hendon in 1913.
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Tractor Seaplane. (1914)

In the matter of tractor seaplanes the Sopwith Co. had already done good work in connection with, for instance, the circuit of Britain, and they were therefore in a position to undertake the design and construction of machines of this type when, early in the War, the Admiralty ordered some seaplanes. One type of these is shown in the accompanying photograph. It was designed for reconnaissance work and was unarmed. The engine fitted was a 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape. From the illustration it will be seen that this machine was fitted with folding wings. A somewhat similar machine of the land type was built also. The land machine differed, however, in several respects from the seaplane, apart from the difference in undercarriage. Thus the span of the two planes was equal. On several occasions machines of this type were seen at Hendon, where they caused curiosity chiefly on account of the bomb racks fitted on the struts of the undercarriage, a feature that was somewhat unusual in those days.
The Sopwith tractor seaplane.
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Gun 'Bus. (1914)

As a result of their experience with Sopwith school pushers, the Sopwith firm were given an order by the Greek Government for a number of somewhat similar machines, carrying a pilot and gunner, but not fitted with dual controls. A gun was mounted in the nose of the nacelle. This order was nearing completion when War broke out, and the machines were commandeered by the Admiralty. From August, 1914, they were immediately put into service, being among the first aeroplanes to be armed, and were equipped with land undercarriages instead of the original float chassis. The earlier batches were equipped with 100 h.p. Gnomes, but later water-cooled Sunbeams were fitted. Our scale drawings and photograph show one of these machine fitted with a 150 h.p. Sunbeam. A similar machine was a very familiar sight at Hendon in the earlier days of the War, and will be remembered by many visitors to that aerodrome.
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Baby Seaplane. (September, 1915)

  The Baby Seaplane was an immediate development of the "Tabloid," from which it differed principally in the fitting of floats instead of wheels. One of these machines made history by winning the Schneider Trophy at Monaco, and the Baby Seaplane is very similar to the famous Sopwith "Schneider." In this machine wing warping had given way to ailerons. The floats were of the plain, non-stepped type, and a tail float of considerable size was fitted under the stern. The engine originally fitted was a 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape, but later on n o and 130 h.p. Clergets were also used.
  It is of interest to note that, although this seaplane performed highly successfully at its first appearance, it was more or less put on one side at the outbreak of War, and it was not until November, 1914, that the demand arose for a fast single-seater seaplane. It was then immediately put into production, and from that distant date until the signing of the Armistice the Sopwith Baby Seaplane has been continually in service.
A Sopwith "Baby" seaplane, of a type much used by the R.N.A.S.
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Torpedo Seaplane. (1914)

In 1915 the Sopwith Co. built for the Admiralty a torpedo-carrying aeroplane. This machine was of an experimental character, but is notable as having been the forerunner of the famous Sopwith "Cuckoo." It was fitted with a 200 h.p. Canton-Unne engine.
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The 1 1/2-Strutters. (December 12, 1915, and June 7, 1916)

  The Sopwith 1 1/2-Strutter has claims to great historical distinction, not only for its great capabilities for use as a fighter, but because, indirectly, it set a new fashion in aerial fighting, being the first British aeroplane to carry a synchronized gun firing through the propeller. The Sopwith-Kauper synchronisation gear which made this possible was developed at the Sopwith works, and was as much a product of this firm as was the machine in which it was installed. It was also fitted with the Scarff gun ring for the gunner, which has since become such a well-established feature on all fighters. The 1 1/2-Stnrtter was originally designed as a high-performance two-seater fighter, with a 100 h.p. Clerget engine. At the time of its introduction it was justly regarded as an extraordinarily good 'bus, having an excellent performance and a good manoeuvrability. Incidentally it established a world's altitude record for an altitude of 23,980 ft. In view of its good performance, coupled with its (for the times) excellent armament, the 1 1/2-Strutter had a tremendous success, and it is not surprising that many machines were built to the order of the Governments of Roumania, Russia, America and Belgium. In addition, it might be mentioned that the French Government has manufactured under licence no less less than 4,500 machines of this model. In addition to the novel points connected with the mounting and firing of the guns carried, the 1 1/2-Strutter was interesting in several other respects. Thus the wing bracing - which gave it its name - was very unusual, and in a modified form set a new fashion, so to speak. The top plane was in two halves, bolted to the top of a central cabane, while the spars were provided with an extra support in the shape of shorter struts running from the top longerons to the top plane spars some distance out. In the single-seaters to follow this bracing of the top plane was generally adopted, with the exception that the central cabane was done away with, the outer struts of the W formation having a slightly less pronounced slope, and supporting a separate top plane centre section. Aerodynamically the 1 1/2-Strutter is of interest in being fitted with, an air brake in the form of adjustable flaps in the trailing edge at the lower plane adjacent to the fuselage. These flaps could be rotated by the pilot until they were normal to the wind, thus helping to pull the machine up when about to land.
  A more successful innovation incorporated in this machine was the trimming gear, by means of which the angle of incidence of the tail plane could be altered during flight. In this manner the difference in weight of the passenger carried could be counteracted by the tail setting, and also the tail could be adjusted for high speed, climbing, &c. This feature has since become universal practice on passenger-carrying machines.

The 1 1/2-Strutter Bomber

  Originally designed as a two-seater fighter, the 1 1/2-Strutter was later adopted as a single-seater bomber, and it is the machine which has been so successful in bombing, with good results, such towns as Essen, Munich and Frankfort. For bombing work the 1 1/2-Strutter was equipped with a 130 h.p. Clerget, which afterwards took the place of the 110 h.p. Clerget in the standard two-seater fighter model. It might also be mentioned that fairly recently the French Government converted a large number of two-seaters into school machines with dual controls. These machines are fitted with 80 h.p. Le Rhone engines.
Fig. 28. - Two-seater fighter. Sopwith 1 1/2 strutter.
The Sopwith 1 1/2-strutter fighter (two-seater)
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith "Camel." (December 22, 1916)

  Few aeroplanes have done more to repulse German attempts at aerial supremacy than the famous "Camel," so called from the hump which it carries on the forward top side of its fuselage by virtue of the fitting of two fixed machine guns, both firing through the propeller. Furnished with a 130 h.p. Clerget, and designed to achieve a very high performance both in climb and speed, the "Camel" showed itself a redoubtable fighter against antagonistic scouts, and also performed extraordinarily well as a Zeppelin catcher, in which latter connection its ability to climb with great rapidity was extremely valuable. A good angle of vision was obtained by keeping the pilot fairly well forward, and also by the positive stagger of the planes. In place of the large transparent panels fitted into the middle of the top plane in the "Pup," that of the "Camel" was provided with a faired-off slot. The remainder of the design followed "Pup" lines pretty closely, but it is of interest to note that this machine was the first to be fitted with two machine guns, a practice that has since been extensively adopted in both Allied and enemy aeroplanes of a similar type.
Fig. 8a. - Braced N-girder fuselage. Camel.
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith "Pup." (February 9, 1916)

  This famous single-seater scout bears a strong family resemblance to the Sopwith "family," being reminiscent of both the 1 1/2-Strutter and of the original "Tabloid." The "Pup" was brought into existence principally with the object of tackling the Fokker monoplanes that were at one time doing far too well on the Western Front. In this object it succeeded admirably, and although judged by present standards it is of very low power - it was fitted with an 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine - its performance and ease of handling endeared it so much to its pilots that its merits are spoken of with much affection, tinged with a little regret that it has had to give way for higher-powered machines. Incidentally we should imagine that it might be worth while for the Sopwith Co. to market the "Pup" as a sporting machine for use after the War. It handles remarkably well and lands quite slowly, while its cost and upkeep would not be exorbitant. A feature of the "Pup" are the window panels in the upper plane. The windows were rendered necessary by the fact that the pilot sat with his head below the level of the plane. A single machine gun firing through the propeller is mounted above the fuselage.

The "Pup" (Sea-Type)

  When starting from and alighting on the deck of a ship became the fashion, the Sopwith "Pup" was modified slightly for this purpose, and good work was done by this type on the North Sea patrols, for which work it proved very suitable. No illustrations of the sea "Pup" have been included, as the machine did not differ greatly from the standard type.
Three-quarter Rear View of the Sopwith "Pup" (80 h.p. Le Rhone engine).
During the week-end the Prince of Wales again indulged his leaning towards aviation by taking a flight in a Sopwith machine from Hounslow, with, as pilot, Major Barker, V.C., D.S.O., etc., who, it will be remembered, has lost one arm as a result of his wonderful War work. Upon this occasion many "stunts" were executed much to the liking of the Prince. In our photograph the Prince is seen getting into the Sopwith machine.
Squadron Commander Dunning lands his Sopwith Pup aboard HMS Furious on 2 August 1917. This was the first carrier landing ever made by an aeroplane. The picture (wherein a light cruiser is crossing the bows distantly) shows the Lewis gun and rope-toggle hand-holds.
AT THE WAR IN THE AIR EXHIBITION: A difficult feat - pilot's bad luck. - The first aeroplane to land on a warship's deck while the vessel is steaming at full speed. - The airman travels at the same speed as the vessel and in the same direction, and manoeuvres so as to drop on a given position. When held by the landing party he stops his engine. This pilot made two successful landings, but was drowned at the third attempt. Great praise is due to the men who volunteered to undertake this dangerous pioneer work, as they knowingly carried their lives in their hands.
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith Triplane. (May 28, 1916)

Amongst all the Sopwith productions, nearly all of which have attained great fame - so much so, indeed, that their type names are veritably household words - none is more characteristic than the triplane, affectionately known as the "Tripe" or "Tripehound." This machine was fitted with 130 h.p. Clerget engines. The principal objects aimed at in this notable design were, first, the attainment of a high degree of visibility, or, rather, the reduction to a minimum of the pilot's blind angle. With his head on a level with the intermediate plane, he enjoys a practically unrestricted arc of vision through about 120#, whilst sections cut out of the centre of the intermediate plane enable him to have a good view of the ground when landing, the position of the cockpit being such that the bottom plane has no restricting influence on the view. The narrowness of the chord made available by the use of three main planes also allowed the pilot an exceptional view upwards and to either side, an important consideration in a purely offensive machine. The second object aimed at was an increase in manoeuvrability, and the triplane principle was adopted to secure this purpose in consequence of the fact that, owing to the narrow chord, the shift of the centre of pressure with varying angles of incidence is relatively smaller than in a biplane, and consequently demands a shorter length of fuselage to carry the tail. At the same time the small span reduces the moments of inertia in the horizontal plane, and a machine is thus obtained which is highly responsive to its controls and which can add the important ability to dodge to its other strategic advantages The consideration of movement of the centre of pressure enabled single I-struts to be adopted in place of the usual pairs springing one from each spar. This construction also leads to a sensible simplification of the wiring system. Ailerons of the unbalanced type are fitted to all three planes.
A SOPWITH TRIPLANE ON THE WAY FOR A DOUBLE EVENT.
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith "Camel" (Sea Type)

  This design was almost identical with the above, except that the fuselage was made detachable at the rear of the pilot's seat, enabling the machine to be conveniently stowed aboard ship. It was used for flying from the deck of seaplane carriers, and, in addition to this, was also carried on some of our fast cruisers. The method of launching was off the Barbet guns. It will be appreciated that it required a machine of considerable efficiency to get off with certainty and satisfaction with so short a run.
A SOPWITH CAMEL, SEA TYPE, TAKING OFF FROM THE DECK OF A BATTLESHIP. - Note the platform carried on the guns and rota table with them.
Sopwith 2F.l Camels on the flying-off deck of HMS Furious in 1918.
AT THE WAR IN THE AIR EXHIBITION. - "All lined up and somewhere to go." "Off we go to strafe the Zepps." The machines are lined up on the deck of H.M.S. "Furious," ready to fly to the sheds at Tondern, in Schleswig-Holstein where the Zepps. had a lair. But the bombs found their target and Germany moaned the low of her much-prized "Gas-bags," one loaded shed being destroyed and others damaged.
LEFT, THE AEROPLANE IN POSITION. - This picture shows how the aeroplane is attached to the airship. AND ON RIGHT, DROPPING OFF. - The aeroplane released from the airship.
Sopwith 2F Camel, serial no N6814, of No 212 Squadron, RAF, slung from beneath R 23 at Pulham. The second Camel used in these trials was serial no 6622 and came from the same squadron. While the first release from R 23 involved an unmanned Camel with locked controls, at least one 'live' release was made, with Lt R.E.Keys landing the Camel back at Pulham.
AT THE WAR IN THE AIR EXHIBITION. - Ready to fight the enemy. An airship carrying a fighting aeroplane which can be released instantly in case of attack by enemy aircraft.
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith "Cuckoo." (June 6, 1917)

  There is a genuine humour in all the Sopwith type-names, and in none more so than in the "Cuckoo," which was encouraged to lay a very splendid egg in any German nest that could be located above the surface of the sea. The egg in this case was a special 18-in. torpedo, which the "Cuckoo" carried strung underneath her fuselage and between the wheels of the landing carriage, which, it will be observed, consists of two independent wheels, each separately mounted, and not, as is usual, united by a common or articulated axle.
  This machine was built at the request of Commander Murray Sueter, R.N., and was of considerable dimensions. The treble-bay arrangement of struts will be noted from the photograph, as also the installation of the 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza geared engine, with the elliptical radiator surrounding the propeller shaft.
The Sopwith Cuckoo
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith "Dolphin." (May 23, 1917)

  Two principal objects were borne in mind in the design of this single-seater fighter - firstly, to make good use of the 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine (which had reached a productive stage), and, secondly, to afford the pilot a range of vision greater than that of any other existing aeroplane. The former necessitated a departure from the usual lines of the Sopwith fuselage, the upper surface of which in the rear of the cockpit is more pronouncedly arched than in previous types. The span of the planes was increased beyond that of the "Camel," and a double-bay arrangement of struts adopted in order to provide great structural strength. At the same time the gap was slightly diminished, and, what forms a strong characteristic of the type, a negative stagger was adopted, with the object of placing the main spar extensions of the top plane in such a position as not to interfere with the complete freedom of movement of the pilot, who occupies the rectangular space formed by them. On these tubular steel spar extensions - which are supported by four short vertical struts from the fuselage - are mounted two Lewis guns, capable of being aimed independently of the direction of the machine. Two fixed Vickers' guns firing through the propeller are arranged along the top of the engine, and are partially covered in by this cylinder fairing. The general arrangement of the front part of the fuselage is particularly neat, and its formidable appearance is well supported by the "Dolphin's" offensive capabilities. The radiator is divided into two portions, each carried on one side of the fuselage level with the pilot's cockpit. In front of each radiator is arranged an inclined and adjustable deflector, allowing the whole or any part of the cooling surface to be obstructed. Among other features of the "Dolphin" will be noted an empennage design differing markedly from that of previous Sopwith types. The fin is of a more upright shape and the rudder is balanced.

The 300 h.p. "Dolphin."

  In connection with this type it is of considerable interest to note that at the signing of the Armistice it was being built in quantities by the French Government, for themselves and the American Government in France. It is fitted with the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, and an adjustable tail plane is employed, since the variable load is considerable, the French and American Governments calling for a very large quantity of petrol to be carried. The machine was reinforced in certain respects to allow for the considerable addition of power, and it had every promise of being an extremely formidable proposition.
  In general outline it was very similar to the 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza "Dolphin." The guns were completely concealed under the cowling, being fitted in tunnels, and the air intake of the carburettor was fitted with a telescopic-type gas tube direct into the front cowl, considerably diminishing the risk of carburettor fire.
"RULES OF THE AIR-MEETING ANOTHER MACHINE." - If a change of course is necessary, turn to the right.
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The "Buffalo." (February 19, 1918)

This machine, fitted with a B.R. 200 h.p. engine, was designed primarily for reconnaissance and contact patrol work, with a view to armouring the pilot, observer and fuel tanks against enemy attack. The construction of the fore part of the fuselage was similar to the "Salamander." It was fitted with one synchronised gun firing forward and one Lewis gun on a Scarff ring mounting firing aft. The experiments with this machine were highly successful, and it was on the point of being put into quantity production when the Armistice was signed.
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The "Salamander." (April 26, 1918)

In general lines this formidable aeroplane is modelled upon its prototype, the "Snipe," but its function is of a totally different character, as it was designed primarily as a trench fighter, for which purpose it is armed with two fixed machine guns and protected with armour plating. The latter forms the front of the fuselage from a point immediately in the rear of the engine (a B.R. of 200 h.p.), and extends to the rear of the pilot's cockpit. This plating was not added to an existing frame, but had a structural as well as a protective function, and itself formed the front portion of the fuselage. It will be noticed that the faired cowling behind the engine is added above the armour. A small variation from "Snipe" detail is seen in the tapering spine serving to fair off the pilot's head. This being bullet-proof, gave him a considerable means of protection against attack from the rear. The total weight of the armour is 650 lbs., and, in addition to this extra load, 2,000 rounds of ammunition were carried for the guns.
Fig. 37. - Ground fighter. Sopwith Salamander.
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Plan views of Sopwith machines
The company-funded, single seat Sopwith Scooter was the company's very first monoplane, the aircraft making its debut in June 1918. Purportedly built as an unarmed interim prototype for the Sopwith Swallow fighter, the Scooter actually served as Sopwith Test Pilot, Harry Hawker's personal aircraft. Powered by a 130hp Clerget, the Scooter used a Sopwith Camel fuselage. The sole Scooter never wore a military serial, its first identity being the civil K 135 seen here, later changed to G-EACZ.
Flight, February 6, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE SOPWITH MACHINES

The Sopwith "Snipe." (March 17, 1917)

  This machine was produced primarily with a view to the attainment of a very high performance and exhibits characteristics of both the "Camel" and "Dolphin." From the latter it differs in point of stagger and plane dimensions, and also in having a 200 h.p. B.R. engine in place of the Hispano-Suiza. As in the "Dolphin," the rudder is of large size and balanced, and the "Snipe," as might be expected from its general fines and arrangement of weights, was highly manoeuvrable. The pilot's head, owing to the deep fuselage and small gap, is on a level with the top plane, the centre of which is partly cut away and partly slotted. A double-bay system of struts is used, giving, with the relatively small span, great constructional strength. Owing to the large diameter of the B.R. 2, the rectangularity of the fuselage only appears towards the tail, and the body is more pronouncedly circular than in previous Sopwith designs. The "Snipe" did not make its appearance until well on in the middle of 1918, and had thus very little chance of introducing its qualities to the German Flying Corps. In the short time at its disposal, however, it made an enviable reputation for itself. In four days a single "Snipe" squadron accounted for 36 enemy areoplanes, and downed 13 in one day. At this rate German aerial personnel would have become rapidly exhausted. An outstanding feat was that performed by Major Barker, who, on a Sopwith "Snipe," when attacked by 60 hostile machines, crashed four of them and drove down no less than 10 out of control.
  In addition, it might be mentioned that a "Snipe" fitted with an A.B.C. engine attained a speed of 156 m.p.h., and climbed to 10,000 ft. in 4 1/2 minutes.
Fig. 24. - One-seater fighter. Sopwith Snipe.
The Sopwith Snipe
A Sopwith "Snipe," B.R.2 engine, presented by Leicester to Canada at Hendon on January 21.
"AND NOW FOR THE OTHER ONE": A Sopwith Snipe gets home on the Fokkers.
Side elevations of the Sopwith machines
Front elevations of the Sopwith machines
Plan views of Sopwith machines
Flight, April 10, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE

  THE preparations for the great race to be first to cross the Atlantic by air are progressing apace. By way of summary, the Sopwith machine, to be piloted by Mr. H. Hawker, who will have with him as navigator and assistant pilot Capt. Grieve, is already at the starting point in Newfoundland, and is only awaiting favourable weather conditions before making a start. The Martinsyde biplane, with its pilot, Mr. F. P. Raynham, and his navigator, Capt. Morgan, is on its way across, and may, by the time these lines appear in print, have arrived at St. John's. The Fairey machine, up till now the only seaplane entered from this side, is rapidly nearing completion, being, in fact, a standard Fairey 3C type especially adapted for the race. The pilot, as already announced, will be Mr. Sydney Pickles, so well knows to all readers of FLIGHT. The name of the navigator who will accompany him has not yet been disclosed, but will, we understand, be announced shortly. The Short machine entered, and which will be piloted by Major Wood, who will have with him as navigator Capt. Wyllie, has the distinction of being the only entrant which, so far, it is proposed to start from this side, the starting point chosen being Bawnmore, near Limerick, in Ireland. This machine, which has been undergoing severe tests during the last couple of weeks, is to be flown first to Ireland, whence the final start will be made.
  As to the probability of one or all of the competitors succeeding in getting across, there is of course, a certain element of luck involved, but arrangements, as announced elsewhere, are being made., by the Air Ministry and Admiralty, to take all possible precautions, and to ensure that, even in cases of engine failure, the occupants should have a very good chance of being picked up by passing vessels.

THE MACHINES

  As interest centres more and more in this race, a few words dealing with the British machines entered will, we feel sure be welcomed by readers of FLIGHT.

The Sopwith Machine

  The Rolls-Royce engined Sopwith transport type specially designed for an attempt to win the Daily Mail Prize for crossing the Atlantic, is of the vertical biplane type, the wings having no stagger. Pilot and navigator are seated well aft, so as to give a large space in the fuselage between them and the engine, in which to fit the large petrol tank required for the great amount of fuel that has to be carried for a flight of this duration. This tank has a capacity of 330 gallons, while the oil tank contains 24 gallons, and the water reservoir 17 gallons. The weight of the machine empty is 3,000 lbs., and fully loaded she weighs 6,150 lbs. The accompanying general arrangement drawings will give a good idea of the dimensions of the machine. The engine fitted is a Rolls-Royce "Eagle," of 375 h.p., which will give the machine a maximum speed of 118 m.p.h. This speed will not, of course, be maintained all the way, the most economical speed from the point of fuel consumption lying somewhere between the maximum and the minimum speed, and varying with the lightening in load as the fuel is consumed.
  The cockpit of the occupants is arranged in a somewhat unusual way, the two seats being side by side, but somewhat staggered in relation to one another. The object of this seating arrangement is to enable them to communicate with one another more readily and to facilitate "changing watches" during the long journey. The very deep turtle back of the fuselage is made in part detachable, the portion which is strapped on being built so as to form a small life boat in case of a forced descent on the sea. In this manner it is hoped to provide sufficient flotation for the occupants to remain afloat until a passing vessel may pick them up, should a descent be necessary. As the machine is not fitted with floats, it would, of course, be out of the question to get her off again once she was in the water. In other respects the machine does not differ greatly from standard Sopwith practice, which is already well known to readers of FLIGHT. The two photographs and the general arrangement drawings, should give a very good idea of the general appearance of the machine.
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THE TRANSATLANTIC RACE. - Three-quarter rear view of the Sopwith-Rolls-Royce machine, the "Atlantic." The detachable boat, which forms the turtle back of the rear portion of the fuselage, is clearly shown. The windmill projecting through the port side of the fuselage drives the generator for the wireless set. When not in use, it can be swung inboard. Being driven by a windmill the generator can be worked when the engine is stopped, as during a glide.
This view of the Atlantic (obviously taken on the same occasion as those for which numbers are quoted) shows the retractable wind-driven generator; and, such is the lighting, the cowling louvres are more than usually obvious.
THE TRANSATLANTIC ATTEMPT. - Rear view of the Sopwith machine.
Mr. Hawker's Sopwith machine being replenished with "Castrol," at St. John's, Newfoundland
Hawker's salved Sopwith machine on the roof of Selfridge's, Oxford Street
General arrangement drawings of the Sopwith Trans-Atlantic machine.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME POST-WAR SOPWITH MACHINES

  THE Sopwith Aviation and Engineering Co. is by no means disposed to rest upon its laurels, and testimony to this effect is furnished by the origination of the three new peace types: the "Dove," the "Gnu" and the "Transport." Further, the company's design and experimental department is being maintained at its full strength and is as busy as ever. Some interesting developments are likely to be heard of in the near future. With the single exception of lighter-than-air craft their experience as that of pioneer designer-constructors covers all types of aircraft, flying boats, sea planes and "land" machines. Furthermore they have built, and had standardised, everything from bombers and torpedo-carriers to high-speed scouts, and in every type they have attained eminence. No better proof of this could be asked than the way in which their type names have become household words.
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  The "Dove" is a sporting two-seater machine fitted with a Le Rhone 80 h.p. somewhat on the lines of the famous "Camel," etc., fighters. Its chief characteristics are as follows :- Span, 25 ft.; chord, 5 ft. 1 1/2 ins.; gap, 4 ft. 6 ins.; stagger, 1 ft. 4 ins.; dihedral, 3°; overall length, 19 ft. 6 ins.; height, 9 ft. 6 ins.; area of main planes, 213 sq. f t.; weight fully loaded, 1,430 lbs.; maximum safe load, 665 lbs.; loading per sq. ft., 6.7 lbs.; speed range, 60-100 m.p.h.; climb, 5,000 ft. in 7 1/2 mins.; range, 200-250 miles.
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The Sopwith "Dove" sporting two-seater, 80 h.p. Le Rhone
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME POST-WAR SOPWITH MACHINES

  THE Sopwith Aviation and Engineering Co. is by no means disposed to rest upon its laurels, and testimony to this effect is furnished by the origination of the three new peace types: the "Dove," the "Gnu" and the "Transport." Further, the company's design and experimental department is being maintained at its full strength and is as busy as ever. Some interesting developments are likely to be heard of in the near future. With the single exception of lighter-than-air craft their experience as that of pioneer designer-constructors covers all types of aircraft, flying boats, sea planes and "land" machines. Furthermore they have built, and had standardised, everything from bombers and torpedo-carriers to high-speed scouts, and in every type they have attained eminence. No better proof of this could be asked than the way in which their type names have become household words.
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  The "Gnu" is a light high-performance three-seater passenger or goods machine of the single-engined tractor type, having an enclosed cabin for the passengers or goods at the rear of the main planes. There are two models of the "Gnu," but these differ only as regards the engine fitted, and, consequently, in the performance. In one model a 110 h.p. Le Rhone is fitted, and in the other a 200-h.p. Bentley rotary, the latter giving an extra 17 m.p.h. in the speed and a slight increase in range and climb. The general construction conforms with usual practice and the factor of safety is 6. The following characteristics apply to both models. Span, 38 ft.; chord, 5 ft.; gap, 5 ft.; stagger, 11 ins.; dihedral, 2 1/2°; overall length, 25 ft. 6 ins.; height, 10 ft.; area of main planes, 350 sq. ft.; weight fully loaded, 2,160 lbs. (Le Rhone), 2,400 lbs. (Bentley); maximum safe load 1,202 lbs. (Le Rhone), 820 lbs. (Bentley); loading per sq. ft. 6.1 lbs. (Le Rhone), 6.85 lbs. (Bentley); speed range, 53-93 m.p.h. (Le Rhone), 65-110 m.p.h. (Bentley); climb, 5,000 ft. in 7 3/4 mius. (Le Rhone), 5,000 ft. in 5 1/2 mins. (Bentley); range, 220-300 miles (Le Rhone), 200-250 miles (Bentley).
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A 60-GUINEA "FLIP." - Mr. Hawker gives Miss Daisy King the first flight at Hendon on Saturday. Secured by our photographer from an Airco (de H. 9) biplane piloted by Capt. Gathergood.
Miss Daisy King, the highest bidder for the first passenger flight with Mr. Hawker at Hendon, being shepherded by Mr, Hawker and Mr. Sigrist into the Sopwith Gnu.
SOPWITH PASSENGER MACHINE. - One of the Gnu biplanes, with enclosed cabin for the passenger. In the photograph the cabin is shown open
The Sopwith "Gnu" three-seater limousine, 200 h.p. B.A.2
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE SOPWITH "SCHNEIDER CUP" MACHINE

  As the firm who won the Jacques Schneider Cup at Monaco in 1914, special interest attaches to the machine entered by the Sopwith firm for this year's Schneider race, which is to be held at Bournemouth on September 10. It will be remembered that the race of 1914 was won by Mr. Howard Pixton, who was flying a small Sopwith tractor seaplane of the twin-float type. The machine, in a general way, was not unlike the little land tractor "Tabloid," except that, of course, she was fitted with floats in place of the wheels. Later on the "Sopwith Schneiders" were called upon for work of a much more serious character, and during the earlier part of the War these machines did a tremendous amount of good work in the R.N.AS. The race of 1914 was over a distance of about 150 miles, and was covered by Mr. Pixton on the Sopwith in 2 hours 13 2/5 secs. The next best time was made by Burri on an F.B.A. flying boat, which completed the course in 3 hours 24 mins. 12 secs. As already announced, this year's race will be held over a distance of about 200 miles, the course being from Bournemouth to Swanage, thence to Christchurch, and from there back to Bournemouth. The length of the course is approximately 20 miles, so that competitors will be called upon to cover the course ten times. This should give the spectators a very good view of the machines, not only as they pass the turning points, but from the cliffs at Bournemouth the machines should be well in view the whole time. There can be little doubt that as regards speed the machines entered this year will be greatly superior to those of 1914, and, although the distance is longer, the times should be considerably shorter than the two hours taken by Pixton in 1914.
  The machine entered by the Sopwith firm for this year's Schneider race is a small tractor biplane of the twin-float type. It is fitted with a Cosmos "Jupiter" radial engine of about 450 h.p. Judging from estimated figures of performance, and from data of wing loading and load/h.p., which figures we are not, unfortunately, permitted to publish this week, the Sopwith should show an astonishing turn of speed. The machine, as already mentioned, is a small single-seater, with only one pair of struts on each side. The planes are given a slight backward stagger, although this is so slight as to be almost unnoticeable.
  As regards its construction, the Sopwith machine follows usual Sopwith practice. Its fuselage is the usual wood girder, wire-braced structure, but a superstructure of light stringers has been added so as to give the fuselage a good streamline form. The machine, it will be seen from the accompanying photograph, has very clean lines, and everything has been done to reduce head resistance. Thus as regards the tail planes, the vertical fin grows out of the body, so to speak, although it does not form an integral part of the fuselage, and the rudder continues the streamline of the body, being very thick as regards its lower portion. No external crank levers are fitted to the rudder, and the elevator crank lever is placed centrally, where it is covered by the detachable vertical fin. A notable feature of the machine is that no tail float is fitted. This in spite of the fact that the two main floats are not extraordinarily long.
  The accompanying photograph, taken while the machine was being erected at the Sopwith works at Kingston, does not show the floats in place, but it gives a very good idea of the simplicity of the undercarriage structure, which consists of four streamline steel tube struts, cross-braced with Raf-wire The two floats are simply bolted to the transverse struts joining the chassis struts.
  With regard to the floats themselves, these are of the plain non-stepped type. That is to say, there is no actual step, in the ordinary sense of the word, but from a point slightly aft of the centre of the floats the bottom is perfectly flat and slopes upward towards the heel. The nose of the floats is cut off at a slight angle to the transverse axis of the machine. In general it may be said that the Sopwith Schneider 'bus has a very strong family resemblance to previous Sopwith machines, and it is certainly not a "freak" machine in any way. This is not meant to indicate that she will not be fast, however, for being quite a small light machine, and having a light engine of 450 h.p., she cannot very well help being fast, but that as regards her general design and construction she is quite an orthodox seaplane of the small type. Sopwiths were the first to show the world that a biplane can be made fast, and their present machine may be expected to uphold the reputation, especially as it will be piloted by Mr. Hawker.


Flight, September 4, 1919.

THE JACQUES SCHNEIDER CUP RACE

The Machines

The Sopwith Seaplane

  In our last issue we were able to publish a brief description and an illustration of the Sopwith machine, but we were not at liberty to give any particulars of dimensions, etc. This week, however, we are publishing complete scale drawings and photographs, from which can be formed an idea of the small size and general arrangement of the Sopwith Schneider Cup racer. The machine, which is fitted with a 450 h.p. Cosmos "Jupiter" engine, has been very carefully streamlined in order to cut down resistance. Thus, although constructionally not of the monocoque type, the body has the rounded shape which one usually associates with that form of construction. The fuselage is the usual wood girder-braced structure, but the circular shape of the engine cowl is carried gradually into the flat sides of the rear portion of the fuselage by the addition of longitudinal stringers. The front portion of the fuselage is covered with aluminium, the rear part with fabric.
  The 450 h.p. "Jupiter" engine is bolted to the flat nose of the fuselage, and is faired off with an aluminium cowl, through which the cylinder heads project. A "spinner" is fitted over the propeller-boss, and it will be noticed that each cylinder is faired off by additions to the engine cowl, taking the shape of a slice of a cone. The pilot's head is also faired off, and altogether everything has been done to cut down resistance to a minimum. The fuel tanks are carried inside the top and side fairings of the body.
  The planes, which have a very slight backward stagger, are of short span, and have one pair of struts on each side, in addition to the usual centre section struts. Wing bracing is by streamline wires, and is of standard type. Ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower planes.
  The tail planes are of the usual type, and do not call for any special comment; with the exception, perhaps, of the fin, which is somewhat unusual. The extreme front portion of the fin is built integral with the fuselage. The rest of the fin, although curving gradually into the top of the body, is a separate structure, bolted on after the tail plane is in place. The rudder is unusual, inasmuch as its lower portion is very thick, forming a continuation of the fuselage. The latter does not come to a sharp edge at the rear, but is some 6 or 8 ins. wide at the stern post. The leading edge of the rudder is made of the same width, and is covered with plywood. There is thus no external rudder crank lever, while the single pair of levers for the elevators is housed inside the fin. The whole gives a very neat impression, offering a minimum of resistance. The hollow lower portion of the rudder serves as a tail float.
  The two floats are of the flat-bottomed type. That is to say, there is no Vee bottom, and no step in the ordinary sense of the word. It will be noticed, however, that the rear part of the float bottoms slopes upward in a straight line, and does not continue the curve of the front part. The latter is placed at a slight dihedral angle, as shown in the front elevation. The consequence is that the nose of the floats forms an angle with the transverse axis of the machine.
  There can be no doubt that as regards speed, the Sopwith Schneider machine will be difficult to beat, fitted as it is with an engine of 450 h.p., and being very small. The weight, all on, is about 2,200 lbs., so that the wing loading will work out at something like 10 lbs./sq. ft. This will mean that the landing-speed will be fairly high, and if the day of the race should prove windy, with a rough sea, alighting might prove a matter of some difficulty. The loading is slightly less than 5 lbs./h.p., probably one of the lightest engine loadings ever attained in an aeroplane. A few years ago this was a fair average weight of the engine itself, and the Sopwith should be practically able to "helicopter."


Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME POST-WAR SOPWITH MACHINES

  THE Sopwith Aviation and Engineering Co. is by no means disposed to rest upon its laurels, and testimony to this effect is furnished by the origination of the three new peace types: the "Dove," the "Gnu" and the "Transport." Further, the company's design and experimental department is being maintained at its full strength and is as busy as ever. Some interesting developments are likely to be heard of in the near future. With the single exception of lighter-than-air craft their experience as that of pioneer designer-constructors covers all types of aircraft, flying boats, sea planes and "land" machines. Furthermore they have built, and had standardised, everything from bombers and torpedo-carriers to high-speed scouts, and in every type they have attained eminence. No better proof of this could be asked than the way in which their type names have become household words.
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  The "Schneider Cup" seaplane was described in FLIGHT for September 4 last, so that a further description is unnecessary here, and the following brief characteristics should suffice. Span, 24 ft.; chord, 5 ft. 1 1/2 ins.; gap, 4 ft. 6 ins.; stagger (back), 2 1/2 ins.; overall length, 22 ft.; weight, 2,200 lbs.; speed (as land machine), 170-175 m.p.h. The engine is a 450 h.p. Cosmos "Mercury."
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THE SOPWITH SCHNEIDER SEAPLANE: Three-quarter front view
The Sopwith "Schneider Cup" racing seaplane, 450 h.p. Cosmos "Jupiter"
THE SCHNEIDER CONTEST: The Sopwith seaplane.
THE START FOR THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: 4. The Sopwith seaplane.
THE SCHNEIDER RACE: The fuselage and undercarriage struts of the Sopwith machine, which is nearing completion at the Sopwith works at Kingston. The engine is a 450 h.p. Cosmos "Jupiter."
THE SOPWITH SCHNEIDER CUP SEAPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations, to scale
Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 17. - The Sopwith Biplane, 320 h.p. A.B.C. Dragonfly
  When Mr. Hawker on his Sopwith biplane arrived shortly before the start of the Aerial Derby it was thought by many that after all the Air Ministry had withdrawn their prohibition, but this impression was soon dispelled by Mr. Hawker, who, on landing, informed us that he had been unable to obtain the necessary permission, the reason given being, we believe, that the Dragonfly engine was Government property. The disappointment caused by this decision was very keen indeed, as the majority of the visitors had looked forward to seeing Hawker in this famous race. The machine, which was to have carried the official number 17, is a single-seater with one pair of struts on each side. It has the usual arrangement of the centre section struts, which are sloped outwards, and there is a strong family resemblance to previous Sopwith machines, although it would be difficult to state which type she resembles most. The machine is, we believe, known as the Sopwith Snapper.
Flight, October 16, 1919.

SOPWITH (AUSTRALIA) TRANSPORT MACHINE
360 H.P. Rolls-Royce "Eagle"

  WITHIN the next few days, probably even before this week's issue of FLIGHT is distributed - to wit, Wednesday is the actual day selected - at least one of the machines entered for the Australian Government Prize Flight from England to Australia will have left Hounslow on its long journey. This machine, a large biplane built by the Sopwith Aviation and Engineering Co., Ltd., is already finished, and during the last few days has been undergoing final tests at Brooklands, her performance and general ease of handling having proved very satisfactory. Through the courtesy of the Sopwith firm we are able this week to place before our readers a detailed description of this new Sopwith (Australia) Commercial aeroplane, illustrated by photographs and scale drawings. The machine, it will be seen, is not unlike the Transatlantic Sopwith in general outline, although being of somewhat larger dimensions. As a matter of fact, that machine has more or less formed a basis for the design of the "Wallaby," as the new biplane is called, and the experience gained with the Transatlantic 'bus has been made good use of in the design of the "Wallaby."
  Being designed for such a long journey, one of the first considerations, next to aerodynamical efficiency, has naturally been the provision of the maximum of comfort for the occupants. As will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, the "Wallaby" has a very deep fuselage, forming an enclosed cabin for the pilot and engineer. Inside this cabin are arranged the two seats, that of the pilot-navigator being in front. These seats are mounted on a tubular framework which can be raised and lowered, running on vertical tubular guides, and locked in any desired position. If, therefore, the pilot wishes to be absolutely protected from the weather he lowers his seat and draws the sliding panel in the roof of the cabin over the circular cockpit, when he is as comfortable as possible, out of the draught and noise. Just before landing, or if, for any reason, during the voyage he wishes to obtain a better view than that afforded from inside the cabin, it is a matter of a few seconds only to slide the panel forward, raise the seat, and he is then in the same position, relatively to the fuselage and wings, as in an open machine. The rear cockpit is similarly arranged.
  All the controls are in duplicate, the "stick" being a tube which slips into the socket on the control shaft. At a moment's notice, therefore, either of the occupants can take over the control of the machine, the other withdrawing his "stick" and placing it on the side of the fuselage, where suitable clips are provided. An interesting feature of the pilot's controls is that the rudder bar is in duplicate, one bar being placed low near the floor, the other higher up to correspond with the highest position of the seat. In this manner, no matter at what height the seat is placed, one foot bar is in a comfortable position, and as a matter of fact even with the seat at its highest position the lower foot bar is within reach, thus allowing the pilot to stretch his leg's without taking his feet off the rudder control. For a flight of the duration of that contemplated, this is a point that deserves consideration.
  As the fuselage of the "Wallaby" is of considerable cross section, the instruments carried occupy only a small portion of the dash in front of the pilot. The space thus left is utilised by providing a locker, holding two ply-wood trays to which are pinned the maps of the country over which the machine is passing. Fixed to these trays with small metal clips are parallel rulers, dividers, etc., so that the pilot, who incidentally is also the navigator, has at his finger tips all the instruments required for working out his course. When not in use these maps are pushed into the locker and the door closed.
  Triplex windows are provided in the sides of the fuselage, and a small window is also fitted in the floor in front of the pilot. The latter window is ruled with a set of lines, one running parallel with the longitudinal axis of the machine, and others forming various angles with it. By watching through this window the path traced out by objects on the ground the pilot can get a very good indication of the drift - that is to say, the angle between the course steered and the course made good. It is also of interest to note that Capt. Matthews has designed a special Azimuth Mirror, placed handy when not in use, which slides along the circular edge of the front cockpit, this being graduated all round.
  The pilot-navigator of the Sopwith "Wallaby," Capt. Matthews, is an old hand at sea navigation, and therefore knows the idiosyncrasies of compasses. He is taking no chances, and is carrying no less than three, one large and two smaller, one of which is mounted in the engineer's cockpit. In order to facilitate communication between pilot and engineer there is no partition between the two cockpits, and the back of the pilot's seat is in the form of a canvas flap, which can easily be pulled down out of the way, allowing him if desired to walk back to the rear of the cabin. Placed in racks along the sides of the fuselage are a number of smoke bombs, which after dropping some 500 ft. ignite and produce a dense black smoke. When the machine is out of sight of the ground these will form a very useful means of ascertaining the drift of the machine. Incidentally, one would imagine that they might be very useful in case of a forced landing far away from inhabited areas, as smoke signalling is one of the oldest in the world and is used by most native tribes.
  A very interesting instrument, which we, do not remember having seen on a commercial aeroplane before, is fitted to the Sopwith, This is known as a turn meter, and consists of two swivelling tubes, terminating in a funnel at the rear, mounted one on each wing tip in front of the leading edge. These two tubes are connected up to an indicator in the cabin, on which the slightest turn is shown. This instrument, which is, we understand, very delicate, should be very useful in case of flying in clouds, when a machine usually begins to swing off her course first to one side and then to the other, until the compass swings to such an extent that the pilot no longer knows quite what the machine is doing.
  The Rolls-Royce "Eagle," Mark VIII, is placed immediately behind a nose radiator, and is supplied with petrol from a gravity tank placed in the top centre section. Petrol is forced from the main tank, which is placed between the engine and the cabin and has a capacity of about 200 gallons, to this top tank. A very ingenious flow meter is fitted on the latter, indicating at any time the rate at which the fuel is being consumed. In the top centre section is also placed a water tank holding about 25 gallons of water, connected up to the radiator by a flexible rubber tube. Another tube, it might be mentioned incidentally, runs from the nose of the machine, through the engine housing and to the cabin, supplying the latter with fresh air. Two long exhaust pipes run back to the rear of the cabin, and serve as very effectire silencers, the noise inside when the two panels in the roof are closed being almost negligible.
  As will be seen from the scale drawings, the Sopwith "Wallaby" is a three-strutter, the large span making this arrangement advisable. The under carriage is of the usual simple Vee type, with rather a narrow track. Wing tip hoops have therefore been fitted.
  For the rest, the Sopwith "Wallaby" follows standard practice in design and construction. The tail plane is provided with the usual trimming gear, the wheel control of which may be seen in the side view of the machine. There is a rectangular-shape vertical fin, to which is hinged the balanced rudder.
  As will be seen from the general arrangement drawings, the total wing area is 550 sq. ft. The weight of the machine, empty, is 2,780 lbs., which gives a wing loading, empty, of 5.05 lbs./sq. ft. and a power loading, empty, of 7.75 lbs./h.p. As already mentioned, the tanks have a capacity of 200 gallons, and with the weight of occupants and full equipment the weight "all on" is 5,200 lbs. This gives a wing loading of 9-45 lbs./sq. ft. and a power loading of 14.5 lbs./h.p. With full load the maximum speed is about 121 m.p.h., and the minimum speed 48 m.p.h. The cruising speed at 5,000 ft. and at a petrol consumption of 15 gallons per hour, is 107 m.p.h., which gives a range of about 1,500 miles. This is ample for any overseas distance that has to be covered during the flight to Australia, and should also give a very good margin for any of the overland stages over country unsuitable for landing. As an example of the efficiency of the Sopwith "Wallaby" it is of more than passing interest to note that the ratio Useful Load / Total Weight = 2,420 / 5,200 = 46.5 per Cent., which is distinctly good. Incidentally, it might be mentioned that the usefulness of the "Wallaby" is by no means restricted to the flight to Australia. By altering the cabin and seating accommodation it is possible to get in eight people (including the pilot), when the machine would have a range of 500 miles at a speed of 107 m.p.h.

The Flight Itself

  With regard to the actual flight to Australia., the difficulties are many and the country over which the machine win have to pass is in many cases anything but inviting in case of engine failure. However, the Rolls-Royce Eagle, Mark VIII, has a good reputation for "sticking it." All possibilities have, however, been taken into consideration, and a number of spare parts will be taken, including a spare propeller. This is, we think, a very wise precaution, since it is quite conceivable that during a forced landing the propeller might be damaged, which, even if no other damage occurred, would effectively prevent getting off again, while if a spare propeller is carried it should be possible to effect repairs and proceed on the journey. As to the route followed, this will, we understand, be that known as Air Ministry Route No. 1 to India. It is indicated in the accompanying sketch map, on which are also marked some of the distances in miles. These are, it should be pointed out, only approximately correct. The direct route to Australia is shown on the map in dotted lines. It will be seen that this goes a good deal farther to the north than the route which it is proposed to follow, and that it is very considerably shorter. The start will be made from Hounslow, and the machine will then fly across France, down to Pisa. From there to Capua and Taranto, from which latter place the machine will make for Valona, in Albania, and proceed down across Greece and hence to Cairo. From Cairo to Damascus and Bagdad, and hence to Karachi. From Karachi to Delhi, Calcutta, Rangoon and Singapore, at which latter place there is a control. From Singapore to Batavia, and along the Dutch East Indian Islands to Timor, and then the last stage across to Port Darwin, Australia. The journey is one full of dangers, and the pilot who makes it may well be proud of his achievement. According to the terms of the Australian Government Prize, the maximum time allowed is 30 days, but as Capt. Matthews points out, he is, as a member of the Larkin-Sopwith Company of Australia, far more interested in demonstrating the possibility of making such a long-distance flight on a single-engined machine than in winning the cash prize, although naturally he will do his best to win it. He is convinced that Australia offers an excellent field for aeronautical development, and that the successful completion of such a flight would give a strong fillip to aviation in that country.
  The height at which it is intended to fly will vary with local conditions, but Capt. Matthews expects to do the flight at an average altitude of somewhere between 6,000 and 10,000 ft. For supplies of food, etc., Capt. Matthews is relying on the hospitality of the countries in which he will have to land, but it may be mentioned that, acting on the advice of the Air Ministry, he is carrying a repeating rifle in the aeroplane, so that if any natives among whom he may find himself show signs of hostilities, these may be answered in a suitable manner.

The Pilot-Navigator and the Engineer

  Before concluding, it may be of interest to give a brief reference to the careers of the two men who will attempt this hazardous journey. The pilot-navigator is Capt. George Campbell Matthews, A.F.C., of the Australian Flying Corps, and the engineer is Sergt. Tom Kay, also of the Australian Flying Corps. Capt. Matthews is 36 years of age, and has had a strenuous career, which particularly fits him for the rigours of this arduous flight. He has spent 12 years at sea in the Mercantile Marine as a practical navigator, and holds an extra-master's certificate. In his own words, he has been "all over the world and many other places."
  On the outbreak of war, he was acting as chief officer of a passenger steamer off the Australian coast, but he at once left and joined the Australian Light Horse as a trooper. He received his commission at Gallipoli, and subsequently served 2 1/2 years with that Force at the Dardanelles and also in Egypt. Whilst in the latter country, he found himself unable to resist the attractions of a flying career, and joining the R.F.C., he took his pilot's certificate in February, 1917, afterwards proceeding out to France with the 1st Australian Scout Squadron, No. 68 R.F.C., in September. After three months in France, he returned to England to be promoted Flight Commander of the No. 4 Australian Scout Squadron, which was then flying Sopwith Camels.
  When the Australian Training Wing was formed in England, Capt. Matthews returned to it as Wing Examiner. He has flown some 21 different types of machines, and is a pilot of the most fearless and reliable type, his long maritime experience having proved of the greatest value to him in the air. A better air pilot could hardly have been chosen for this great air flight, for Capt. Matthews has an intimate knowledge of the Malay Archipelago, the Celebes Islands and other islands of the Pacific. Sergt. Kay, who is accompanying him, is one of the best Australian mechanics, and has had a long experience of internal combustion engines. He is not himself a qualified pilot, but whilst waiting to start, Capt. Matthews has trained him in the management of the Australian machine, "The Wallaby," so that he can act as a relief when the machine is in the air and at a fair height.
  As an instance of the sporting spirit and good will which exists between British aviation firms, we think it should be mentioned that the Airco firm, who have had about two months' experience in regular commercial air services, have placed all their logs of the London-Paris Air Service at the disposal of Sopwiths, containing a vast amount of extremely useful data and experience, which is acknowledged to be of the very greatest assistance to Sopwiths in planning this long flight.


Flight, November 6, 1919.

THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA

  IN connection with the flight to Australia, for which the Australian Government has offered a prize of ?10,000, events now appear to indicate that this competition may almost amount to a race. The Sopwith machine entered for this flight left Hounslow some time ago, and was, as recorded in FLIGHT at the time, obliged to descend near Cologne. Some speculation as to the reasons for landing there has been occupying the minds of many interested in the flight. We are informed that the machine and engine are both quite all right, and that what caused the descent was exceptionally bad weather. The machine left Hounslow in reasonably good weather, but after crossing into France fogs were encountered and it was only occasionally that Capt. Matthews caught a glimpse of the ground. One of these showed him that he was over Ypres, and he had some trouble in finding Marquise aerodrome. However, this he ultimately succeeded in doing, and spent the night there. He left Marquise next morning, again meeting with very bad weather. Through a rift in the clouds he discovered a town below and decided to come down to enquire. After cruising about for nearly an hour he found a landing ground, and discovered that he was at Cologne. Apparently a very strong wind had upset all his calculations, and as he could not see the ground he had no means of ascertaining his actual drift. Continuous bad weather kept the "Wallaby" at Cologne until November 2, when a start was made. Even then, it was only possible to get on to Mayence.
  In addition to the Sopwith "Wallaby" three other machines are now all but ready for the attempt, and are mainly waiting for an improvement in the weather before making a start. These are: A Martinsyde, an Alliance, and a Vickers-Vimy. As all the machines must start from Hounslow it would appear that the arrival of better weather will mean the start of all three machines more or less together, and an exciting race may therefore be looked to.


Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME POST-WAR SOPWITH MACHINES

  THE Sopwith Aviation and Engineering Co. is by no means disposed to rest upon its laurels, and testimony to this effect is furnished by the origination of the three new peace types: the "Dove," the "Gnu" and the "Transport." Further, the company's design and experimental department is being maintained at its full strength and is as busy as ever. Some interesting developments are likely to be heard of in the near future. With the single exception of lighter-than-air craft their experience as that of pioneer designer-constructors covers all types of aircraft, flying boats, sea planes and "land" machines. Furthermore they have built, and had standardised, everything from bombers and torpedo-carriers to high-speed scouts, and in every type they have attained eminence. No better proof of this could be asked than the way in which their type names have become household words.
  The "Transport" can be adapted for use either as a cargo machine or for the purpose of conveying passengers. In the former case, accommodation is provided for one pilot and passenger with 1,500 lbs. of cargo, and in the latter, arrangements are made for carrying five passengers and one pilot, four passengers being carried in the centre of the machine and one in the pilot's cock-pit behind the wings.
  Petrol is carried for six hours at a cruising speed of 90 miles per hour in the case of the passenger carrier, and, when adapted for use as a cargo, machine, fuel is provided for 8 hours at a cruising speed of 90 miles per hour.
  The construction of this machine is on normal lines.
  It is of interest to note that the "Transport" is practically identical with the machine upon which the Atlantic flight was attempted last May, and is also very similar to the "Wallaby" upon which Capt. Matthews flew to Australia, which was described in FLIGHT for October 16 last.
  It is fitted with an "Eagle 8" Rolls-Royce engine, and has a factor of safety of 6.5. An adjustable tail plane is fitted. The following are the principal characteristics of both the passenger and cargo types :-
  Span, 46 ft. 6 ins.; chord, 6 ft. 3 ins.; stagger, 3 ins.; dihedral, 2 1/2#; overall length, 28 ft.; height, 12 ft.; area of main planes, 547 sq. ft.; weight of machine fully loaded, 5,500 lbs.; speed, 115 m.p.h.
<...>
THE SOPWITH "TRANSPORT" PASSENGER OR GOODS MACHINE, 375 h.p. ROLLS-ROYCE: This machine is similar to the "Atlantic" and Australian ("Wallaby") machines
THE SOPWITH "WALLABY": Side view
THE SOPWITH "WALLABY": Three-quarter rear view
LONDON-AUSTRALIA FLIGHT: The start from Hounslow of the Sop with- Rolls-Royce "Wallaby" on October 21. Capt. Matthews, the pilot, waving farewell
THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: On the left, the pilot-navigator of the Sopwith machine, Capt. G. C. Matthews, A.F.C.; and, on the right, his engineer, Sergeant T.Kay.
Diagrammatic sketch map of the route to Australia. The distances shown are approximate
THE SOPWITH "WALLABY": Plan, side and front elevations to scale
Flight, September 4, 1919.

THE JACQUES SCHNEIDER CUP RACE

The Machines

The Supermarine Flying-boat

  As it incorporates several new features, the flying-boat built by the Supermarine Aviation Co. is, up to the present, more or less of a "dark horse," and its makers do not wish any information published before the race. The machine is not, however, a freak built entirely for speed at any cost, and the makers are prepared to take it out in any sea that is likely to be encountered in that part of the world at this time of the year. It is a flying-boat more or less on the lines of previous Supermarine flying-boat scouts, and is fitted with a 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine. It is of interest to mention that this machine is capable of the evolutions of the small land scouts, such as looping, rolling, spinning, etc. It will be interesting to see how the seaworthy and necessarily heavier flying-boat will compare with the lighter-built float seaplanes.
The Supermarine contender in the 1919 Schneider Trophy event - the Sea Lion I G-EALP flown by Sqn Ldr B. D. Hobbs.
The Schneider Cup Entrants. - Two views of the Supermarine Flying Boat, 450 h.p. Napier Lion engine.
THE START FOR THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: 2. The Supermarine flying-boat.
ABOVE THE STARTING POINT FOR THE SCHNEIDER CUP: Bournemouth pier snapped from a Supermarine flying-boat on the morning of the race. To the right of the pier, sitting on the beach, may be seen the Fairey biplane. At one o'clock the public were carried off the pier, and then re-admitted upon payment of a special fee.
Flight, May 8, 1919.

THE TARRANT GIANT TRIPLANE

  AT last authentic particulars of the Tarrant triplane, regarding which rumour has been busy for some time, are available for publication. Guarded references to this interesting machine have been made from time to time, but these have been mostly of such a nature as to stimulate curiosity without satisfying it with facts and figures. A few days ago the veil surrounding the details of the machine was removed, and our representatives had an opportunity of examining the machine in every detail.
  The general lay-out of the Tarrant triplane will be gathered from the accompanying illustrations. The chief characteristic is perhaps the triplane arrangement with top and bottom planes of equal span and a middle plane of considerably greater span than that of the other two. Next comes the power plant, which consists of six Napier "Lion" engines, four of which are mounted on the bottom plane, the other two being placed between the middle and the top plane, and driving tractor screws. The fuselage is of the monocoque type, and is of a very good stream-line form. Originally the machine was designed for long-distance bombing, but it will now be converted into a passenger carrier.
  All the woodwork has been done at the Tarrant Works at Byfleet, but a good proportion of the metal work has been carried out at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Tarnborough. The most important feature of the Tarrant "Tabor" as regards construction is the adoption of the Warren type of girder to wood construction. In metal, this girder has long been employed, but practical difficulties, chiefly in regard to terminal attachments, has hitherto delayed its employment where wood is the material.
  Without actually seeing the machine, the quotation of dimensions is apt to convey only a vague sense of her great size, but when it is mentioned that the span of the middle plane is a little over 130 ft., and the height from the ground to the top plane is 37 ft. 3 ins., some idea can be formed oà the magnitude of the task of constructing this machine. The weight of the Tarrant "Tabor," as the machine is named, is approximately 45,000 lbs., of which 9,000 lbs. is available for passengers and cargo, while 10,000 lbs. are taken up by the fuel for the six engines, which develop an aggregate of 2,700 to 3,000 h.p. With all engines running at full throttle the speed is estimated at 110 m.p.h., giving a range of about 900 miles, while at the "cruising speed" (the most economical speed) the range is calculated to be about 1,200 miles. This is with 10,000 lbs. of petrol on board and carrying 9,000 lbs. of passengers and cargo. If fewer passengers are carried and the tankage increased, the range can be very considerably extended.
  When the machine was inspected a few days ago, she was nearly ready for flight, and barring unforeseen accidents she should be ready for testing very soon.
  Mr. W. G. Tarrant, of Byfleet, Surrey, is to be congratulated upon his courage in tackling such a costly experiment in the interests of the development of the large commercial aeroplane of the future, which cannot fail to benefit the cause of aviation not only in this country, but throughout the world. He has associated with him a number of specialists, of whom we mention only a few. Capt. E. T. Rawlings, D.S.C., general manager of the firm, will be remembered as being one of the crew of the Handley Page bomber which flew from London to Constantinople, dropping bombs with good effect on the latter city. Capt. T. M. Wilson, of the Technical Department of the Air Ministry, was lent to the firm by that Department, and has now left the Ministry and joined Mr. Tarrant permanently. It was to a very great extent due to Capt. Wilson that the machine was turned into a practical proposition. The pilot of the Tarrant triplane will be Capt. F. G. Dunn, A.F.C., who will be remembered by most readers of FLIGHT as one of the Grahame-White pilots at Hendon before the War. Finally it should be mentioned that Majors Turner and Grinstead, of the R.A.E., have rendered valuable assistance in the construction and erection of the machine.
  Time does not permit of a more lengthy description of the Tarrant triplane this week, but we hope to publish an illustrated detailed description at an early date.


Flight, May 15, 1919.

THE TARRANT GIANT TRIPLANE, THE "TABOR"

  AFTER a thorough examination of the Tarrant "Tabor" triplane, a brief reference to which was made in FLIGHT last week, it is a matter of some difficulty to decide which of its features possess the greater novelty - the aerodynamic design or the constructional principles adopted. Both present many unusual aspects. Probably on balance the constructional side will be found to be the more interesting.
  Aerodynamically the most striking features of the Tarrant "Tabor," apart from the great size of the machine, are the overhanging middle plane, with top and bottom planes of shorter span, and the disposition of the various thrust lines in relation to the centre of resistance. Dealing with these various features in the order given, the enormous size of the Tarrant "Tabor" impresses one instantly on seeing the machine. This impression is caused, not so much, perhaps, by the span, although 131 ft. 3 ins. is admittedly a great spread of wings, as by the height of the top plane. When standing close up to the machine, the 37 ft. 3 ins., which constitutes the distance from the ground line to the centre section of the top plane, looks a formidable height, and the two Napier engines, which develop some 450 h.p., each look almost ridiculously small, perched between the middle and top planes.
  As regards the triplane arrangement, the unusual extension of the middle plane attracts attention at once. It might be noted here that only the middle plane carries ailerons, and in view of the extra load thus imposed upon the extensions of this plane the method employed for bracing the extensions may perhaps, be open to criticism, a compression strut of great length taking the upward load. It is usually found that the middle plane in a triplane combination is very much less efficient than the other two, and probably the same would apply to the wing flaps of a middle plane. An extenuating circumstance is certainly formed by the fact that the upper and lower planes are of shorter span, and hence would not, presumably, affect the efficiency to the same extent. Since, however, there are generally disturbances in the neighbourhood of the wing tips, it may be that the ailerons will be affected. However, these are purely theoretical speculations, and only practical experiments can furnish conclusive proof.
  Then there is the disposition of the various thrust lines, in other words, as direct drive is used in all instances, the placing of the six engines. From the front elevation of the G.A. drawings it will be seen that not only are all the engines placed far out on the wings, much farther than is usually found on twin or multi-engined machines, but the two upper engines are placed very high. Probably, with all engines running, any discrepancy between centre of resistance and centre of thrust will not be great, but one imagines that in case one of the top engines cuts out, it might be necessary to shut off one of the engines on the opposite bottom plane to equalize matters. Or, looking at it in another way, if the thrust is right with the two top engines idle, forming, as it were, a reserve of engine power, then one would think that the switching on of these engines would raise the resultant centre of thrust, necessitating a considerable amount of tail plane trimming. When discussed with some of the Tarrant specialists recently, this point was more or less admitted, but it was then pointed out to us that any such tendency to bring the tail up would be counterbalanced by the down draught from the top plane. This is probably correct, and therefore the effects of the widely distributed engine placing may be smaller than one is apt to imagine at first sight.
  Reference has already been made to the unusual bracing of the middle plane extensions. Equally out of the ordinary is the inter-plane strutting of the machine. The body, it will be noticed, does not rest on the bottom plane, but is supported from it by Vee struts, which continue through the middle and up to the top plane. The length of spar between the points of attachment to the upper plane of these Vee struts is halved by a vertical strut coming out of the top of the fuselage. The struts on each side of the engines diverge, counting from the bottom towards the top plane. The object of this arrangement, we understand, is to divide the top plane into "free lengths" of spars corresponding with the loading at any point; in other words, the greater the loading the shorter the free length of spar.
  From the outer engine struts to the wing tips all the planes are given a dihedral angle of 4#, while the centre sections are straight. The machine is an orthogonal triplane, having its interplane struts at right angles to the chord lines (in side elevation), which virtually amounts to a slight negative stagger.
  The tail of the Tarrant triplane is of the biplane form, but has, in addition to the two elevators hinged to the two fixed biplane tail planes, a third elevator placed as the middle plane in a triplane. This elevator and the bottom one are both connected to the control column, while the top elevator is operated by a separate trimming-gear, placed in the side of the pilot's cockpit. This elevator takes the place of the ordinary moveable tail plane, and provides, it will be seen, for trimming of the machine by virtually altering the camber of the top tail plane rather than by altering the incidence of the usual trimming flat tail plane.
  Constructionally the predominating feature of the Tarrant "Tabor" is the adaptation of the Warren girder principle to wood construction. In bridge and similar work the Warren girder has long been extensively employed, but for aeroplane construction its adoption has been delayed for various practical reasons. Whereas, in riveted metal girder structures the attachment of the braces to the flanges does not present any great difficulties, it is another matter where wood is concerned. Not that wood does not have a good tensile strength, but the difficulty lies in providing good terminal connections, in other words, in securing the braces to the flanges of the beams. The first really practical way of doing this with woodwork that we have yet seen is that evolved by Mr. W. G. Tarrant, who has patented the method.
  As one of the accompanying sketches (Fig. 1) will indicate, the Tarrant method consists in building up spars, etc., of flanges built up in three vertical laminations, having grooves cut in them lengthwise. The webs, or more correctly the braces, consist of two Warren girders displaced relative to one another, the braces being beaded to fit the grooves, and distance pieces glued in between the brace ends.
  It will be seen that this form of construction, quite apart from its merits from the point of view of weight for strength, has the very great advantage that quite small pieces of wood may be utilised, a fact which is of the greatest importance at a time when wood in such lengths as would be required for a machine of this size would be almost unobtainable. The very fact that such small pieces are being used is furthermore, in itself, a good factor of safety, since no defects are likely to remain undiscovered. The same principle of construction has been applied to the spars of the tail planes, to the circular formers of the fuselage and to the longerons for a certain portion of their length. As regards the weight-strength ratio of wing spars made on this principle, we are informed that the designers of the Tarrant machine have found that such construction results in a saving of about 10 per cent, in weight for the same strength compared with a box section spar, provided it is assumed that for practical reasons it is not possible to make the walls of the box section thinner than 3/16 in., which assumption is probably quite justified. It would, therefore, appear that Mr. Tarrant has discovered a method of construction which has very much to recommend it; at any rate, for the very large aeroplanes of the future, assuming that wood will remain the material employed for most of the component parts of the machine for some years to come. That metal will ultimately supplant it is not unlikely.
  The wing ribs are of standard type, and are made in spruce. It might be mentioned, incidentally, that the wing section is that known as R.A.F. 15. The ribs are attached to the spars in such a manner as to transfer the shear stress from the rib to the spars. How this is accomplished will be understood from an inspection of one of the accompanying sketches (Fig. 2). A three-ply tongue passes between top and bottom spar flanges, extending a short distance on each side of the spar. Tacked and screwed to this tongue are on each side two vertical strips tacked to the rib webs, and having between them a packing piece of the same thickness as the rib web.
  While on the subject of the wing ribs, mention may be made of the internal compression struts for the drag bracing. In some machines these members are in the form of box ribs, others employing square section solid wood struts, while still another way is to use steel tubes. In the Tarrant "Tabor" the compression struts are of a built-up square section as shown in the sketch Fig. 3. A similar construction is employed for the interplane struts, with the addition, of course, of a fairing. This takes the form of two-ply wood of similar construction to that used in the covering of the fuselage. This ply-wood work is made on moulds of the required shape, the layers being put on so as to get the grain of the two laminations running approximately at right angles to one another (Fig. 4). It is put on in 1 1/4 in. wide strips, varying in thickness from 1 mm. to 3 mm., according to the work it has to do. A section of one of the interplane struts is shown in Fig. 5. In Fig. 6 is shown a typical spar fitting.
  The ailerons, or wing flaps, which, as already mentioned, are fitted on the middle plane only, are a little over 100 sq. ft. each, and are so mounted as to be balanced for their whole length, and not only by a small portion at the tip. This is accomplished by pivotting them about a third of their chord from the leading edge, the hinges being carried by stout box ribs. To reduce the chord of the ailerons, which would have been excessive had they been hinged to the main rear spar, there is a false spar overhung on the box ribs from the rear main spar. The chord of the ailerons is 3 ft. 9 ins., with the hinge line 9 ins. from the leading edge.
  The fuselage is of the monocoque type, built up of circular formers or rings, constructed on the same general principle as that already dealt with in describing the wing spars, and of longerons similarly constructed as regards a certain portion of their length. The whole is then covered with a skin of two-ply wood, put on in two thicknesses of narrow strips, crossing one another approximately at right angles. The workmanship of the body construction is excellent, and the monocoque form has, among others, the very great advantage of giving much more space inside, there being no bracing wires, etc., to divide the space up into a series of "birdcages." The importance of this for passenger carrying will be obvious. It should be mentioned that it is only the main formers which are built up of Warren trusses. Between these main formers are lighter single formers. From the side elevation of the general arrangement drawings, it will be noticed that the fuselage is parallel for a certain portion of its length. The longerons in this portion are Warren girders, while towards the stern they are tapered down to single members, as shown in Fig. 7. The method of attaching the Warren girder longerons to the formers of that construction, without resorting to cutting either, is the subject of another illustration (Fig. 8). The flanges of the former pass outside the flanges of the longeron, and to bring the outer longeron flange flush with the covering a packing piece is employed as shown in the sketch. The sketch is, we think, self-explanatory.
  The two pilots, who are placed in the nose of the fuselage, sit side by side, and all controls are duplicated. The ailerons and middle and bottom elevators are operated by hand wheels, and the rudders by foot bars in the usual way. For trimming the tail there is on each side a wheel, one for each pilot, geared to the top elevator.
  Immediately behind the pilots' seats there is a transverse partition, forming the engineer's dash board, on which all the various engine controls - and they are necessarily numerous where six engines are fitted - are mounted in readily accessible positions. The sketch Fig. 9 shows this dashboard, and a portion of the pilot's cockpit, seen through the door communicating with the engine room.
  Provision is made for the engineer to climb out on to the wings, through a hatchway, thus gaining access to any of the engines that may require attention.
  Most of the petrol is carried in the fuselage, in tanks mounted on the sides and top, so as to leave the centre of the body clear. The manner of placing the tanks will be seen in Fig. 10.
  The tail unit is of fairly orthodox design, and does not call for any special comment. The only detail in which it differs from standard practice is, as already mentioned, that trimming is not effected by altering the angle of incidence of the fixed tail planes, but by altering the angle of the top elevator. There is no adjustment of the tail planes during flight, but the bottom tail plane is so mounted as to allow of slight adjustment when the machine is on the ground.
  The undercarriage consists of two separate units, each placed vertically below the engines. The sketch, Fig. 11, will give an idea of one of these units. Each unit consists of what, for want of a better term, we shall call two truncated Vees, across the lower members of which is slung the very substantial axle carrying three wheels inside the Vees. The size of the Palmer cord wheels, by the way, is 1,500 by 300. At its outer ends the axle is carried in a bearing mounted on a stout longitudinal member, which is free to travel up and down, but is guided as regards lateral and longitudinal movement. This beam is sprung by rubber cord wrapped around it and the fixed bottom member of the "truncated Vee." The sketch will explain the principle. Needless to say, front and rear panels of each chassis unit are braced to take lateral loads.
  As shown in the G.A. drawings, the engines are placed as follows :- Two on the middle plane, one on each side, driving tractor screws, and four in two tandem sets on the lower plane, driving tractors and pushers respectively. The engines are all Napiers of about 450 h.p. each. The tractor airscrews are two-bladed, and of 12 ft. 6 ins. diameter, while the pusher screws are four-bladed, and have a diameter of 10 ft. 7 1/4 ins. The engines can be started from the cockpit by the Maybach system. A vaporiser is placed near the engines, and connected up to a hand pump in the fuselage. To start the engines the exhaust valves can be lifted, petrol or ether vapour pumped into the cylinders, the valves closed, and the mixture exploded by a spark from a hand magneto on the engineer's switchboard. It might be mentioned that in order to facilitate starting, provision has been made for heating the cooling water. Later on, we understand, it is intended to fit an electric starter, as soon, in fact, as a reliable one has been evolved.
  As regards the ignition system, each engine is fitted with two magnetos. The earth wires for each magneto are carried to the engineers' control board, on which is a double switch for each engine. Each of these switches controls the two magnetos on one engine. From these switches leads are taken to a master switch capable of earthing the 12 magnetos simultaneously. This master switch is placed in the pilot's cockpit, within easy reach of either pilot. On the engineer's control board are mounted two starting magnetos, one serving three engines via a distributor switch. That is to say, the one starting magneto serves all three starboard engines, the other serving all three port engines.
  The cooling system is so arranged that each engine has its independent system. A pump draws the cool water from the bottom of the radiator through a pipe into the engine. After being forced through all the channels of the water jackets, etc., the water passes through a pipe into the bottom of the water tank, which is mounted above the engine, and is in shunt with the system. The radiators are placed under the engines, and are provided with shutters for regulating the cooling.
  In conclusion, it might be mentioned that the weight, fully loaded, of the Tarrant "Tabor" is about 45,000 lb., of which 19,000 lb. is useful load. The amount of petrol carried is 10,000 lb., leaving 9,000 lb. for passengers and/or cargo. This 10,000 lb. of petrol is sufficient for a flight of 900 miles at maximum speed, while at the cruising speed the range of the machine is estimated at 1,200 miles, with the 10,000 lb. of petrol. If fewer passengers are carried, and the weight made up with fuel, this range can, of course, be still further increased. The ceiling of the machine has been estimated at 13,000 ft., and the estimated climb is as follows :- 5,000 ft. in 10 1/2 mins., 10,000 ft. in 33 1/2 min., 13,000 ft. in just over one hour.
  The following is a table of leading dimensions and weights of the Tarrant "Tabor" :-

Engines, six 500-h.p. Napier "Lion."
Span: middle plane, 131 ft. 3 in.; top and bottom plane, 98 ft. 5 in.
Total surface of wings, 4,950 sq. ft.
Overall height, 37 ft. 3 in.
Overall length, 73 ft. 2 in.
Body, round streamline, maximum diameter 11 ft.
Gap: top and middle planes, 14 ft. 9 in.; middle and bottom planes, 14 ft, 9 in.
Chord, 15 ft. 2 in.
Dihedral, 4 deg. on all planes.
Area of ailerons, on middle plane only, 105 sq. ft. each = 210 sq. ft. total.
Area of fin, 42 sq. ft. each, total 84 sq. ft.
Area of rudders, 31 sq. ft. each, total 62 sq. ft.
Area of tail planes, 184 sq. ft. each, total 368 sq. ft.
Area of elevators, 81 sq. ft. each, total 162 sq. ft.
Area of inter-elevator, 54 sq. ft.
Span of tail planes, 30 ft.
Gap of tail planes, 10 ft.
Wings are set at 3 deg. to the body.
Top tail plane at - 2 deg. to the body.
Bottom tail plane at o deg. to the body.

Weights
   Lbs.
Top plane 1,903
Bottom plane 2,691
Middle plane 1.833
Interplane struts 2,543
External bracing wires 608
Total 9,578

Tail planes 334
Elevators 117
Fins 98
Rudders 40
Total 589

Fuselage (including
  bomb girders) 3,590
Chassis 2,582
Tail skid 60
Controls 501
Total 6,733

Engines, propellers, radiators
  and water, etc. 7,200
Engine accessories 650
Petrol and tanks
  (1,600 galls.) 12,662
Oil and tanks, etc.
  (92 galls.) 1,050
Crew (five) 1,080
W.T 100
Guns and ammunition 380
Bombs and gears 4,650
Total 44,672

  Mr. Tarrant, on the recent occason when Press representatives were permitted to view the machine, stated that he wished to express his thanks to the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, without whose very valuable and willing assistance the problems of erecting and trueing up the machine would have been rendered even more difficult than had been the case, and in this direction he should like to mention Majors Turner and Grinstead, of the R.A.E., who have both given their unstinted help in the many problems that, in the very nature of the job, have kept cropping up. Of those directly associated with Mr. Tarrant it would be impossible to mention more than a few: Capt. E. T. Rawhngs, D.S.C., who is general manager of the firm, will be remembered by all FLIGHT readers as having taken part in the famous flight in a Handley Page from London to Constantinople, bombing the Turkish capital with excellent effect. Captain T. M. Wilson, of the Technical Department of the Air Ministry, was originally lent to Mr. Tarrant, but has now joined the firm. It was to a large extent due to Captain Wilson that the machine was turned into the flying proposition it is now.
  Finally, it should be pointed out that the man who will pilot the machine is Captain F. G. Dunn, A.F.C., who will be remembered by our readers from the days before the War, when he was one of the Grahame-White pilots at Hendon, forming one of the batch who joined up with the air forces immediately on the outbreak of hostilities, and who numbered among them such pilots as, to mention only a few, Strange, Carr, Lillywhite, Noel, Howarth, Pashley, and Manton.


Flight, May 29, 1919.

THE TARRANT TRIPLANE

  AFTER months of painstaking work, and having solved an endless succession of constructional problems those responsible for the large Tarrant "Tabor" triplane, have suddenly seen the results of their labours annihilated in the course of a few minutes by the accident which occurred on Monday last. Not only is the beautiful structure, for beautiful it was from a constructional point of view, whatever may have been one's opinion of the design, reduced to matchwood, but at least one of the men who had worked on the machine from the time of its inception has succumbed to the injuries sustained in the accident, while a second man, the pilot, is lying in a critical condition. We are sure that all readers of FLIGHT will join us in expressing our sympathy with the relatives of Capt. Rawlings, D.S.C., who died shortly after the accident, and with Capt. Dunn, A.F.C., who is still, at the time of writing, in a very critical condition. To Mr. W. G. Tarrant we also express our sincerest sympathy in the misfortune that has overtaken the machine into which, with rare courage, he had put so much thought and treasure. We understand that so certain is Mr. Tarrant that his principle is right that another machine will be put in hand immediately, incorporating, it may be taken, many alterations in design, but utilising the same constructional principle.
  With regard to the accident itself, it is difficult to be certain of the exact cause, but it would appear that the machine was travelling along the ground at high speed with the four lower engines running, and that, in order to get sufficient speed to rise, the pilot opened out the two top engines, which had up till then been throttled down, with the result that the extra thrust, applied so far above the centre of resistance of the machine, brought the tail up. The momentum thus imparted to the machine, especially that of the two top engines, was, at any rate momentarily, too great to be overcome by the tail planes and elevators, and the result was that the machine turned on to her nose. It is quite conceivable that had the machine been in the air the momentary pitching could have been corrected by trimming the tail, but on the ground there was no time in which to do this before the machine was over. By keeping cool to the last, the horror of a fire was avoided by someone - probably one of the pilots, as there was a master switch in their cockpit - switching off the engines, otherwise the disaster might have been far greater than was the case.
  In addition to the two pilots, there were on board a t the time of the accident the following :- Capt. T. M. Wilson, who, as the machine turned over, was flung into the rear part of the fuselage and sustained a broken leg; Lieut. Adams, engineer-in-charge, who accompanied Capt. Rawlings on the famous flight to Constantinople in a Handley-Page; Mr. Grosert, of the R.A.E.; two mechanics.
  The injuries to the crew, with the exceptions of those sustained by the pilots, are not thought to be serious.
THE TARRANT TRIPLANE. - View from the front
THE TARRANT TRIPLANE. - View from behind
THE TARRANT "TABOR." - #View of the great monocoque body
The above photograph, which looks like a tunnel of an underground railway, is really the inside of the fuselage of the big Tarrant flying machine. As will be seen it has an arrangement of circular wooden girders with the longerons passing through each. It is long enough to accommodate a full-size cricket pitch, and is expected to be flying with its engines of 3,000 h.p. in another two or three weeks. With this machine it is claimed it will be easily possible to fly from London to Bombay with but a single stop on route. Another fuselage almost twice the size of this is being designed, and will accommodate about 100 passengers.
ONE OF THE PLANES OF THE TARRANT TRIPLANE. - This view gives a good idea of the size of the wings
THE TARRANT GIANT TRIPLANE. - A drawing of the machine as she will appear in flight. The power plant consists of six Napier "Lion" engines.
THE TARRANT "TABOR." - Sketch showing the machine as it will appear in flight
Fig. 1
Fig. 2, Fig. 6
Fig. 3, Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 7, Fig. 8
Fig. 9, Fig. 10
Fig. 11
THE TARRANT TRIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

  AT the outbreak of hostilities in August, 1914, the whole of the Technical Offices and the Drawing Office staff of the Aviation Department of Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., were transferred from Vickers House to the Crayford Works. The work on experimental seaplanes, of which two were under construction, was abandoned, and all efforts concentrated on the Vickers Fighter F.B. 5, which was the only definitely offensive aeroplane then in existence. This was familiarly known as -

"The Vickers Gun-'Bus"

  With his usual foresight, the late Major Wood, having finished exhaustive tests, had a batch of 50 F.B. 5's actually in construction. These machines were fitted with the 100 h.p. monosoupape engine, of which Major Wood, realising its worth, had already ordered a great number.
  Up to this time the armament of aeroplanes had not received much attention, either by the Services or designers. The chief functions of the R.F.C. had been that of carrying out reconnaissance flights and the dropping of small bombs. Fighting in the air, as understood to-day, did not exist, and although observers sometimes armed themselves with Service rifles or revolvers for cases of emergency, machines very seldom approached sufficiently near to one another to exchange shots. The advent of the Vickers F.B. 5 marked an epoch in the history of aeronautics, being the first fighting aeroplane, and was destined to influence the whole of aerial operations at the Front.
  As is generally known, this machine was of the pusher type, and it was therefore possible to mount a Vickers gun in the nose of the nacelle, commanding an unobstructed and very wide range of fire.
  It was the arrival of this machine on the Western Front which established for the first time our aerial supremacy. This supremacy, thanks largely to the "Gun-'bus," lasted for many months, in fact until the Fokker, with its synchronised gun arrived to dispute it. In spite of this, however, Vickers Fighters remained in commission as late as March, 1916, and their work was of the greatest value.
One of the F.B.5s used by the Royal Naval Air Service, with modified nose and Vickers machine-gun; for the Admiralty the designation was Vickers Type 32. This (machine, which was fitted with a 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape engine, was affectionately known as the "Gun-bus."
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 7. (Aug., 1915)

  The Vickers F.B. 7 was probably one of the first twin-engined machines to take the air. The, first flights were made in August, 1915. The power plant consisted of two 100 h.p. monosoupape engines, and the machine was designed to carry a Vickers 1-pdr. auto-gun. The Government looked upon the machine favourably, and ordered 12 similar ones. Information was afterwards received that the monosoupape engines were not available, and a request was made to substitute 80 h.p. Renault engines. This modification involved a considerable loss of power at a time when aeroplanes had little or no reserve. Realising that the machine would not be a success with the lower-powered engines, the Government was requested to cancel this contract, and this was accordingly done. The machine, however, will always be of interest as the forerunner of the now famous "Vimy."

The F.B. 8. (Nov., 1915)

  In November of the same year, a smaller twin-engined machine was constructed to carry a Lewis gun, but it soon became apparent that the same armament could be more effectively employed with a similar engine, but a smaller and handier machine. The type, therefore, was speedily abandoned. It is of interest to note that this was the fastest twin-engined aeroplane in 1915.
The Vickers F.B.8 at Brooklands late in 1915. As well as the oil slinger rings round the Gnome engines, a pair of vertical shields on the sides of the gunner’s cockpit contributed some protection from the hot castor oil sprayed by the rotary engines.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

"Barnwell Bullet," or E.S. 1. (Aug., 1915)

  This machine, which was the first of the tractors, was produced in August, 1915. It was a streamline all-wood machine, built to a very great extent by the late Harold Barnwell personally, and was the pioneer of high performance aeroplanes, as the particulars in the accompanying tables will prove. All considerations having been sacrificed for performance, the view was unsatisfactory, and, as the synchronized firing gear had not yet been invented, it was not a real fighting machine.
  It might be mentioned that the E.S. 1 was probably the first aeroplane which could be looped continuously, and yet climb so that each loop was higher than the previous one.

The E.S. 2. (Sept., 1913)

  Owing to the experience gained with the E.S. 1, a second machine was built in August, 1915, which proved to be a really fast tractor scout, attaining a speed of over 120 miles per hour. The machine flew before His Majesty the King on the occasion of his visit to the Crayford works in September, 1915. Exhibition flights were also carried out before the Russian authorities.
  The E.S. 2 was flown to Upavon for the official trials in November, 1915. The pilot proceeded via Hendon, stunted round the aerodrome, and left for his destination without landing. The exploits of the unknown aviator on the unknown machine aroused considerable interest.
  As in the case of the E.S. I, everything in this machine had been sacrificed to performance, and the Vickers synchronised firing gear not having yet been invented, the E.S. 2 could not be considered as a Fighting Scout.
E.S.I redesigned and rebuilt from the original Barnwell Bullet, shown wearing the 1914 Union Jack insignia. Note the stream-line body. The engine was a 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 9. (Dec, 1915)

  In December, 1915, a modified "Gun-'bus" was produced. It was effectually the same machine as the F.B. 5, but fitted with minor improvements such as streamline wires, Vee undercarriage, and an improved gun mounting; the speed was also substantially increased. This machine was known as the F.B. 9.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 12. (June, 1916)

  Early in 1916, a single-seater pusher scout, known as the F.B. 12, was constructed. This machine was designed for the 150 Hart engine, but, owing to these engines being unobtainable, the 80 h.p. Le Rhone was substituted.
  Having regard to the reduced power of the engine in use, the results obtained on its first flight in June, 1916, were considered very satisfactory, the speed attained being 95 miles per hour, and the manoeuvreability excellent. A similar machine was equipped with a 100 h.p. monosoupape engine, and sent to France in December, 1916, where it proved itself at least equal to other machines of a similar type then in use in that country.
THE VICKERS F.B. 12 PUSHER SCOUT. - This particular machine is fitted with a 100 h.p. Gnome, but others of the same type were fitted with 80 h.p. and 110 h.p. le Rhones and 100 h.p. Anzanis
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 14. (Aug., 1916)

  This machine was a two-seater tractor biplane designed at the War Office request for a 200 h.p. B.H.P. engine, but, owing to this engine not having emerged from the experimental stage, a request was received to re-model the machine for 160 h.p. Beardmores. The first flight took place in August, 1916, but the decrease in the power unit resulted in a considerable depreciation in performance. Although 150 of these machines were contracted for, they were mostly delivered without engines, owing to trouble being experienced with the 160 h.p. Beardmore, and eventually 120 h.p. Beardmores were substituted. Needless to relate, with this further reduced horsepower, the performance of the machine was spoiled.
  In the spring of the following year, the F.B. 14 was fitted with a 250 h.p. Rolls-Royce engine. It was sent to Martlesham in March, and the official tests compared very favourably with contemporary machines of other makes. It was then sent on to Orfordness to be used for experimental gun work, and it is of interest to note that on the occasion of the daylight raid on London by the Germans in July, 1917, this machine followed the raiders right back to Zeebrugge. Although the machine was able to overtake the raiders it could not tackle them, as it was fitted with an experimental arrangement of sights, which gave trouble in letting the sun shine down the sight, thus rendering them useless.
  Vickers' steel construction made this machine very suitable for use in the tropics, and a large number were used in Mesopotamia.
THE VICKERS F.B. 14. - This machine was a two-seater tractor, with 160 h.p. Beardmore engine!
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 16. (Dec, 1916)

  This machine was a small tractor scout designed to take the Hart engine. As the Hart engine was still only in the experimental stage, the machine was modified to take the 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. It was ready in December, 1916.
  On December 20, 1916, Messrs. Vickers' test pilot, the late Mr. Barnwell, being then indisposed, the late Capt. Simpson, R.F.C., was deputed to make the test flights. He proceeded to loop, dive and stall, and after the third loop, it was observed by those on the ground that something was happening to the planes. However, the pilot regained control, and at 50 ft., when everybody thought that the danger had been overcome, the machine suddenly dived straight into the ground, Capt. Simpson sustaining fatal injuries. After a full enquiry, instructions were received by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., from the War Office to build another machine similar in every detail. The second machine was ready in January, 1917, and was tested by the firm's own pilot. By careful and systematic investigation, it was discovered that the weakness lay in the leading edges of the planes. This was an unforeseen trouble arising out of the general increase in the speed of aircraft at this period. It is of interest to note that the same trouble developed in a contemporary machine which was ultimately fitted with a solid 3-ply leading edge to overcome this difficulty.
  This second F.B. 16, known as the F.B. 16A, was then sent on to the Testing Squadron at Martlesham Heath, from where an excellent report on its all-round performance was received. According to official tests, it beat the S.E. 5 and other types with similar engines, but the Air Board rightly decided that it would be unwise to disturb production of existing orders at a critical time.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 19. (Aug., 1916)

  This was a modified type of single-seater tractor scout produced in August, 1916, the visibility being greatly improved, whilst maintaining the excellent performance and manceuvreability of its predecessor, the E.S. 2.
  Several of these machines were supplied to Russia towards the close of 1916
THE VICKERS F.B. 19. - This was really a development of the "Barnwell Bullet," and has a 110 h.p. Clerget engine
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 24. (1916)

  The next type of interest is the F.B. 24. This machine was originally designed in December, 1916, to take the Hart motor. The top plane was placed low, and the gunner, who was in the rear, had an excellent all-round field of fire.
  After many vicissitudes, owing to the difficulty of obtaining from the Government engines of sufficient power, the type was abandoned for the time being. Later, the machine was re-designed to take various other engines, the 220 h.p. and 275 h.p. Lorraine being installed, also the 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza. The results of the tests on this machine with the new 275 h.p. Lorraine engine proved to be very satisfactory, it attaining a speed of 130 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft., and climbing to this height in 11 minutes.
THE VICKERS F.B.24G. - The engine is a 275 h.p. Lorraine.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 25. (1917)

  This machine was constructed at the request of the War Office to take the Crayford rocket gun for use in Zeppelin raids, and was designed for a 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine, but when the time arrived to install the engine, an engine of this make, but of only 150 h.p., was allotted, the performance of the machine naturally being materially affected. It was, however, crashed by the Service pilot on its way to Martlesham in May, 1917, and as the inflammatory bullet had just been introduced into the Corps, the rocket gun was abandoned, and the machine with it.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 26. (July, 1917)

  The F.B. 26, constructed in July, 1917, was the outcome of the first Pusher Scout, the F.B. 12, which, having proved so handy, was modified to take the 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. This machine was flown by Capt. Barker and Capt. McCudden, V.C., D.S.O., both of whom were very pleased with its performance and general manceuvreability. Six more were constructed to take Eeman triple gun-mounts; both forward and elevated, the forward mountings proving very satisfactory, but the elevated mountings, being too unwieldy, were abandoned. The machines were tested at Martlesham, and later at Biggin Hill.
  A further modification, which was armoured and intended for trench strafing, was also constructed to take the 200 h.p. B.R. 2 engine, the results proving eminently satisfactory. At the conclusion of hostilities, Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., were still awaiting orders concerning this type of machine.
F.B.26A Vampire II with 200 h.p. Bentley B.R.2 rotary engine and twin machine-guns. This machine, which is a modification of the F.B. 26, is armoured and intended for trench fighting.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
Plan views of the Vickers machines
Flight, May 8, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC CONTEST

  DURING the past week the principal development in connection with the Transatlantic contest has been the accession of the Vickers-Rolls-Royce machine to the list of entries. Details of this machine are given below, and two photographs are reproduced on the next page.
  The four-engined Handley Page machine, with Rolls-Royce engines left Liverpool on May 2, and it is not expected that it will be ready to leave Newfoundland before the June full moon.
  With a view to giving them a better chance of getting away in certain winds, Messrs. Hawker and Raynham have been searching the island for an auxiliary aerodrome, but so far they have not met with any success. The weather has been so unsettled as to prevent any attempt at the flight.
  Dr. Alexander Robinson, the Postmaster-General there, has sealed a second mail and handed it to Mr. Raynham for conveyance across the Atlantic. The stamps are specially surcharged "First Transatlantic Aerial Mail" on the ordinary three-cents stamps. To prevent forgery each stamp is initialled by the Postmaster-General.
  While preparing to start for Newfoundland on May 5, two of the United States flying-boats were damaged. Two wings of the N.C. 1 were completely destroyed, and the lower elevator and tail plane of the N.C. 4 were badly damaged. The fire was caused by a spark from an electrically-driven pump falling on a drum of petrol, which took fire. It is expected, however, that N.C. 2 will be sent to Newfoundland as soon as the weather permits. The N.C. type of boat has a span of 126 ft. The lower wing span is 94 ft. The wings are 12 ft. chord. The length of the hull is 44 ft. 9 ins. Its gasoline capacity is 1,890 gallons, contained in 10 separate tanks. Four 400 h.p. Liberty motors are fitted.

The Vickers "Vimy" - Rolls-Royce

  THE following information concerning the "Vimy-Rolls" entered for the Transatlantic flight has come to hand, and should prove of considerable interest. - ED.
  The construction of the Transatlantic "Vimy" has now been completed at the Weybridge aeroplane works of Messrs Vickers, Ltd. This aeroplane is practically similar in every respect to the standard "Vimy" as supplied to His Majesty's Government. Two standard 350 h.p. Rolls-Royce engines are installed. The capacity of the petrol tanks has been increased to 865 gallons, and the lubricating oil tanks to 50 gallons. With this quantity of fuel the machine has a range of 2,440 miles. The maximum speed is over 100 mile per hour, but, during the flight across the Atlantic the engines will be throttled down to an average cruising speed of 90 miles per hour. The span of the "Vimy" is 67 ft., and overall length 42 ft. 8 ins. The chord of the planes is 10 ft. 6ins. A wireless telegraphy set, capable of sending and receiving messages over long distances, will be carried, and the pilot and navigator will wear electrically heated clothing.
  The pilot, Capt. J. Alcock, D.S.C., was born at Manchester in 1892, and received his technical engineering education at the Empress Motor Works, at Manchester. He became interested in aviation in its early days, and adopted it as a profession. He took the Royal Aero Club's Flying Certificate at Brooklands in 1912, and rapidly rose to the head of his profession, taking part in a large number of the early competition flights, amongst others the well-remembered race London to Manchester and return in 1913, in which he secured second place.
  At the outbreak of War he immediately joined the R.N.A.S., and was posted to Eastchurch as an instructor. Later he became the Chief Instructor of the Aerobatic Squadron. He did valuable work on the Turkish front, where he won the D.S.C., and held the record for long-distance bombing raids. He was eventually taken prisoner by the Turks owing to an engine failure, and remained as such until the end of the War.
  The navigator, Lieut. Arthur Whitten Brown, A.M.I.E.E. M.I.M.E., A.M.F A.I.E., who will be known to our readers as the author of a recent article in FLIGHT on elementary navigation, was born in Glasgow in 1886, and his parents were American citizens. He is an engineer by profession, and received his practical training with the British Westinghouse Co., which is now allied with the Vickers Co. He received a thorough knowledge of surveying, and being interested in aviation, naturally devoted study to aerial navigation as applied to surveying. He enlisted in the University and Public Schools Corps in 1914, later receiving a commission in the Manchester Regiment, and served with the 2nd Battalion in France during 1915. He then transferred to the Royal Flying Corps as an observer, and was wounded and taken prisoner of war in the same year. He was later interned in Switzerland, and repatriated in December, 1917, since which time he has been engaged with the Ministry of Munitions on the production of aero engines, and has put in a considerable amount of flying at home stations. He is also a pilot of some experience, and has flown many types of machines.
  Lieut. Brown, after duration tests in the Transatlantic "Vimy," considers he will have no difficulty in making a successful Atlantic flight. He intends to rely upon a system of navigation similar to that employed in marine navigation, and will carry wireless instruments capable of receiving and despatching messages for a distance of 250 miles, and be able to communicate with passing vessels.
  The preliminary nights were successfully carried out at Brooklands Aerodrome, Surrey, by these two officers, who expressed themselves completely satisfied with the tests. The Rolls-Royce engines ran perfectly, and the aeroplane left the ground with its load of four tons of petrol and oil after running a very short distance on the ground.
  The aeroplane has now been dismantled and packed in cases. It is awaiting shipment to Newfoundland, and will be accompanied by the pilot, navigator, and mechanics, with their full equipment.


Flight, May 15, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC CONTEST
THE MACHINES

  IN our issue of April 10 we published scale drawings of the Sopwith and Short Transatlantic machines. At the time no further drawings were available, and other machines have been entered since then. This week we are able, through the courtesy of the various constructors who have given us facilities for obtaining particulars of their machines, to place before our readers scale drawings of three other entrants and a photograph of a fourth, as well as scale drawings of one of the American flying-boats which will attempt the crossing hors de concours.

The Vickers "Vimy-Rolls"

  A BRIEF description and two photographs of this machine were published in last week's issue of FLIGHT. The "Vimy-Rolls," as the Transatlantic type is called, is very similar in general arrangement to the standard "Vimy." Minor changes have naturally been made, but the general appearance is the same. Among the changes made the most important is the substitution of larger tanks, which now have a capacity of 850 gallons of petrol and 50 gallons of oil. A further alteration which has been made is the addition of a turtle back to the fore part of the fuselage, resulting in a cleaner outline with, presumably, smaller resistance. Two standard Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engines are fitted, which at full throttle give the machine a speed of over 100 m.p.h. The cruising speed is, however, in the neighbourhood of 90 m.p.h., and at this speed the machine has been estimated to have a range of 2,440 miles. Of other alterations reference may be made to the substitution, in the "Vimy-Rolls," of a front wheel mounted on a pyramid of steel tubes, instead of the front skid fitted on the standard "Vimy." The general arrangement drawings of the machine published herewith will give a good idea of the lines of the "Vimy-Rolls." As announced last week, the pilot is Capt. J. Alcock, D.S.C., who will be remembered by our readers from the days before the War, when he did a great amount of flying on a Maurice Farman biplane with Sunbeam engine. The navigator, Lieut. A. W. Brown, recently wrote a very interesting article for FLIGHT, dealing with elementary navigation for aircraft pilots.


Flight, June 12, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE VICKERS MACHINES

The F.B. 27 "Vimy." (Nov., 1917)

  In June, 1917, Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., were invited by the Air Board to submit designs for a twin-engined night bombing machine. Having already had considerable experience with twin-engined machines, and the firm's designs being approved, the construction of F.B. 27 was immediately proceeded with. The first flight was made on November 30, 1917, by the late Captain Gordon Bell, who was then the firm's chief testing pilot, and who, after a few slight modifications, pronounced the machine satisfactory and highly promising.
  In January, 1918, this machine was flown to Martlesham Heath, fitted with two 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engines, and, in spite of the low power, lifted about one-third of a ton more load than other much larger twin-engined machines fitted with the 300 h.p. Rolls-Royce engines. Needless to say, the test pilots at Martlesham Heath were very pleased with it on all points. During this time a second machine was constructed with two 260 h.p. Maori-Sunbeam engines, which slightly improved the climb. Very few tests were carried out owing to the machine being crashed, the cause of which was officially stated to be engine failure. A third machine was then fitted with Fiat engines. This machine was crashed shortly after arrival at Martlesham, owing to the pilot stalling shortly after leaving the ground. Unfortunately it had been loaded with live bombs, which exploded on reaching the ground, causing fatal injuries to the pilot.
  An order was then received by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., for 350 of these machines, and many large orders were also given to several firms, making a total of well over 1.000, the Air Board intimating that the machines delivered during 1918 were to be utilized for anti-submarine work, and that subsequent deliveries were earmarked for night bombing in France.
  In October, 1918, the fourth experimental "Vimy" was sent to Martlesham Heath, fitted with two 400 h.p. Rolls-Royce engines, where it carried a load of 12,500 lbs. (nearly 6 tons) at a speed of 100 miles per hour, and an endurance of 11-12 hours; a remarkable performance for a machine of only 68 ft. span.
  During the tests, instructions were received by the firm to send a pilot to Martlesham Heath to fly this machine to Nancy, whence it was the intention of the authorities to send it on very long bombing raids into the heart of Germany, including Berlin. However, the Armistice was signed before a suitable opportunity occurred, and the machine has been returned to Martlesham Heath for the continuation of the official tests.


Flight, June 19, 1919.

EDITORIAL COMMENT

The Conquest of the Atlantic

  IT is with the profoundest satisfaction that we are able to record the fact that the first direct flight across the Atlantic has been accomplished by British aviators, flying a British machine, which is British in design and construction down to the last detail - not forgetting the engine. By their successful crossing of the wild Atlantic Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown have achieved a performance which will remain a landmark in history throughout the ages, and have placed to the credit of Britain and her sons a record second to none in the story of achievement by land, sea and air. For a parallel we have to go back to the days of the daring navigators of the Middle Ages, who ventured their lives in frail craft on the uncharted seas of the world, impelled by the thirst for discovery and by that subtle and indefinable desire to blaze out new trails which has created pioneers in every age.
  In paying tribute to the wonderful performance of Alcock and Brown, we do not discount for a moment the almost equally glorious failure of Hawker and Grieve, or the more successful though less spectacular performance of Lieut.-Commander Read and his crew. Indeed, in so far as the latter is concerned, nothing can alter the fact that to America belongs the glory of having been first to throw an aerial bridge across the Atlantic. That her representatives succeeded as a result of meticulously careful organization and that the actual journey occupied more days than Alcock's did hours, does not for a moment alter the fact that to America belongs the credit of the first Atlantic flight. Still, it is the names of Alcock and Brown which will be for ever associated with the first direct crossing, and we scarcely think it is claiming too much to ask that they should be credited with the first real Atlantic flight. The two crossings are really not comparable at all, for reasons that must be perfectly apparent, and therefore need not be recapitulated.
  The incomparable skill shown by the two companions of the flight is beyond all praise. It is apparent from their accounts of the crossing that the atmospheric conditions from start to finish could scarcely have been more unfavourable. Fog, rain, sleet and low-lying cloud's obscured their vision, so that only three times were they able to get observations of any kind, and only once, by climbing to 11,000 feet, did the sun become visible. Once they came down sheer from 4,000 feet to within 20 feet of the sea, and only by the exercise of superb airmanship, aided by marvellous presence of mind, was sudden disaster avoided. There are no words in the language which suffice to do justice to the combination of pluck, skill and judgment which in face of all these adverse circumstances brought the machine safely across to a point no more than 10 miles from its objective. It is more than unfortunate that the treachery of an Irish bog meadow led to a bad landing, and caused such damage to the machine as to make it impossible for the intrepid pair to set the final seal on their accomplishment by flying to London, as we believe was the intention. We most heartily congratulate Alcock and his skilful navigator on their brilliant success at the first time of asking, and at the same time we feel it is but fitting that we should express the feeling of profound satisfaction they have given their fellow-countrymen by thus at the same time placing to the credit of Britain the record of the first direct Atlantic crossing and the world's long-distance aerial record.


THE TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT

  WITH a British-designed and British-built aeroplane and engine, piloted by British officers, rests the honour of having made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic. In an Editorial note on page 791 we have dealt with some phases of this magnificent achievement of Capt. J. Alcock and Lieut. A. Whittem Brown on their Vickers-Vimy-Rolls-Royce biplane, which has won for them the Daily Mail prize of L10,000, the 2,000 guineas from the Ardath Tobacco Co., and L1,000 from Mr. Lawrence R. Phillips for the first British subject to fly the Atlantic, and it only remains to record the material facts.
  The news that the machine had definitely started on its voyage came in the form of the following message from Lieut. Clements, R.A.F., the official starter at Newfoundland :-
  "Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown left St. John's, Newfoundland, in a Vickers-Vimy machine on a flight to England to-day, June 14, a t 4.13 p.m., Greenwich mean time."
  Then followed a silence of a little over sixteen hours, ending by the following message from Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown to the Royal Aero Club, sent off from the wireless station at Clifden :-
  "Landed Clifden, Ireland.fat 8.40 a.m., Greenwich mean time, June 15; Vickers-Vimy Atlantic machine, leaving Newfoundland Coast 4.28 p.m. (G.M.T.), June 14. Total time 16 hours 12 minutes. Instructions awaited."
  The Royal Aero Club representative, Maj. R. H. Mayo, was in Dublin, but he immediately set out for Clifden, and by a friendly lift in an aeroplane and the aid of a motor car he got across Ireland in the quickest possible time. After an examination of the machine he wired the following message to the Royal Aero Club :-
  "The official time of arrival in Ireland (crossing the coast) was 9.25 a.m., British summer time, actual landing time 9.40 a.m., B.S.T. I have examined the machine and found everything in order."
  As soon as the formalities were completed Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown dismantled the instruments from their machine and prepared to make for London as quickly as possible. It was soon made clear to them, however, that Ireland wished to accord them a real welcome. They were given a civic reception at Galway, and all the way to Dublin on Monday afternoon they had ti most enthusiastic greeting. On arriving at Dublin it was intended that Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown should go to the Royal Irish Automobile Club, but the students of Trinity College carried Capt. Alcock into "commons" where there was much cheering with some speeches. Eventually the provost rescued the pilot and he and Lieut. Brown were able to go to the Automobile Club for dinner, afterwards proceeding to the Chief Secretary's Lodge where they spent the night as the guests of Mr. Macpherson.
  Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown crossed to Holyhead on Tuesday morning, their progress from there to London being largely a repetition of the proceedings on the occasion of Mr. Hawker's homecoming. At Holyhead they were met by Mr. Pierson, the designer of the Vickers-Vimy, and by Capt. Vickers. There was a very large gathering to see them off, and at Chester, Crewe, and Rugby there were cheering crowds. At Crewe Mr. Claude Johnson, managing director of Messrs. Rolls-Royce, Ltd., joined the train and at Rugby Miss Kennedy, Lieut. Brown's fiancee, and her father, were waiting.
  Profiting by their experience when Hawker came home, the authorities made arrangements to deal with a "big push" in London. At Euston the platform was crowded, so much so that Genl. Sir Capel Holden, the Vice-Chairman of the Royal Aero Club, was unable to get close enough to shake hands with Capt. Alcock.
  Among others present on the platform were Maj.-Genl. E. D. Swinton, Col. S. G. Partridge, and Lieut. C. P. Robertson (of the Air Ministry), Brig.-Genl. R. M. Groves (Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, and representing Maj.-Genl. J. E. B. Seely), Sir Andrew Caird, K.B.E. (Vice-Chairman of the Associated Newspapers, Ltd.), Brig.-Genl. Sir Capel Holden, and members of the Committee of the Royal Aero Club, Sir Trevor Dawson, Sir Vincent Caillard, and Sir Francis Barker (representing Messrs. Vickers, Ltd.), and Mr. and Mrs. Hawker.
  After some difficulty Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown made their way to the car of Col. McClean. Genl. Groves then handed to them, amid renewed cheering, messages from Genl. Seely (Under-Secretary of State for the Air Department) and Maj.-Genl. Sir Hugh Trenchard.
  Genl. Seely wrote :-
  "This letter, which is brought by Genl. Groves, is to convey to you, Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown, the most cordial congratulations on your splendid achievement, not only on my own, but also on behalf of the Air Council, the Air Ministry, and, I know, your comrades of the Royal Air Force. We rejoice that your skill and courage surmounted all difficulties, and enabled you to cross direct from one continent to another by air. I hope to meet you personally, and in the meantime I know that you will be glad to receive this letter at the hands of Genl. Groves."
  Genl. Trenchard's notes to each officer ran :-
  "On behalf of the Royal Air Force I wish to congratulate you on the first successful crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by air without a stop."
  The car then led the procession to the Royal Aero Club, outside which a large number of people had gathered to give Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown a very hearty reception. They were welcomed by Gen. Holden, who said he did not think either of them appreciated as yet what they had done, and it would take them some time to do so. "They appreciate that we appreciate what they have done, but they do not appreciate themselves what they have done," he added. It was one of the most remarkable feats of this century, and one which would be remembered as long as the world lasted. It was nine years since Bleriot crossed the Channel, a distance of 20 miles. Everybody thought that a magnificent exploit at the time; but here they were welcoming men who had crossed nearly 2,000 miles.
  Three cheers having been given for the airmen, there were repeated calls upon them to speak.
  Capt. Alcock, standing on a chair, said :-
  "I should like to thank Gen. Holden for the kind words he has said about Lieut. Brown and myself. I must say the flight has been quite straightforward. Although we had a little difficulty in keeping our course, Lieut. Brown did very well and steered a wonderful course. With regard to the flight itself all the credit is due to the machine, and particularly the engine - that is everything. If the engine went well there was nothing to prevent us getting across so long as Lieut. Brown was able to get his sights, and here we are."
  Lieut. Brown, who also was loudly cheered, said :-
  "Thank you very much indeed for your extremely kind welcome and for the kind words you have said about us. In a flight like this the essentials to success are, first, the design of the machine, for which our thanks are due to Messrs. Vickers and to the workmen who built it; second, the engines, the Rolls-Royce engines; third, the instruments with which the machine is equipped, and for these we have to thank the Air Ministry, who helped us to obtain the most modern apparatus which had been designed; and last, but not least, the pilot, Capt. Alcock. For with all these things the machine could not have made a successful flight without such a pilot as Capt. Alcock."
  Afterwards Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown stepped out on to the balcony, where they were greeted with loud cheers by the crowds still waiting outside, Lieut. Brown ultimately driving off to Ealing where a further reception by the local authorities was gone through, whilst Capt. Alcock, after dinner at the Club went to Olympia to witness the great boxing match.
  The following is the story of the crossing as given to the Daily Mail by Capt. Alcock :-
  "WE have had a terrible journey.
  The wonder is we are here at all. We scarcely saw the sun or the moon or the stars. For hours we saw none of them. The fog was very dense, and at times we had to descend to within 300 ft. of the sea.
  For four hours the machine was covered in a sheet of ice carried by frozen sleet; at another time the fog was so dense that my speed indicator did not work, and for a few seconds it was very alarming.
  We looped the loop, I do believe, and did a very steep spiral. We did some very comic "stunts," for I have had no sense of horizon.
  The winds were favourable all the way: north-west and at times south-west. We said in Newfoundland we would do the trip in 6 hours, but we never thought we should. An hour and a half before we saw land we had no certain idea where we were, but we believed we were at Galway or thereabouts. Our delight in seeing Eashal Island and Turbot Island (5 miles west of Clifden) was great. People did not know who we were when we landed, and thought we were scouts on the look-out for the 'Vimy.'
  We encountered no unforeseen conditions. We did not suffer from cold or exhaustion except when looking over the side; then the sleet chewed bits out of our faces. We drank coffee and ale and ate sandwiches and chocolate.
  The flight has shown that the Atlantic flight is practicable, but I think it should be done not with an aeroplane or seaplane, but with a flying-boat. We had plenty of reserve fuel left, using only two-thirds of our supply.
  The only thing that upset me was to see the machine at the end get damaged. From above, the bog looked like a lovely field, but the machine sank into it up to the axle and fell over on to her nose."
  It certainly was unfortunate that what looked like a good meadow from above should have turned out to be a bog. Not only did the "Vimy" bury her nose in it but a R.A.F. machine which flew over from Oranmore to render assistance also came to grief. Later advices indicate that the Vickers machine is not so seriously injured as was at first supposed.
  Although Capt. Alcock arrived in Ireland before anxiety had had time to develop some mystification was caused by the absence of any wireless messages. It appears, however, that the little airscrew driving the wireless generator blew off five minutes after leaving St. John's.
  During the greater part of the flight of 1,950 miles the machine was at an average altitude of 4,000 ft. but at one time - about 6 a.m. - in an endeavour to get above the clouds and fog, it went up to 11,000 ft. Lieut. Brown was only able to take three readings for position, one from the sun, one from the moon and one from the Pole Star and Vega. On passing Signal Hill, Lieut. Brown set out a course for the ocean on 124 deg. compass course and at 3 a.m. from an observation on Polaris and Vega he found he was about 2 deg. south. He then set a course of 110 deg.
  Between 4 and 5 a.m. the machine ran into a very thick fog bank, and the air speed indicator jammed, through sleet freezing on it, at 90 m.p.h. It was then that Capt. Alcock thinks the machine looped, at any rate it went into a steep spiral which only ended with the machine practically on its back about 50 ft. from the water. The machine was covered with ice, and it continually became necessary to chip ice off the instruments, etc.
  Capt. Alcock says that he nursed the engines all the way, and had one-third of his petrol supply left when he landed One of the exhaust pipes blew off, but otherwise there was no trouble from the engine installation.
  Apparently the start from St. John's provided an anxious time for the onlookers. The machine had a hard job to get away with her heavy load. The aerodrome level was only 500 yards long, but the machine took off at 300 yards, and just managed to clear the trees and houses. However she climbed steadily if very slowly, and when she passed over the harbour a t St. John's had reached a height of 1,000 ft.


Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

VICKERS, LTD.
  The greatest attraction on this stand is, undoubtedly, a Vickers Vimy with two Rolls-Royce engines, similar to the machine on which Capt. Sir John Alcock and Lieut. Sir A. W. Brown flew across the Atlantic in 16 hours. Used as they are to slow water transport, it is inevitable that a machine which has to its credit a sea voyage of such length accomplished in such incredibly short time should appeal to the Hollanders. Also in a sense they felt that the achievement was to a certain extent their own, as there is a Dutch branch of Vickers, Ltd., known as Nederlandsch-Engelsche-Technische Handel Maatschappij, with offices at Vickers House, Hague. The Vickers Vimy has already been described in FLIGHT, under Vickers "Milestones," to which we would refer readers for details.
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  Of other items on view on the Vickers stand mention may be made of a model of the "Vimy" standing inside a model Richards hangar, and of a larger scale model of a Vickers "Valentia" flying boat. In addition there are numerous samples of various kinds of Vickers high-speed steels, parts of a Wolseley "Viper" engine, and finally a number of excellent photographs. Out on the aerodrome is a Vickers Vimy-Commercial, to which reference will be made later.


Flight, November 6, 1919.

THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA

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  In addition to the Sopwith "Wallaby" three other machines are now all but ready for the attempt, and are mainly waiting for an improvement in the weather before making a start. These are: A Martinsyde, an Alliance, and a Vickers-Vimy. As all the machines must start from Hounslow it would appear that the arrival of better weather will mean the start of all three machines more or less together, and an exciting race may therefore be looked to.

The Vicker's Machine

  The machine entered by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., is a standard Vickers-Vimy-Rolls bomber, which will be piloted by Capt. Ross Smith, M.C., D.F.C., A.F.C., and by his brother, Lieut. Keith Macpherson Smith. The machine is identical to those supplied to the Royal Air Force. It will be remembered that one of these machines was earmarked for the bombing of Berlin just previous to the Armistice. It is also similar to the machine used by Capt. Sir John Alcock, K.B.E., D.S.C., for his Transatlantic flight, except that for this flight a smaller petrol capacity is required. The engines used are the Rolls-Royce "Eagle," Mark VIII. The petrol is drawn from the main petrol tanks by two Vickers Mark II centrifugal petrol pumps, and delivered to the service tank, which forms a section of the top plane, from which it runs by gravity to the engines.
  The maximum speed is over 100 m.p.h., but Capt. Ross Smith intends to throttle the engines down to a cruising speed of about 90 m.p.h. The weight of the machine empty is three tons; when carrying her full load on this flight, consisting of 4 men, 516 gallons of petrol, 40 gallons of oil and 10 gallons of water, together with spares, kit, tools and sundries (adding another 800 lbs.), the total weight fully loaded will be nearly 5 1/2 tons.
  Capt. R. Smith and his brother, Lieut. K. M. Smith, were both born and educated at Adelaide, South Australia. At the outbreak of War, Capt. Ross Smith enlisted in the 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment as a private, and sailed with the first Australian Expeditionary Force, landing in Egypt in December, 1914. After four months on Gallipoli he gained his commission, but later on contracted enteric fever and was invalided to England. He rejoined his regiment in March, 1916, was afterwards sent back to the Sinai Desert, and took part in the battle of Romani during the last Turkish attack on the Suez Canal in August, 1916. In October of the same year he joined the 6 ch (Australian) Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, as an observer, qualifying as a pilot in Egypt in July, 1917. He then rejoined his old squadron, now known as No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, stationed in Southern Palestine, and remained there until the Armistice.
  In December, 1918, he accompanied Air Vice-Marshal Sir W. G. H. Salmond, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., and Air Commodore A. E. Borton, C.M.G., D.S.O., A.F.C., on the first flight from Cairo to Calcutta, and after arriving at Calcutta, proceeded with Air Commodore A. E. Borton on his reconnaissance for aerodromes in Burma, Siam, Malay States and the Netherland East Indies. He returned to England about a month ago.
  His brother, Lieut. Keith Macpherson Smith, R.A.F., will act as reserve pilot and observer. After leaving school, Lieut. K. M. Smith joined the staff of Messrs. Elder, Smith & Co., Ltd., of Adelaide, and on the outbreak of War offered his services for Overseas with the Australian Imperial Force, but was rejected. Several renewed attempts to enlist in 1915 and 1916 met with the same result, but subsequently he underwent an operation which considerably improved his health, and afterwards proceeded to England by the P. & O. steamship Medina, which was torpedoed and sunk in the English Channel during the voyage.
  On arrival in England he joined the Royal Flying Corps as a cadet, shortly after becoming a pilot of unusual ability, and was serving as an instructor in the North of England until the Armistice.
  Capt. Ross Smith and his brother will be accompanied by Sergt. J. W. Bennett, A.F.M., M.S.M., and Sergt. W. H. Shiers, A.F.M., who will act as engineers.
  Sergt. W. H. Shiers was also born and educated at Adelaide, and spent his early life on a farm. Later on he went to Broken Hill, New South Wales, and worked at the North Mine as an electrical engineer. He was a student at the Technical College at Broken Hill, studying engineering and mechanics in his spare time, and seven years afterwards proceeded to Barren Jack Irrigation Scheme in New South Wales as an electrician for the Yanks-Leeton area in connection with Government contracts. In March, 1915, he enlisted in the 4th Divisional Artillery at Sydney, and was sent to Egypt, where he transferred to the 1st Australian Light Horse Regiment. He took part in the battle of Romani, and in October, 1916, was posted to the 67th (Australian) Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, as a mechanic. He rapidly gained promotion, and owing to his ability and resourcefulness he was on many occasions sent out in the Desert to bring in crashed or damaged machines, which was at times a most difficult and arduous task. He has handled almost every type of engine, and for the last 12 months of the War was working on Rolls-Royce engines.
  Sergt. J. W. Bennett was born at St. Kilda, Melbourne, in 1892, and spent 14 years of his early life at Hawthorn, Melbourne, where he received a public school education, and attended night technical classes. He took great interest in all things connected with the early progress of the internal combustion engine, both for car and aviation use, received a thorough and early training with Salway motor engineers, and was employed for a considerable time with other prominent motor firms in Australia. At the outbreak of war in 1914, he was on the mechanical staff of Messrs. Denny Lascells, Motor Department, Melbourne, but enlisted in the Mechanical Transport, Australian Imperial Forces, sailing as a 1st Class Air Mechanic in No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, with which he served in Egypt and Palestine until the Armistice.
  On account of the excellent records of these two sergeants, they were specially selected to accompany Air Vice-Marshal Sir W. G. H. Salmond, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., Air Commodore A. E. Borton, C.M.G., D.S.O., A.F.C., and Capt. Ross Smith, M.C., D.F.C., A.F.C., on t he first Cairo to Calcutta flight, and Air Vice-Marshal Sir W. G. H. Salmond stated in India that the success of the flight was largely due to their skill and knowledge. They were subsequently awarded the Air Force medal for their work in connection with this flight, and accompanied Air Commodore A. E. Borton and Capt. Ross Smith on their reconnaissance for aerodromes in Burma, Siam, Malay States and Netherland East Indies. On returning to India, they both served with the North-West Frontier Forces in the late Afghan War.
Fig. 35. - Night bomber. Vickers Vimy.
THE VICKERS "VIMY-ROLLS." - This is the machine on which Captain J. Alcock and Lieut. A. W. Brown crossed the Atlantic. Three-quarter front view.
Three-quarter rear view of the Vickers "Vimy-Rolls" on which Capt. J. Alcock and Lieut. A. W. Brown crossed the Atlantic.
An interesting souvenir of the Atlantic flight: Filling the petrol tanks of Capt. Sir John Alcock's Vickers-Vimy aeroplane with Shell spirit, in readiness for the now historic flight across the Atlantic. As will be seen, the photograph is autographed by Capt. Alcock.
The historical start from Newfoundland of the Vickers Vimy-Rolls machine for the Atlantic crossing
THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: The Vickers-Vimy-Rolls entered for the flight to Australia
THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA. - As announced in "Flight" last week, the Vickers-Vimy-Rolls left Hounslow on November 11 on its long journey. Our photograph shows the pilots, mechanics, representatives of the Royal Aero Club, and a few members of the staff of Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., standing in front of the machine. Inset: The machine starting.
VICKERS IN HOLLAND: Two views of the Vickers stand at the E.L.T.A. show at Amsterdam. On the left a general view of the stand, showing the Vickers-"Vimy," and on the right the front portion of the fuselage of a Vickers-Vimy commercial.
Front Elevations of the Vickers machines
Side elevations ot fhe Vickers machines
THE VICKERS "VIMY-ROLLS." - Plan, side and front elevations to scale
Plan views of the Vickers machines
THE VICKERS "VIMY-ROLLS." - Plan, side and front elevations to scale
THE VICKERS-VIMY-ROLLS ENTERED FOR THE FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: Plan, side and front elevations, to scale
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Vickers. - At the time of writing, the Vickers Viking is fog-bound at Brooklands, and the only exhibits on this stand are a Vickers Vimy-Commercial cabin, a number of B.L.I.C. magnetos and a series of scale models of Vickers aeroplanes and airships.
Flight, July 17, 1919.

THE VICKERS "VIMY-COMMERCIAL" BIPLANE

  WHEN you take one of the ten comfortable seats in Vickers "Vimy-Commercial" biplane and look around the handsomely-furnished, spacious cabin, and out of one of the small circular windows at your side, nothing strikes you as being at all out of the ordinary; you accept it as a matter of daily fact. It is only when the machine is up in the air with its load of passengers that you realise the true significance of things, and what an enormous stride has been made towards practical commercial aviation, when such machines as this can be designed and made successfully to fulfil all that is required of them.
  In the case of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial," the achievement to this end is all the more remarkable when it is remembered that this machine is a standard War model, modified only to meet its new and more peaceful requirements. In fact, except for the fuselage, this machine is identical to the "Vimy" Bomber; merely changing from one fuselage to the other - which can be done quite easily - transforms it from a peaceful general utility vehicle to a deadly weapon of war. This is a feature not to be ignored, in spite of the prevalent talk of "no more wars." The Millennium has not yet arrived.
  In describing the "Vimy-Commercial," therefore, we will confine most of our remarks to the fuselage, having given the general characteristics of the Vimy Bomber in "Milestones" for FLIGHT of June 12 last. The fuselage is built up in two portions, the front half comprising the pilot's cockpit, passengers' and luggage cabin, tanks, etc., and the rear half carrying the tail. The forward or cabin portion is of monocoque construction, elliptical in cross-section; the shell, or outer covering, is not of the usual three-ply as generally employed in monocoque construction, but consists of a modification of the same known as "Consuta" - a system evolved by Messrs. S. E. Saunders, Ltd., of Cowes, who are now allied with the Vickers Company. In the "Consuta" construction, layers of selected spruce are placed with the grain located diagonally, glued and sewn together, each row of stitching being spaced about 1 1/2 ins. apart. By this means considerable strength is obtained, which greatly increases the factor of safety of the whole construction of the fuselage.
  The shell is attached to box-section formers built up of three-ply, as shown in one of the accompanying illustrations. On each side of the cabin are circular portholes glazed with Triplex, and at the forward end of the cabin, on the port side, is a door of the roller-shutter type. It is of interest to note that the whole of this fore part of the fuselage, including the door and windows, is watertight, enabling the machine, should occasion arise, to float in a normal position with safety on the water. The cabin, which is thus totally enclosed, has a seating capacity for ten passengers, each one of which has a separate and very comfortable armchair, with a window at the side; a gangway runs down the centre of the cabin, and there is ample space between the chairs. Both altitude and speed indicators are mounted on the front wall of the cabin for the benefit of these passengers anxious to be kept informed of the machine's progress. Telephonic conversation can also be carried on between the passengers and the pilot. Cupboards are provided at the end of the cabin for the storage of light luggage. In the roof of the cabin are adjustable ventilators and a trap-door, the latter at the rear of the cabin. Noise and vibration have been reduced to a minimum, in fact, the safety and comfort of the passengers has been considered in every way possible.
  High up in the nose of the fuselage is the pilots' cockpit, where accommodation is provided for two pilots seated side by side, with, of course, dual control. In this position a very wide range of vision is obtained. The lay-out of the various controls is extremely neat; the aileron, elevator and rudder control wires are led from the pilots' cockpit to port and starboard recesses in front wall of the cabin, where access is given for adjustment, etc. This is illustrated by one of the accompanying sketches. From these recesses the cables are led through aluminium tubes along the floor of the cabin. The engine controls (throttle, ignition, radiator shutters, etc.) are taken from the bottom of the pilots' cockpit through a conduit running up the front wall of the cabin, along the roof, and thence out to the engines through metal streamlined casings. The conduits have polished mahogany covers, which enhance the general appearance of the interior of the cabin. The control is fitted with a compensating device so that the machine can be flown "hands off" at any speed, whether level, climbing, or gliding.
  Very little alteration is necessary in converting the machine for mails and freight carrying. The seats in the cabin can be detached in a few minutes, giving a floor area of 53 sq. ft., and a volumetric capacity of 300 cubic ft. for freight, which can be kept at an even temperature and dry, The maximum weight which can be carried is 2,500 lbs., just over one ton.
  When Mail carrying, sorting boxes are fitted, and the process of Sorting can be carried out on similar lines to the arrangements now in operation on the mail trains. Mail bags can be released attached to parachutes, and dropped where necessary between terminal stations, thus reducing the time and cost of a journey.
  The rear portion of the fuselage is of the standard Vickers construction of wood and swaged tie rod, and Vickers-Ryan patent longerons. The fuel tanks are located beneath the floor of the cabin, and follow the streamline contour of the fuselage. A constant petrol supply is maintained by a windmill pump under each engine, which draws petrol from the main tanks and delivers it to a service tank in the leading edge of the top plane centre section; an overflow returns any surplus petrol to the main tank.
  As previously stated, the remainder of the machine is of standard Vimy construction. The main planes are in seven sections, three in the top plane, comprising a straight centre section to which are attached the outer sections at a dihedral angle of 3 1/2 degs., and four for the lower plane, the centre section of which, whilst having the same overall span as the top one, is divided into two sections, one on each side of the fuselage. The lower outer sections also have a dihedral of 3 1/2 degs. The main spars are of box section spruce and three-ply wood bound with fabric, and the interplane struts are of hollow spruce, except in the engine bay where the struts are of round steel tube, reinforced where necessary and with wooden fairings; the ribs are of spruce. The engine mounts are carried on four struts each side, and the chassis is attached below the engine mountings, thus minimizing the load in the antilift wires. Throughout the machine, streamline steel tie rods are used in external bracing, and round steel rods in all internal bracing; looped wires and ferrules are not used in any important part. In no part has solidity and strength of construction been sacrificed to lightness, a factor of safety of 4 1/2 being provided throughout the machine.
  The following are some further particulars of the "Vimy-Commercial"

Overall length 42 ft. 8 ins.
Overall height 15 ft. 3 ins.
Span 67 ft. 0 ins.
Gap 10 ft. 0 ins.
Chord 10 ft. 6 ins.
Area of main planes 1,330 sq. ft.
Weight per sq. foot 8.4 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 16.4 lbs.

  Engines
Two Rolls-Royce "Eagle" 8 engines or two "Liberty" engines are fitted. The machine will fly with one engine out of action.

  Weights and Load, with Rolls-Royce "Eagle" 8 engines or "Liberty" engine :-
   lbs.
Weight empty with
  water 7,292
Reserve water
  (4 gallons) 40
Petrol for 5 hours 1,290
Oil for 5 hours 190
Useful load, either
  passengers, mails,
  or goods, including
  pilot 2,308
Total 11,120

  Speed with Full Load
Near ground 109 m.p.h.
At 6,000 ft. 103 "
At 10,000 ft. 99 "
Landing 45 m.p.h.
One engine 70 "

  Climb with Full Load
To 6,000 ft. 17 mins.
To 10,000 ft. 48 mins.

Endurance with Full Load
  Fuel for five hours at 90 m.p.h. is carried, which means that the machine will cover a distance of 450 miles without landing. If necessary the endurance can be increased by lessening the amount of the useful load, e.g., if a non-stop journey of 900 miles is required, the useful load will amount to 1,000 lbs., or five passengers and baggage.

Useful Load
  The load that the machine will take is just over one ton; and arrangements are made whereby (a) eleven passengers and one pilot or (b) one ton dead weight of mails or goods, or (c) any combination of (a) and (b) can be carried. The internal capacity of the machine behind the pilot's seat is 300 cub. ft., which is equivalent in displacement to a load of 7 1/2 cubic tons.

Fuel Used
  When slightly throttled so that the speed of the machine is 90 m.p.h., the engines consume the following quantities of petrol and oil :-
  Petrol. - An average of 17 1/2 galls, per engine per hour.
  Oil. - An average of 1 gall, per engine per hour.


Flight, August 21, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE AIRCRAFT EXHIBITION

The British Section

VICKERS, LTD.
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  Another item in which great interest is shown is the fore part of the fuselage of the "Vimy Commercial." This machine also was described in FLIGHT recently, and it is only necessary to point out certain minor alterations that have been effected since the publication of this article. Thus it might be mentioned that the chairs with which the luxurious cabin is now provided are of the wicker work type, and, being somewhat lower than those originally fitted, are, if anything, rather more comfortable, while giving a slightly better view. Another improvement has been effected by transferring the entrance door from the front to the rear of the cabin. With the door in front it was found that the proximity to the revolving airscrew was rather closer than was desirable, and therefore when changing passengers it was necessary to stop the port engine. By now placing the door at the rear of the cabin, behind the trailing edge of the wings, not only may both engines be kept running throttled down while changing passengers, but also the door is actually a good deal lower here in relation to the ground, and it is therefore even easier to enter or leave the cabin than it was before.
  Of other items on view on the Vickers stand mention may be made of a model of the "Vimy" standing inside a model Richards hangar, and of a larger scale model of a Vickers "Valentia" flying boat. In addition there are numerous samples of various kinds of Vickers high-speed steels, parts of a Wolseley "Viper" engine, and finally a number of excellent photographs. Out on the aerodrome is a Vickers Vimy-Commercial, to which reference will be made later.
"VICKERS-VIMY COMMERCIAL" AEROPLANES FOR CHINA: One of 100 of these machines ordered from Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., by the Chinese Government, to be used for commercial aeroplane services in China. The speed of the machine is 100 m.p.h., and it has a carrying capacity of 16 passengers and one pilot, or 1 1/2 tons of mails or goods, with an endurance of 5 hours. Our photograph shows one of these machines at the E.L.T. A. aerodrome at Amsterdam. Inset shows the machine in flight
Three-quarter front view of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial" biplane
Side view of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial" biplane
Three-quarter rear view of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial" biplane
Rear view of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial" biplane
A VISITOR TO HENDON. - The Vickers Vimy-Commercial machine fitted with two Rolls-Royce engines. This machine has a most luxuriously equipped cabin for passengers, enclosed in a monocoque body. In front, in bowler hat, immediately below the port engine nacelle, may be seen Mr. Louis Noel, who was one of the visitors to Hendon during the week end.
SOME MORE BRITISH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 4. The Vickers Vimy-Commercial.
A snap of the Vickers Vimy-Commercial machine in flight
The Vickers commercial passenger-'plane flies over the grounds of Edgwarebury House.
One of the box-formers for the fuselage of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial" biplane
VICKERS IN HOLLAND: Two views of the Vickers stand at the E.L.T.A. show at Amsterdam. On the left a general view of the stand, showing the Vickers-"Vimy," and on the right the front portion of the fuselage of a Vickers-Vimy commercial.
THE VICKERS "VIMY-COMMERCIAL" BIPLANE: Four views showing the cabin under construction
THE VICKERS "VIMY-COMMERCIAL" BIPLANE: Two views of the interior of the "luxurious" cabin. On the left, looking forward, and on the right, looking aft. It should be noted, that it is not quite finished, and several fittings have to be added.
Sketch showing the recesses, in the fore part of the cabin, giving access to the control cables. The conduit conveying the engine controls will be seen in the centre.
The biplane tail of the Vickers " Vimy-Commercial."
Sketch showing the mounting of the main petrol tanks under the cabin of the Vickers "Vimy-Commercial"
Flight, August 7, 1919.

"WESTLANDS" OF YEOVIL

  YEOVIL, before the War, was chiefly associated in the minds of most people with the manufacture of oil engines, the name Petters being a household word in this connection. During the War Yeovil has become known for something besides oil engines - still in connection with the old name of Petters it might be pointed out. Always alive to the possibilities of the times, those responsible for the management of Petters, Ltd., foresaw, quite early in the War, that there would be a great demand for aircraft, and consequently an aircraft branch was founded, with a separate management, but on which Mr. P. W. Petter and Mr. R. A. Bruce were joint directors. The aircraft branch of Petters, Ltd., became known as the Westland Aircraft Works, and for a start machines were constructed to other people's designs. However, it was not very long before it was decided to produce original machines, for the design of which Mr. A. Davenport became responsible, and two types which resulted will be familiar to most people in touch with the aviation industry, the "Wagtail" and the "Weasel." Nor are these two the only types which have emanated from the Westland Aircraft Works, although they are, perhaps, those best known.
  Last week we had, in company with representatives of the technical press, an opportunity of inspecting the Westland works at Yeovil, and to see the new commercial aeroplane which has been designed and built since the Armistice. The party was met at Paddington station by Lieut.-Col. Meares, who is now associated with the London end of the firm. On arrival the visitors were introduced to Mr. R. J. Norton, commercial manager of the firm, and to Mr. F. Chandler, who is works manager. The party, which also included Capt. A. S. Keep, M.C., late R.A.F., having by motor reached the works and aerodrome, a tour of the works revealed the fact that a great factory has been built during the War, in which the most up-to-date machinery is running at full pressure, producing, among other machines, Vickers-Vimy bombers, of which a large order is being completed. One also noted several Airco (de H.) biplanes, while the large and well-organised drawing-office was busy with the designs for several post-War commercial machines, one of which is already in production, the first machine of the batch being in flying trim on the day of the visit. This machine, which is known as the Westland "Limousine," has been designed to combine the qualities of a luxurious motor and a yacht. As the accompanying illustrations will show, the "Limousine" has a totally enclosed cabin, with seating accommodation for pilot and three passengers. The pilot occupies the rear port seat, which is raised above the floor of the cabin so as to bring his head above the roof, in which there is a cockpit for the pilot, whose head is protected from the wind by a screen. One of the passengers sits next to the pilot, but a little lower so as to be right inside the cabin. The two remaining seats are placed near the front wall of the cabin, the occupant of the port seat facing forward, the other passenger sitting with his back to the cabin wall. This object of this placing was not clear at first, but was explained when Mr. Norton took his seat in the machine, the other front seat being occupied by a shorthand typist, who calmly placed her typewriter on a little hinged table attached to the front wall of the cabin. The writer of these notes was requested to take the remaining seat so as to be in a position to testify that a message was dictated by Mr. Norton during the trip, was first taken down in shorthand, and was then transcribed on the typewriter. When Capt. Keep had taken his seat the party was complete, the chocks under the wheels were taken away, and the machine commenced to taxy along the ground. When the far side of the aerodrome had been reached the pilot swung the machine around into the wind, and opened the throttle. The Rolls-Royce Falcon commenced its roar - at least one presumes it did, since inside the cabin the noise was no more than that of an engine running well throttled down, and in a few seconds we were in the air. But what a difference to the ordinary open aeroplane. There was no more noise than in a railway carriage, and as for draught, there simply wasn't any. At the same time the ventilators in the roof prevented the air from getting at all stuffy. There we sat, as comfortable as if we had been at rest on the ground, and yet we were travelling along at over a hundred miles per hour. Mr. Norton's voice could be heard as he dictated his letters, while below a lovely panorama was unrolled, the beauty of which one could enjoy undisturbed by any rush of wind or by any unpleasant noise. The day was hot, and consequently there was a number of heat bumps; but for the latter one had little sensation of movement. As we climbed higher the bumps grew less, and finally appeared practically to cease. By now Mr. Norton had finished his dictation, and the typist commenced to transcribe. As it happened, however, that particular letter was not destined to be typed in the air, for the typewriter had been so fixed that while it worked quite well where small letters were concerned, it was too close against the upholstery on the cabin wall to permit of writing caps. As Mr. Norton refused to have the letter written entirely in the lower case he called to the pilot to descend. After a short glide we landed without incident. The writer of these notes was quite satisfied as to the cause of the difficulty and would willingly testify to the practicability of both dictating and typing during flight, but Mr. Norton insisted upon having the matter put right, and in a subsequent flight, when the typewriter had been moved out from the wall, the experiment was repeated and succeeded without any hitch.
  It will, therefore, be seen that in the Westland limousine one has a machine in which it will be quite feasible for a Cabinet Minister, or the head of a large commercial undertaking, or anybody else whose time is valuable, to travel from one place to another, faster than is possible by any other means, while at the same time doing it in greater comfort. Further to save time it will be possible for the owner of such a machine to dictate correspondence and to have it typed out en route, ready for posting as soon as the machine reaches its destination.
  That it will be more expensive than going by train may be granted, but to the busy man, whose time is worth a lot of money, the saving in time which the aeroplane can effect will more than compensate for the extra cost.
  It is not, however, to the business man only that a machine like the Westland limousine will appeal. The wealthy man on pleasure bent could not wish for a more comfortable, nor for a more entertaining way of touring either at home or abroad (when the authorities open the barrier to international flying). There is no doubt that once the charms of flying in the modern comfortable aeroplane are realised by those whose means of transport or for pleasure - and it would be idle to pretend that it is at present within the reach of the poor - this mode of travel will become increasingly popular. The three old-time enemies of comfortable air travel - noise, wind and oil - are absent in the modern limousine of the air, and when this fact has once been well established we shall soon see great numbers of these machines in frequent use by their private owners.
  After a number of joy-rides had been made by the visitors, the party was taken to tea, when Mr. P. W. Petter, in a few brief words, outlined the policy of the Westland Aircraft Works. The firm, it is gratifying to learn, intends to remain in the aviation industry, those responsible for its management being firm believers in the future of aviation, and being ready to face the difficult times which the industry will have to pass through before flying comes into its own. We should have liked to have given this week a more detailed description of the Westland limousine, but space calls a halt, and we hope to record the fuller description in next week's issue.


Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE

  AN account of a trip to Yeovil to inspect the Westland Aircraft Works was published in our issue of August 7, 1919. This referred briefly to the new passenger or mail carrier produced by this firm. At the time it was not possible, from considerations of space, to include a lengthy description of the Westland limousine, and we are therefore now giving a more detailed description of it in the present issue. In one respect the first article requires modification, in that the impression was conveyed that the machine was designed by Mr. Davenport. Actually the designer of the limousine, as of all the Westland aircraft, is Mr. R. A. Bruce, who is the head of the Westland Aircraft Works, and with Mr. P. W. Petter, joint managing-director of Messrs. Petters, Ltd. Mr. Bruce is, however, ably assisted by Mr. A. Davenport, chief draughtsman of the Westland Aircraft Works.
  The Westland limousine, which has been designed and built since the Armistice, is intended to provide for the man of means, to whom time, is of great value, a fast and at the same time comfortable means of locomotion. The object kept in mind by the designers was to combine in a modern aeroplane the best points of a high-class motor car and at the same time possessing the initial advantage of the aeroplane - speed. That this object has been attained cannot be denied. The Westland limousine is extremely comfortable to fly in, sheltered as the passengers are from the rush of wind which makes for discomfort in an open machine. It approximates very closely to the motor car, in that it is designed to carry three passengers in addition to the pilot; and while its engine - a 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Falcon" - is not of so high a power as to raise running expenses to an exorbitant point, it is nevertheless of sufficient power to give the machine a very good performance, both as regards speed, climb and endurance. That running expenses will be higher than those of a four-seated motor car must be admitted, but then it should be realised that the aeroplane will do cross-country journeys very much faster than any motor. Also it is actually a fact that there is less vibration and jolting than in a motor going over any but the smoothest of roads, and consequently it is possible for the owner of such a machine to carry on work en route which he could not do with any comfort in a motor car. Thus it is quite easy and comfortable to write or read while the machine is in the air, and Mr. Norton, Commercial Manager of the Westland Aircraft Works, demonstrated on our recent visit to Yeovil that it is quite possible to take up a shorthand typist and to dictate and have typed out letters while the machine is in flight. The time spent on a journey, in addition to being very much shortened by travelling by air, instead of being wasted can be employed for getting through urgent correspondence or other work, and to have such correspondence ready for posting the instant the machine reaches its destination.
  Fundamentally the Westland limousine is an ordinary single-engine tractor biplane, with its body made slightly deeper and wider than that of the usual open type of machine. As will be seen from the illustrations, this has been accomplished without spoiling the lines of the machine, which, as a matter of fact, are very pleasing to the eye.
  As regards structural design, the Westland limousine is interesting in several respects. For instance, the unit type of design, which has several marked advantages, has been followed to a considerable extent. Thus the fuselage comprises three separate units. The first is the engine mounting and housing, which forms a unit separate from the next one - the cabin. The structure which carries the engine is of the overhung type, and is constructed mainly of steel tubing. This unit is bolted to the cabin unit and is readily removable, should it be desired to change the engine. This system of construction has several advantages. For instance, if it is desired to overhaul the engine it is a simple matter to remove the entire power plant to the engineers' shop, where the work can be most efficiently done. Or, in case of a firm running a passenger or mail service with these machines, if an engine needs overhaul the whole front unit of a machine may be taken out and a new one substituted in a short time, thereby avoiding a long delay before that particular machine can be put into service again. Also, the substitution of one type of engine for another is greatly simplified by the unit system.
  Perhaps the most interesting feature of the Westland limousine is the arrangement of the cabin. In order to provide a clearer space inside, the central unit of the fuselage has been constructed on a different principle, which does away with any internal bracing. Without going into minute details of the actual construction, it may be said that in principle it consists in covering the sides of the body with ply-wood, stiffened with a framework of diagonal members. Where door and windows occur, bent frames are provided which more than make up for the weakening that might otherwise attend the cutting of the side covering. Thus the door giving entrance to the cabin is placed on the starboard side, and to make up for the absence of side bracing of the fuselage at this point there are curved frames above and below the door which take the place of the ordinary bracing. The added comfort of having the door in the side will be apparent, as the cabin is entered as easily as is the ordinary motor car.
  As indicated in the plan view of the general arrangement drawings, the seats of the Westland limousine are arranged in a somewhat unusual fashion. Against the front wall of the cabin, on the starboard side, is one seat facing aft, while the corresponding seat on the port side is placed slightly farther aft and faces forward. In front of the latter seat is a neat little folding table, which may be used for writing, accommodating if desired a typewriter. Of the remaining two seats, both of which face forward, the pilot occupies that on the port side, the starboard one being available for a third passenger. The pilot's seat is raised about a foot off the floor of the cabin so as to bring him into a position with his head projecting through an opening in the roof of the cabin. From here the pilot obtains a very good view, certainly no worse than that obtained in the ordinary tractor biplane, and better than some we have seen. As already mentioned, the entrance door is on the starboard side, and is so arranged that when in flight it is locked by a bar that precludes any possibility of the accidental opening of the door. On the starboard side there are two windows, one for each of the passengers sitting on this side, while the third passenger looks out through a window to port. In the roof of the cabin is a ventilator, adjustable from the inside, which admits air to the cabin and prevents any tendency to stuffiness. The noise of the engine is very effectively silenced, partly by the long exhaust pipes, and partly by the fact that the machine is enclosed. What adds considerably to the silence is the provision of an asbestos bulkhead at the front of the cabin. The ordinary three-ply partition would probably act as a very efficient sounding-box and tend to increase rather than decrease the noise.
  The seats are upholstered in grey, and the whole cabin is most comfortable and pleasing in appearance, while the occupants are so well protected from oil and dirt of any kind that no special flying rig is required. Lady passengers may travel in this machine in the most delicate frocks without fear of getting them spoiled by oil.
  The rear portion of the fuselage is of the usual wood girder wire braced type, and does not call for any special comment. In order to compensate for the difference in weight or number of passengers carried, the Westland Limousine is provided with a tail plane trimming gear. This in itself is not, of course, a novel feature, but the design of the trimming gear itself is somewhat unusual and is, we understand, protected by a patent. As will be seen from the accompanying diagram, the tail plane hinges about its front spar and has its incidence changed by shifting the lower angles of two triangles, formed by steel tubes. The diagram is, we think, self-explanatory. When the worm is rotated in one direction, via cables and pulleys, the lower point of the triangle moves forward, dropping the rear spar of the tail plane and thus increasing the angle of incidence. When the pilot rotates the wheel in his cockpit in the opposite direction, the incidence is decreased.
  From the specification printed below, it will be seen that the Westland Limousine has a very good performance, and from a careful watching of the pilot's movements during a recent flight we are convinced that the machine needs very little control during a straightforward flight, while at the same time, when it is desired to manoeuvre her quickly she answers very readily and appears quite light on the controls. The following specification gives all the more important data relating to the machine:-
  Length overall, 28 ft. 6 ins.; span, 38 ft. 2 ins.; height, 11 ft.; total wing area, 440 sq. ft.; weight empty, 2,183 lbs.; weight fully loaded, 3,383 lbs.; fuel capacity, 3 hours; range, 290 miles; commercial load, 540 lbs.; passenger or cargo space, 95 cubic ft.; Speed, ground level, 100 m.p.h.; at 10,000 ft. 91 m.p.h.; at 15,000 ft. 85 m.p.h. Climb, to 5,000 ft. in 8-35 mins.; to 10,000 ft. in 19.6 mins.; to 15,000 ft. in 37.5 mins; ceiling, 17,000 ft. Landing speed, 50 m.p.h. ; load/sq. ft., 7.8 lbs.; load/h.p., 15.1 lbs. Engine, 275 h.p., Rolls-Royce Falcon. Cruising speed, 85 m.p.h. at 1,750 r.p.m.


Flight, December 18, 1919.

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The Westland Aircraft Works

  This firm is showing on stand No. 20 a complete Westland limousine, similar to the standard machine which has been described in FLIGHT. The colour scheme is grey and aluminium throughout. The wings and rear portion of the fuselage are grey, while the cabin is aluminium. The upholstery is grey Bedford cord. Generally speaking, the exhibition machine is similar to the standard. It might be mentioned that an altimeter and speed indicator are fitted in the cabin, where they can be read by the passengers. In addition to the complete machine, Westlands will show one side of a cabin, showing the construction, which, it may be remembered, is of the unit type, the engine compartment forming one unit, the cabin another, and the rear portion of the fuselage a third. A scale model will be shown of the limousine fitted up for mail carrying.
  In addition to the machine at the exhibition there will be a demonstration machine at the Le Bourget aerodrome. This machine has been in service since last July, and has done a great deal of flying, including mail carrying during the railway strike. It will, therefore, form a good opportunity for prospective purchasers to see how the Westland limousine stands up to hard wear. The machine will be fitted with hot water heating apparatus, which can be regulated by the passengers.
  Both machines will be flown across from Yeovil to Paris, and it is hoped that all the material required for the stand, etc., may be carried on board the two machines, thus avoiding the necessity for any other form of transport.
  The overall length of the Westland limousine is 28 ft. 6 ins. and the span is 38 ft. 2 ins. The maximum speed, fitted with 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon engines, is 115 m.p.h. a t 1,000 ft., and the cruising speed is 85/90 m.p.h. With full load of pilot and three passengers the machine will climb the first 1,000 ft. in one minute, which is sufficient for clearing obstacles around the aerodrome on taking-off.
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Three-quarter rear view
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Three-quarter front view
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Three-quarter front view
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: 1 and 2, A couple of snaps through one of the starboard windows. 3, The cabin is entered through a door in the side as comfortably as on a motor car. 4, Three-quarter rear view of the Westland limousine. 5, Three-quarter front view of the Westland limousine
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Diagram of the tail plane trimming gear.
The Westland limousine, 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon
THE WESTLAND LIMOUSINE: Plan, side and front elevations to scale
"THE JACKALS." - The importance of keeping formation cannot be too strongly impressed upon the pilot. Loss of position is likely to lead to an adventure with the Jackals.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  OF the German aircraft firms which were in existence before the War, one of the best known and most important was the Aviatik (Automobil u. Aviatik A.G.), whose works were originally at Mulhausen, Alsace. Quite early in the War, however, the proximity of the works to the front made it necessary to transfer them to a safer locality. This was hurriedly done, under cover of darkness it is alleged, and works were established at Freiburg im Breisgau. The demands for output soon rendered these works too small, and a large factory was established at Leipzig-Heiterblick, which is at the present time the main Aviatik factory. Work was commenced at this factory in 1916, and in addition the Grade works at Bork i. d. Mark, near Berlin, were purchased by the Aviatik firm, who enlarged them considerably and established a flying school there. The Aviatik firm intends to remain in the aircraft industry after the War, and in view of this fact, as well as on account of the amount of work done by this firm during the War, a few brief notes on the various Aviatik types, based on an article published in Flugsport, may not be without interest.

The Aviatik, Type C I
  This machine, which was built during 1914-1915, had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine, and the radiator mounted on the front struts of the cabane. The gunner occupied the front seat, two straight gun rails being mounted on the sides of the fuselage. The machine had a speed of 142 km./hour.

The Aviatik, Type C III
  was built in 1916, and also had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine. It was designed to meet the demand for better performance and although the engine remained the same, the speed of this type was increased from 142 to 160 km./hour. This was accomplished mainly by a general "cleaning up," as placing the radiator in the top plane, giving the body a better streamline shape, and last, but not least, by employing a different wing section.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  OF the German aircraft firms which were in existence before the War, one of the best known and most important was the Aviatik (Automobil u. Aviatik A.G.), whose works were originally at Mulhausen, Alsace. Quite early in the War, however, the proximity of the works to the front made it necessary to transfer them to a safer locality. This was hurriedly done, under cover of darkness it is alleged, and works were established at Freiburg im Breisgau. The demands for output soon rendered these works too small, and a large factory was established at Leipzig-Heiterblick, which is at the present time the main Aviatik factory. Work was commenced at this factory in 1916, and in addition the Grade works at Bork i. d. Mark, near Berlin, were purchased by the Aviatik firm, who enlarged them considerably and established a flying school there. The Aviatik firm intends to remain in the aircraft industry after the War, and in view of this fact, as well as on account of the amount of work done by this firm during the War, a few brief notes on the various Aviatik types, based on an article published in Flugsport, may not be without interest.

The Aviatik, Type C I
  This machine, which was built during 1914-1915, had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine, and the radiator mounted on the front struts of the cabane. The gunner occupied the front seat, two straight gun rails being mounted on the sides of the fuselage. The machine had a speed of 142 km./hour.

The Aviatik, Type C III
  was built in 1916, and also had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine. It was designed to meet the demand for better performance and although the engine remained the same, the speed of this type was increased from 142 to 160 km./hour. This was accomplished mainly by a general "cleaning up," as placing the radiator in the top plane, giving the body a better streamline shape, and last, but not least, by employing a different wing section.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  The foregoing types represent the development in the two-seater class. The Aviatik firm has, however, also produced some single-seaters, known in Germany as the D class. Of these mention may be made of a few.

The Aviatik, Type D II
  This machine, which was built in 1916, is similar in general lay-out to the Albatross and other scouts. It had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine, and the radiator was placed in the centre section of the top plane. Although the body construction was the usual German one of a light framework covered with ply-wood, steel was used for the inter-plane and centresection struts, and also for the undercarriage and engine-bearers. The pilot's seat was carried on a rearward extension of the channel section steel engine-bearers.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  The next machine in the series which is of interest is

The Aviatik, Type C V
  This machine, which was constructed in 1917, had an Argus engine of 180 h.p. The type C V departed from usual practice in several respects. Thus the wing bracing was unusual in that no lift-wires were employed. As the accompanying illustration shows, the outer pair of inter-plane struts were arranged in the form of a Vee, the bottom plane being of smaller chord than the top. The innermost pair of struts ran from the upper ends of the next pair to points near the bottom of the fuselage, while a third strut sloped aft from the rear strut and was anchored at its lower end to the fuselage some distance aft. Another feature of this type was that the centre section of the top plane was dropped, in a manner not unlike that employed on the latest Boulton and Paul "Bourges." The object of this arrangement undoubtedly was to provide a better view and a freer field of fire for the gunner. For some reason or other the type was not a success, and was not, we believe, built in large quantities. No figures of performance are available.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

The Aviatik, Type C VIII
  This machine was also built in 1917. It had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine, and the radiator placed in front of the leading edge of the top plane. To reduce resistance, and thus increase speed, only one pair of inter-plane struts was fitted on each side, while the body was kept of the smallest possible cross section. In order to provide sufficient gap for aerodynamical efficiency, which was not possible with direct attachment of the lower plane to the body, a form of keel was provided, growing out of the bottom of the fuselage and to this were attached the two halves of the bottom plane. The fuselage was covered with ply-wood, and was of good streamline form. The gun-ring in the rear cockpit was accommodated in a coaming of three-ply, nicely rounded off, as will be seen from the photograph. The centre section struts were of N formation, and were raked outwards. A similar pair of struts provided diagonal bracing i or the root attachment of the lower plane to the keel referred to above.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

The Aviatik, Type D III
  In 1918 another single-seater type was brought out. This machine, which had the series number D III, was fitted with a Vee type 195 h.p. eight-cylindered high-speed Benz engine. As other machines of the D type it had one pair of struts aside, and it was similar to the type C VIII, in that it had a keel structure projecting down from the bottom of the fuselage, to which was attached the bottom plane. The planes were heavily staggered, so as to give the pilot a better view. The radiator was placed in the top plane.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

The Aviatik, Type C IX
  In 1918 a somewhat different type, the C IX, was produced. This had a 200 h.p. Benz engine, and the radiator was placed in the nose of the fuselage, motor car fashion. The lower plane, which was of smaller chord than the top one, ran underneath the fuselage, much after the manner of the Bristol Fighter, which may quite possibly have inspired the Aviatik designer to adopt this feature. The fin and tail planes, three-ply covered, "grow" out of the body, while the rudder is fabric covered. There is a small fin underneath the fuselage, containing the tail skid.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  As in the case of our own machines, there came a time when engines became of such increased size and the evolutions to be carried out during fights in the air of so strenuous a nature that the single-pair-of-struts-aside type of single-seater was no longer equal to it. Consequently, it became usual to fit two pairs of struts, and generally to strengthen-up this type of machine. The Aviatik firm did this in their next single-seater:

The Aviatik, Type D VII
  which was built in 1918. The engine fitted in this type was also a 195 h.p. Benz eight-cylindered Vee, driving a four-bladed airscrew through reduction gearing. Probably owing to the fact that the engine was of the Vee type, and that, therefore, it was difficult in any case to provide a pointed nose to the machine, a front radiator was fitted. The machine is of slightly greater dimensions than the D III, and in a somewhat modified form is intended for use as a sporting biplane, to which reference will be made later.

The Aviatik Commercial Machines
  For post-War commercial use the Aviatik firm has several types in course of construction. These include machines of 200, 350, 1,000, and 1,500 h.p., the latter types carrying from 18 to 26 passengers.

The Aviatik Sporting Machine
  This, as already mentioned, is a development of the Type D VII. It has a Benz engine (eight-cylindered Vee type) of 240 h.p., and is stated to develop a speed of 192 km./hour at 3.000 m. It is claimed to climb to 6,000 m. in 24 mins., and to have a ceiling of about 7,400 m. The machine, as shown in the accompanying illustration, has a four-bladed airscrew, probably driven through reduction gearing. The following is the specification of the Aviatik sporting machine: Span, 9 m. 66; length overall, 6 m. 100; height overall, 2 m. 50; weight, empty, 745 kg.; fuel and pilot, 150 kg.; other load, 50 kg.; total weight about 945 kg. Sufficient fuel for 1 1/2 hours. (About 280-300 km.)
The Aviatik, Type D VII, Sporting machine.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  For Peace-time passenger-carrying the Giant is being adapted as a passenger or mail carrier. This machine.

The Aviatik, Type R III
  is to be fitted with four Benz engines of 250 h.p. each. The specification is as follows: Span, 43 m. 500; length overall, 22 m. 500; height, 6 m. 500; weight empty, 9,000 kg.; fuel and occupants, 1,800 kg.; other load, 1,800 kg.; total weight, 12,600 kg. The crew will consist of one captain, two pilots, two engineers, and one steward. The useful load may consist of 18 passengers with their luggage or of 1,800 kg. of goods. Fuel is carried for a seven-hours flight (about 875 km.). The speed is expected to be about 125 km./hour at 2,500 m. A climb of 3,500 m. in 1 hour 40 mins. is anticipated, and the ceiling has been estimated at about 4,000 m. All the comfort to which passengers of a railway-coach are accustomed to will be provided. A diagram of the cabin arrangement is published herewith, and shows the seating, etc.
The Aviatik passenger-carrier, Type R III
Diagram of passenger accommodation, etc., in the Aviatik, Type R III
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  For mail and passenger carrying the firm has produced a limousine to be known as

The Aviatik, Type F
  This machine, a sketch of which is published herewith, has the following dimensions; Span, 15 m.; Length overall, 7 m. 90; height, 3 m. 100; weight empty, 1,050 kg.; fuel and occupants. 315 kg.; other load, 250 kg.; total weight, 1,615 kg. Sufficient fuel is carried for a flight of 3 hours, so that the range is approximately 525 km. The power plane is a twelve-cylindered Vee engine of 300 h.p. The speed is estimated at 175 km./hour at 2,000 m., and climb the 5,000 m. in 35 mins. The ceiling will be about 6,500 m.
Flight, September 25, 1919.

THE GERMAN D.F.W. COMMERCIAL FOUR-ENGINED BIPLANE

IN spite of the handicaps caused by the Peace conditions, German aircraft firms are losing no time in getting going on their post-War commercial aeroplanes. Since the conclusion of hostilities several firms have commenced the construction of large multi-engined passenger carriers. Among these is the D.F.W. firm (Deutsche Flugzeug Werke), who have nearing completion a large four-engined biplane, designed to carry 24 passengers. This machine is a development of the military type built during the War, and before commencing a description of the commercial machine a brief reference to its prototypes may be of interest.
It was in September, 1915, that the D.F.W. works commenced the construction of their first multi-engined type, the R I. This machine was fitted with four 220 h.p. Mercedes engines placed in the fuselage and driving airscrews on the wings by means of bevel gears and shafts. The four engines were arranged inside the fuselage, two on each side, one above the other, leaving a central gangway between them. Under the floor-boards, in front of and behind the engines, the tanks were placed, three in front and three behind. The amount of fuel carried was sufficient for a flight of six hours' duration. Each engine was provided with a transmission drive to airscrews placed on the wings, and the screws were geared down to run at 900 r.p.m. Generally speaking, the power plant was so arranged that each engine, with its transmission-drive and propeller, formed a complete unit which functioned quite independently of the other three. The trial flights are said to have taken place without any breakdowns occurring, and after a total of eight hours in the air the machine was considered ready for her acceptance tests, which took place on October 19, 1916. When weighed for this test the weight of the machine empty was found to be 6,800 kg. (15,000 lbs.), and the various loads required by the military authorities amounted to 2,600 kg. (5,700 lbs.), bringing the total weight in flying trim up to 9,400 kg. (20,700 lbs.). The wing loading worked out at about 10.3 lbs./sq. ft., and the power loading at 23.5 lbs./h.p. With this loading the performance during the acceptance tests was as follows: 3,300 ft. in 10 mins.; 6, 600 ft. in 25 mins.; and 10,900 ft. in 53 mins. The maximum speed attained was 130 km. (78 miles) per hour. After a flight of 2 1/2 hours' duration the machine landed without mishap at Doberitz.
During further test flights at Doberitz # after the machine had been taken over by the Flying Service # trouble was experienced with the crankshafts, which continued to break. This was put down to the excessive length of the eight-cylindered engines, and also to faulty engine mountings. These were re-designed, and the transmission shafts were provided with universal joints. These alterations were completed in March, 1917, and towards the end of that month a trial flight of two hours' duration was made, during which no trouble was experienced. On April 30, 1917, the machine was flown across to the Eastern Front, the trip to Konigsberg being made in 3 hours 55 mins. The experience gained with this type was so satisfactory that the D.F.W. works received an order for six more, these, however, to be fitted with four 260 h.p. Mercedes engines, and to be able to carry a useful load of 3,400 kg. (7,500 lbs.) instead of the useful load of 5,700 lbs. carried by the first machine.
The fitting of larger engines, and the demand for a higher useful load, necessarily resulted in a somewhat larger machine. This became known as the Type R II, the first of which was commenced in the early part of 1918. The transmission system was, generally speaking, similar to that of the R I. The first of the R II machines made its first trial flight towards the end of August, 1918. Again transmission troubles developed, and the transmission shafts, which ran at 3,000 r.p.m., showed excessive vibration. In order to stop this the shafts were enclosed in tubes, which arrangement appears to have had the desired effect, as no more transmission trouble was, it is said, experienced. The weight empty of the R II was 8,600 kg. (18,900 lbs.), and the total loaded weight somewhere about 12,000 kg. (26,500 lbs.). The power load was 25.25 lbs./h.p., and the wing loading 9 lbs./sq. ft.
Before describing the 24-seater passenger machine, it might be mentioned that the D.F.W. firm had the drawings ready for a giant war machine, a side elevation of which is shown in the accompanying illustration. With the signing of Peace this machine was not required, and was, therefore, never built. It is nevertheless of interest in showing the ambitious designs which were entertained by the Germans towards the end of the War. This machine, which, had it materialised, would have been the largest aeroplane in the world # according to the Germans # was to be fitted with eight engines, each of 270 h.p., or a total of 2,160 h.p. The engines were to be started by a compressed air starter operated by an engine of 120 h.p. The same engine would probably be used for driving the electric generator furnishing current for lighting, heating, and wireless. In addition to an armament of eight machine-guns, the machine was to carry 5,500 lbs. of bombs. It will be noticed that in spite of its size the giant D.F.W. was to be fitted with a monoplane tail.

The D.F.W. Passenger Carrier

As in the case of the military machine, the passenger carrier has a fuselage built entirely of wood. There are four main longerons, to which transverse formers are attached at intervals. In places there are incorporated in the construction steel tube struts and wire bracing. The floor-boards, gangways, etc., are so designed as to assist in rendering the fuselage structure rigid. Special attention has been paid to the engine installation. The engines are mounted on a structure of pressed steel inside the fuselage, two on each side, one slightly ahead of and above the other. The points where the members of this pressed steel framework are secured to the fuselage also serve as attachments for wings and undercarriage struts. The whole fuselage is covered with plywood. The front and rear portions of the body provide accommodation for the passengers, while the central portion is the engine-room. In each of the passenger cabins there are twelve seats, so arranged as to give the occupants a good view out through the numerous windows with which the cabins are provided. Electric lighting and heating are provided, and a wireless outfit is carried. Fire extinguishers are placed at suitable points throughout the fuselage, and all modern conveniences are provided.
As will be seen from the illustrations, the machine is a biplane, with its top plane in three sections. There is a centre section to which the two end sections are attached. The lower plane consists really of four sections, the two inner ones of which, however, remain in place. The end sections are joined to the two short wing roots of the bottom plane at the point where occur the attachments of the outer undercarriage struts and propeller struts. When the end sections of top and bottom planes are dismantled, the top centre section and the two short bottom plane roots remain in place, with their strutting, propeller drives, etc. The wing construction is of more or less standard form, with spars and ribs of wood, built-up sections being glued with waterproof glue. The wing bracing is in the form of duplicate steel cables. Ailerons are fitted to the top plane only.
The tail, it will be seen, is of the biplane type. The vertical fin is built integral with the fuselage and is covered with ply-wood. The two tail planes are attached to the fin and to the fuselage respectively. The bracing is by struts and cables as in the case of the main planes. The elevators are mounted on ball bearings at the rear edge of the tail planes, and the rudders are attached to the rear inter-tail plane struts. The elevator and rudder control cables pass inside the body through suitable guides, while the aileron cables pass over pulleys in the lower plane, and hence to the controls.
The arrangement of the undercarriage will be understood from an inspection of the general arrangement drawings. There is an undercarriage on each side, consisting of two Vees of streamline steel tubes, the inner one of which is attached to the fuselage, while the outer one is bolted to the bottom plane. The two Vees are braced diagonally by steel cables. The axles are of chrome nickel steel, slung from the apices of the Vees by rubber cord, and rest in a slot in a plywood fairing. In order to prevent the machine from turning on its nose on landing, a front undercarriage is fitted towards the nose of the fuselage. A swivelling tail skid is mounted direct in the rear part of the body.
As already mentioned, the motors are placed inside the fuselage, above one another, and it is said that as a result of keeping the whole central portion of body and wings a complete unit, this part of the structure is very rigid, and that as a consequence no transmission troubles are experienced. As will be seen from the side elevation, the upper engines have their gear end facing forward, while the lower engines are placed the reverse way. The two front engines drive airscrews placed on the front spars of the top plane, while the lower engines drive pushers situated near the rear spars of the lower plane. Consequently the engine shafts and propeller shafts are parallel with one another, and the drive is by sloping shafts and bevel gears. The size of the bevel gears is so proportioned that a gear reduction of 14 to 9 is obtained. That is to say, when the engines are making 1,400 r.p.m. the airscrews are revolving at 900 r.p.m. is claimed that by placing the tractors high and the pushers low as indicated, both are working in undisturbed air, and that this fact, in conjunction with the slow running of the airscrews' 900 r.p.m., makes for very high airscrew efficiency. It is also claimed that in case of one engine cutting out the trim can be maintained by use of rudder and elevators. As the distance between airscrews is fairly great, this claim might be open to doubt. It is said that the machine will fly comfortably with only two engines running, and while this is probably true as regards the actual power, it may be doubted in view of the points of application of the power. In other words, if the trim of the machine is right with all engines working, it is doubtful whether it would be with, for instance, only the tractors pulling, as the centre of thrust would be in that case very much too high. As naturally the transmission bearings are subject to considerable loads, it is important to be in a position to know always what is their condition. To this end all the bearings in the transmission system are provided with electric thermometers which indicate at any time the temperature of each bearing. There are seven petrol tanks placed in the body, each holding 350 litres.
The D.F.W. Military Type R II.: View of the nose of the fuselage, showing transmission shafts, etc.
THE D.F.W. MILITARY TYPE R II: Three-quarter front view.
Two views of the interior of the D.F.W. Military Type R II.: Top: Looking aft from the engine-room. Bottom: Looking forward through the engine-room to the pilot's cockpit.
A D.F.W. design for a giant aeroplane to be driven by eight engines, each of 270 h.p. Owing to the finish of the War this machine was never built.
THE D.F.W. PASSENGER CARRIER: Plan, side and front elevations, to scale.
A SOPWITH TRIPLANE ON THE WAY FOR A DOUBLE EVENT.
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE FOKKER STAND

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  Finally there is on the Fokker stand, a two-seater biplane which has more than a family, resemblance to the German Fokker type D VII. It has the same general shape and construction of fuselage, the same thick tapering wing section, and the same N form of interplane struts, without external wing bracing. One difference one notices, however, in the attachment of the lower wing to the fuselage. Whereas in the D VII the bottom plane was in one piece, resting in a recess in the bottom of the fuselage, in the show machine the bottom plane is made in two halves, bolted to the sides of the fuselage. The pilot occupies the front seat, while the seat usually occupied by the gunner is now reserved for the passenger, who is protected from the wind by a glass wind screen, while above his head is a collapsible hood made of fabric. A front radiator of elliptical shape suggests that the engine is a water-cooled one, but as to make we were unable to obtain any information from the gentleman in charge of the stand. The front of the body was hermetically sealed so as to make it impossible to discover the contents - if any - of the engine housing, and the young man in charge naively informed us that he did not know with what engine the machine was fitted! This may be taken to mean that either no engine was fitted, or that, if there was one fitted, it was a German one.
The Fokker Stand: On the left may be seen the port wing of a parasol monoplane, while in the centre is a sporting two-seater, shown with the port wings folded for transport. In the background, on the right, is a Fokker two-seater biplane, similar to the German Fokker type D.VII.
SOME DUTCH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 2. A couple of Fokker biplanes, one with rotary and one with stationary engine
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE FOKKER STAND

  Herr Fokker, having relinquished his German naturalisation, obtained, one presumes, for business purposes during the War, and become a Dutchman once more, was handicapped by not yet having had time to build works of his own in Holland since the armistice while German built machines, of any design, were not permitted. The three machines exhibited on his stand, while not built by Herr Fokker, although to his designs, were not, we learn, made in Germany, as has been hinted in certain quarters, but were, we are informed by the gentleman in charge of the Spyker stand, made for Herr Fokker by the Spyker works at Trompenburg. Three machines are exhibited, none of which show any striking departures from their prototypes built in Germany during the War, and which have been fully dealt with in FLIGHT. One of the machines is a little parasol monoplane, with 110 h.p. Clerget (Dutch) engine. It has the usual type Fokker cantilever wings, supported by four struts on each side. It is a single seater, and judging it by a similar machine flown with great skill by Lieut. Versteegh, has a very good performance.
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SOME DUTCH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 4. The Fokker monoplane on which Lieut. Versteegh does some very clever flying
The Fokker Stand: On the left may be seen the port wing of a parasol monoplane, while in the centre is a sporting two-seater, shown with the port wings folded for transport. In the background, on the right, is a Fokker two-seater biplane, similar to the German Fokker type D.VII.
Flight, October 16, 1919.


SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

  PROBABLY no other German aircraft firm can show such a series of seaplanes as that produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works (Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen) during the War, and for this reason a brief reference to the various types, illustrated by photographs, may not be without interest to readers of FLIGHT. The illustrations have been published in Flugsport, and the following is a translation of the descriptive matter accompanying the photographs :-
  "The Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works is the oldest German firm which has devoted its energies almost exclusively to the production of seaplanes. The firm was founded in 1912 and has produced a great number of seaplane types, under the efficient leadership of its founder and managing director, Dipl. Ing. Theodor Kober, who has been ably supported by his associates, in close co-operation with the Naval authorities and with various scientific institutions. The main sphere of activity of the firm was the construction, testing, and quantity production of seaworthy single-engined seaplanes of the types used by the German Navy for reconnaissance flights over the North Sea and the Baltic. That the firm was successful in this is proved by the fact that they have been able to supply practically all the requirements of the German Navy, and that a number of other firms have built their machines under licence. Among these may be mentioned the Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft, the Sablatnig Aircraft Works, the Gothaer Waggonfabrik and the Warnemunde Aircraft Works. As the seaworthiness of a machine depends not only on the right shape of float, but also upon the strength of the floats and undercarriage, on the correct amount of buoyancy and on controllability when alighting, it will be seen what an abundance of experience has to be collected in order to fulfil the specifications for a seaworthy seaplane. A large proportion of the experiments was formed by tests on floats, of which over 100 types were produced. The F.F. machines, which have been well proved during the War, are all of the twin-float type, although before the War single-float machines and flying boats were also tried.
  "One object of the experiments was, among other things, to determine the number and placing of steps which best suited the different types of machines for starting and landing, and what float shape gave the best results for taxying. At the same time the floats should combine small air resistance and great rigidity with small weight, while the most suitable, strongest, and lightest construction of float details also required much work and very many experiments. The following are the most important types of seaplanes produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works :-

"The F.F. 29
  is a bomber with a 120 h.p. Mercedes engine (Fig. 1). The main floats are comparatively short, and a tail float is therefore fitted under the stern of the fuselage. The radiator is placed above the engine, and the exhaust pipes are passed under the lower plane. The pilot occupies the rear seat, while the observer sits in front, where are also the bomb releases. The petrol gravity tank is hung on the cabane struts.
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F.F. 29
Flight, October 16, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 31
  is shown in Fig. 2. It was a reconnaissance machine designed also to carry bombs. As the machine was required to have a free field of fire in a forward direction, the tail was carried on open tail booms and the Maybach (160 h.p.) engine was placed in the rear of the nacelle and drove a pusher airscrew. The observer was placed in front with his moveable machine gun, and the pilot occupied the rear seat. Behind the pilot was the radiator. As the main floats were also fairly short in this machine a tail float was fitted.
Flight, October 16, 1919.


SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

  PROBABLY no other German aircraft firm can show such a series of seaplanes as that produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works (Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen) during the War, and for this reason a brief reference to the various types, illustrated by photographs, may not be without interest to readers of FLIGHT. The illustrations have been published in Flugsport, and the following is a translation of the descriptive matter accompanying the photographs :-
  "The Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works is the oldest German firm which has devoted its energies almost exclusively to the production of seaplanes. The firm was founded in 1912 and has produced a great number of seaplane types, under the efficient leadership of its founder and managing director, Dipl. Ing. Theodor Kober, who has been ably supported by his associates, in close co-operation with the Naval authorities and with various scientific institutions. The main sphere of activity of the firm was the construction, testing, and quantity production of seaworthy single-engined seaplanes of the types used by the German Navy for reconnaissance flights over the North Sea and the Baltic. That the firm was successful in this is proved by the fact that they have been able to supply practically all the requirements of the German Navy, and that a number of other firms have built their machines under licence. Among these may be mentioned the Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft, the Sablatnig Aircraft Works, the Gothaer Waggonfabrik and the Warnemunde Aircraft Works. As the seaworthiness of a machine depends not only on the right shape of float, but also upon the strength of the floats and undercarriage, on the correct amount of buoyancy and on controllability when alighting, it will be seen what an abundance of experience has to be collected in order to fulfil the specifications for a seaworthy seaplane. A large proportion of the experiments was formed by tests on floats, of which over 100 types were produced. The F.F. machines, which have been well proved during the War, are all of the twin-float type, although before the War single-float machines and flying boats were also tried.
  "One object of the experiments was, among other things, to determine the number and placing of steps which best suited the different types of machines for starting and landing, and what float shape gave the best results for taxying. At the same time the floats should combine small air resistance and great rigidity with small weight, while the most suitable, strongest, and lightest construction of float details also required much work and very many experiments. The following are the most important types of seaplanes produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works :-

"The F.F. 29
  is a bomber with a 120 h.p. Mercedes engine (Fig. 1). The main floats are comparatively short, and a tail float is therefore fitted under the stern of the fuselage. The radiator is placed above the engine, and the exhaust pipes are passed under the lower plane. The pilot occupies the rear seat, while the observer sits in front, where are also the bomb releases. The petrol gravity tank is hung on the cabane struts.

"The F.F. 33,
  which is shown in Fig. 3, was fitted with a 120 h.p. Mercedes engine. It was a bomber of very similar design to the type F.F. 29, except for the floats, which were of considerably different shape.

"The F.F. 33B
  was designed for reconnaissance and had a 160 h.p. Maybach engine (Fig. 4). It was similar to the 29 and 33 types in general design, but the pilot sat in front, the observer occupying the rear seat where was mounted on a gun ring a machine gun by means of which he could fend off attacks. The radiator is in two halves, mounted on each side of the fuselage. While the floats of the F.F. 31 were provided with a Vee bottom nose, those of the F.F. 33B had a Vee bottom at the heel, and were flat-bottomed in front.

"The F.F. 33E,
  shown in Figs. 5 and 6, was used for bombing and reconnaissance, with and without wireless. In general arrangement it is similar to the 29 and 33 types. While the first machine of this type still retained the tail float (see inset Fig. 5) later machines were found not to require this on account of the long main floats with which they were fitted. The radiator was mounted on the leading edge of the top plane. Generally speaking, the fuselage, wing bracing, wings and ailerons were designed to give good aerodynamic efficiency.

"The F.F. 33F,
  shown in Fig. 7, was a development of the 33. It was, however, designed as a fighter, and was probably the first to be successfully employed by the German Navy in various theatres of war. The wing area was considerably reduced, which resulted in greater manoeuvrability. The pilot sat in front, and the observer, who was provided with a machine gun mounted on a gun ring, occupied the rear seat. In addition to the substitution of the smaller wings, with only two pairs of struts on each side, this machine was altered later on by being fitted with a shorter and better stream line fuselage.

"The F.F. 33H,
  which is shown in Figs. 8 and 9, was a development of the 33F. The fuselage, which was much shorter, was provided with a fin below as well as above, and the ailerons were redesigned to give smaller resistance. The radiator was built in flush with the top plane, which also contained the petrol gravity tank. The floats were also redesigned to give smaller air resistance. A great improvement in this machine was the incorporation of horizontal struts between the floats instead of cable, so that it was possible for the gunner to fire forward, between the inner pair of inter-plane struts and the propeller tips, since any damage accidentally done to the wing bracing in the inner bay was of minor importance as the load would be taken by the float tubes.

"The F.F. 33J.
  "This type was fitted with a 150 h.p. Benz engine, and was used as a reconnaissance machine, fitted with wireless. It has been extremely successful, and has given excellent results during the War. The 33 J (Figs. 10 and 11) is a direct descendant of the 33E. It is particularly seaworthy, is easy to fly, and very reliable, even for long-duration work. This machine is the first seaplane to be used successfully on all the seas of the world, and was used as a ship's 'plane on the Wolf. The main specification of the F.F. 33J is as follows: Weight, empty and without water, 2,300 lbs.; load, 1,185 lbs., total weight, 3,485 lbs.; length overall, 34 ft.; span, 55 ft.; float capacity, 61 cu. ft.; speed, 71-77.5 m.p.h. according to load; speed when taking off, 50 m.p.h.; climb to 4,950 ft. in 25 mins.; duration, 5 hours. This type is, so to speak, unbeaten in any theatre of war, as it was purely for military reasons that the 33J was supplanted by machines of 200 h.p. Owing to its proved capabilities the type was retained as a practice and school machine, in which form it was known as

"the F.F. 33S.
  "During the last years of the War practically all the German seaplane pilots were trained on this type (Fig. 12), and nothing more need, therefore, be said about its utility as a practice and school machine.

"The F.F. 33L.
  "This machine, which is shown in Figs. 13 and 14, is a further development of the 33H. It is fitted with 150 h.p. Benz or Mercedes engines. It formed a very happy compromise between the demands for seaworthiness and for performance. In accordance with its use as a fighter the 33L possesses great manoeuvrability, and is very seaworthy in any sea up to a rougness degree of 3. It is easy and comfortable to fly. Its main characteristics are: Weight, empty and without water, 2,070 lbs.; load, 1,045 lbs.; total weight, 3,115 lbs.; length overall, 30 ft.; span, 43 ft. 6 ins.; float capacity, 49 cu. ft.; horizontal speed, 80 to 86 m.p.h.; climb, 6,600 ft. in 30 mins; duration, 3 1/2 hours. This machine was equipped with one movable and one fixed machine gun, or one movable gun and a wireless outfit.


Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

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  "As a result of the very extensive experience of seaplane construction for War purposes, the Friedrichshafen aircraft works on Lake Constance and its branch factory at Warnemunde are in a position to, and are making every effort to, take up the construction of seaplanes for commercial purposes. As the firm has up till now chiefly devoted its energies to the construction of seaworthy seaplanes, it will be seen that it is in a better position than many other firms to construct seaworthy commercial and sporting seaplanes of all types. Especially suitable for this purpose would be the types which have proved themselves during the war, such as F.F. 49C, 33J(S), 33L, 41A, and 64. The type F.F. 49C is, it will be seen from the particulars given above, especially suitable for commercial work. The useful load of 1,430 lbs. may be divided up in different ways, according to the purpose for which the machine is intended, between crew, fuel passengers and mail. For instance, with sufficient fuel for 3 1/2 hours over 600 lbs. of useful load could be carried. For passenger carrying it would be easy to provide seating accommodation, either open or closed, enabling the machine to carry two or possibly three passengers in addition to the pilot.
  "Seaworthiness means safety. Safety is one of the chief considerations for a commercial aeroplane. Since the seaworthiness of this type has never, in spite of the greatest efforts, been beaten by the machines of any other firm, it would appear that also in post-war competition it will be one of the most suitable types and difficult to beat. Much the same may be said about the lower-powered machines FF. 33J, F.F. 33S and F.F. 64. Especially would the latter machine offer great advantages for commercial work to ship-owners for carrying on board as a ship's 'plane. For instance, it would be possible without going into port, or in other words without any appreciable loss of time, to put ashore or to take on board single passengers or mail. Or, before arriving at the port of destination an officer could be sent ashore in the machine with the ship's papers, thus not only saving time but possibly also making a considerable profit on goods carried through being first in. Also the passenger who is in a hurry can be sent on ahead in the machine, thus shortening his time of crossing by as much as 10 hours. On the other hand, the machine can fetch mail from ashore so that the mail can be on board the ship several hours before she reaches port. The machine can be employed to assist in navigation on approaching the coast in bad weather, and it can also be utilised for flying ahead of the ship, spotting for floating mines. In case of accident it may possibly be used for obtaining assistance quickly. Also from the land, the machine can be used with advantage. For instance, a merchant could be flown out to meet the incoming ship, which is carrying an agent, so that all the business could be transacted by the time the ship arrived in port, thus beating the competitors who have remained ashore. For use by salvage companies it would be possible to use the seaplane for taking an engineer to the place of the stranding in the shortest possible time, where he could photograph the stranded ship and even, if the sea is not too rough, alight and go on board the wrecked ship, so that the salvage contract could be completed before a competitor could arrive by steamer in the ordinary way. F.F. 33L is very suitable for practice flying for young pilots, and would make a good sporting machine. It is light and very comfortable to fly and requires little storage space, while being easy to dismantle and erect. All of which are qualities that make it specially suitable as a sporting machine for the private owner.
  "If it is a question of carrying relatively great loads at lower speeds, a machine similar to the type F.F. 41A or to the type F.F. 33, with two 260 h.p. Mercedes engines, would be suitable."
F.F. 33E
F.F. 33F
F.F. 33H
F.F. 33J
Flight, October 16, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 34
is of the pusher type, like the 31, but it has two plywood fuselages carrying the tail instead of the open tail booms of the 31. The machine, which is shown in Figs. 15 and 16, was fitted with a 240 h.p. Maybach engine, and as the engine was placed in the rear of the nacelle, the field of fire in a forward direction was very good. It was used as a reconnaissance machine, and was equipped with wireless.
Flight, October 16, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

  Figs. 17 and 18 show
"the F.F. 35
  which was fitted with two Mercedes engines of 150 h.p. each. This was the first twin-engined seaplane turned out by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works. One of the features of this machine was the method of mounting the engines. As will be seen from the illustrations (Figs. 17 and 18), the engines were supported by a framework of struts from the bottom plane, and the engine mounting is independent of the wing truss. The stern of the fuselage was built of three-ply wood, and had a Vee bottom m order to act as a tail float, the Vee bottom lessening the shock of the tail coming in contact with a rough sea. In order to protect the tail plane and elevator against the sea the tail plane is mounted on top of the vertical fin and braced by struts. During a number of flights the 35 has proved itself a very good machine. Another remarkable feature of this machine is that all metal fittings in the wings, fuselage and floats were made from solid steel by forging, milling, drilling and planing. Starting handles were provided in front of the radiators.
"NOT A CASE OF BIRDS OF A FEATHER," etc. - The "bird" in the background is a captured German bomber now exhibited sans engine in St. James's Park. The flyer in the foreground is of a much more peaceful character, and hails, we believe, from China.
Flight, October 16, 1919.


SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

  PROBABLY no other German aircraft firm can show such a series of seaplanes as that produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works (Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen) during the War, and for this reason a brief reference to the various types, illustrated by photographs, may not be without interest to readers of FLIGHT. The illustrations have been published in Flugsport, and the following is a translation of the descriptive matter accompanying the photographs :-
  "The Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works is the oldest German firm which has devoted its energies almost exclusively to the production of seaplanes. The firm was founded in 1912 and has produced a great number of seaplane types, under the efficient leadership of its founder and managing director, Dipl. Ing. Theodor Kober, who has been ably supported by his associates, in close co-operation with the Naval authorities and with various scientific institutions. The main sphere of activity of the firm was the construction, testing, and quantity production of seaworthy single-engined seaplanes of the types used by the German Navy for reconnaissance flights over the North Sea and the Baltic. That the firm was successful in this is proved by the fact that they have been able to supply practically all the requirements of the German Navy, and that a number of other firms have built their machines under licence. Among these may be mentioned the Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft, the Sablatnig Aircraft Works, the Gothaer Waggonfabrik and the Warnemunde Aircraft Works. As the seaworthiness of a machine depends not only on the right shape of float, but also upon the strength of the floats and undercarriage, on the correct amount of buoyancy and on controllability when alighting, it will be seen what an abundance of experience has to be collected in order to fulfil the specifications for a seaworthy seaplane. A large proportion of the experiments was formed by tests on floats, of which over 100 types were produced. The F.F. machines, which have been well proved during the War, are all of the twin-float type, although before the War single-float machines and flying boats were also tried.
  "One object of the experiments was, among other things, to determine the number and placing of steps which best suited the different types of machines for starting and landing, and what float shape gave the best results for taxying. At the same time the floats should combine small air resistance and great rigidity with small weight, while the most suitable, strongest, and lightest construction of float details also required much work and very many experiments. The following are the most important types of seaplanes produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works :-

"The F.F. 39C.
  "As a result of the ever-increasing military demands, the reconnaissance machine type F.F. 33J, which was fitted with a 150 h.p. Benz engine, and which had already done extremely good work, had to be replaced by the F.F. 39C, which was fitted with a 200 h.p. Benz. Generally speaking the construction of the 39C was similar to that of the 33J, but on account of the larger engine, the dimensions were increased. Also the floats were of a different form (Fig. 19). The stagger was somewhat greater than that of the 33J, and various details were different so as to combine light weight with small resistance.
Flight, October 16, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 40.
  "This was a very interesting experimental machine, fitted with a 240 h.p. Maybach engine driving two tractor screws placed between the planes (Fig. 20). The performance and general handling of this machine were good, but the transmission was too heavy in proportion to the engine power.
Flight, October 16, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 41A.
  "As a consequence of the good results obtained with the Friedrichshafen land machines of the G type, and with the first F.F. twin-engined type seaplane, the 35, the F.F. works received from the Naval authorities instructions to proceed with the design and construction of twin-engined seaplanes specially designed for dropping torpedoes. Of these the F.F. 41A has done particularly well. This machine, which is shown in Figs. 21, 22 and 23, was fitted with two 150 h.p. Benz engines. As a result of the experience with the large F.F. land machines, the engines were mounted between interplane Vee struts, which arrangement was found to combine great reliability with small weight and low air resistance. The chief characteristics of the F.F. 41A are as follows: Weight, empty and without water, 5,050 lbs.; load, 3,000 lbs.; total weight, 8,050 lbs.; length overall, 45 ft.; span, 72 ft. 6 ins.; float capacity, 135 cu. ft.; horizontal speed, 71 to 77 m.p.h.; speed on taking off, 52.5 m.p.h.; climb to 3,300 ft. in 25 mins.; duration, about 5 hours. The machine is easy to fly, and also possesses good seaworthiness. On account of its large span it is not, of course, so handy as a single-engined machine.
F.F. 41A
Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 43
  "THIS machine, which is shown in Figs. 24 and 25, was a single-seater fighter, very easy on the controls and quite fast and with a good climb. It also started from and alighted on the sea very easily. By way of armament it was fitted with one, sometimes two, fixed machine-guns. A characteristic feature of this type was that the pilot sat with his eyes on a level with the rear spar of the top plane, so that he could easily look either over or under the plane, which was a great advantage for fighting in the air.
Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 44
  (Fig. 26) was an experimental machine, fitted with a 240 h.p. Maybach engine, driving the screw through reduction gearing."
Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 48
  "This machine was designed as a two-seater fighter and was fitted with a 240 h.p. Maybach engine with direct drive (Fig. 27). The machine was very fast, had an extraordinarily good climb, and yet was very seaworthy. In spite of the heavy motor and the great quantity of fuel (sufficient for 5 1/2 hours) the F.F. 48 was very handy. With the rear machine gun it was possible to fire over the top plane and between the propeller tips and the inner pair of interplane struts. The fixed machine gun was built-in to the right of the engine and was worked by the pilot.
Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 49C
  represented a considerable improvement on the type F.F. 39. It is shown in Figs. 28 to 30. The main data relating to it are :- Weight empty and without water, 3,260 lbs.; load, 1,430 lbs.; total weight, 4,690 lbs.; length o.a., 38 ft. 2 in.; span, 55 ft. 6 in.; float volume, 80 cub. ft.; speed, 80-87 m.p.h.; taking-off speed, 50 m.p.h.; climb to 6,600 ft. in 30 minutes; duration, 5 1/2 hours.
  "This machine gives a very robust impression and is at first sight even somewhat clumsy. There is nothing "streamliny" or light about it, but everything is heavy and strong. It is clearly seen that in the construction of this machine not only the aerodynamical expert but also the sailor has had a say. The object which the constructor had to attain was to produce an aircraft which, with a 220 h.p. engine and a load of about 1,430 lbs., should have the greatest possible seaworthiness, and an experience extending over more than two years has shown that this object has been attained in a most complete manner.
  "By seaworthiness is understood the capabilities of the seaplane to start, land and taxi under certain conditions of wind and sea with full load, and piloted by an average pilot. As, in spite of the fact that the designer chiefly aimed at seaworthiness - the machine had a very good performance - it shows how thoroughly the construction has been thought out. A speed of 87 m.p.h. and a climb of 6,600 ft. in 25 to 30 minutes must be considered exceptionally good for a seaplane; especially is the latter satisfactory in view of the fact that seaplanes are usually flown at fairly low altitudes. In the air the machine is very comfortable and easy to fly. The manoeuvrability is extraordinarily good, considering that the machine weighs over 2 tons and has a span of 55 ft. 6 ins.
  "As already mentioned the machine had an opportunity of proving itself during the latter part of the war. It might be further pointed out that on several occasions the crews of other seaplanes have been rescued with this type, and that even with the extra load of the rescued crew the machine has started from a fairly rough sea. Or another example: A machine of this type has floated about in a high sea for seven days at the end of which time the crew - which long ago had been given up as lost - were rescued. The FF. 49C was also used as a reconnaissance machine with one movable machine gun and wireless apparatus.

"The F.F. 49B
  was used purely as a bomber (Fig. 31). In general dimensions and design, the 49B is similar to the F.F. 49C, but in the 49B the pilot occupies the rear seat, while the observer sits in front with the telescopic bomb sights.

  "As a result of the very extensive experience of seaplane construction for War purposes, the Friedrichshafen aircraft works on Lake Constance and its branch factory at Warnemunde are in a position to, and are making every effort to, take up the construction of seaplanes for commercial purposes. As the firm has up till now chiefly devoted its energies to the construction of seaworthy seaplanes, it will be seen that it is in a better position than many other firms to construct seaworthy commercial and sporting seaplanes of all types. Especially suitable for this purpose would be the types which have proved themselves during the war, such as F.F. 49C, 33J(S), 33L, 41A, and 64. The type F.F. 49C is, it will be seen from the particulars given above, especially suitable for commercial work. The useful load of 1,430 lbs. may be divided up in different ways, according to the purpose for which the machine is intended, between crew, fuel passengers and mail. For instance, with sufficient fuel for 3 1/2 hours over 600 lbs. of useful load could be carried. For passenger carrying it would be easy to provide seating accommodation, either open or closed, enabling the machine to carry two or possibly three passengers in addition to the pilot.
  "Seaworthiness means safety. Safety is one of the chief considerations for a commercial aeroplane. Since the seaworthiness of this type has never, in spite of the greatest efforts, been beaten by the machines of any other firm, it would appear that also in post-war competition it will be one of the most suitable types and difficult to beat. Much the same may be said about the lower-powered machines FF. 33J, F.F. 33S and F.F. 64. Especially would the latter machine offer great advantages for commercial work to ship-owners for carrying on board as a ship's 'plane. For instance, it would be possible without going into port, or in other words without any appreciable loss of time, to put ashore or to take on board single passengers or mail. Or, before arriving at the port of destination an officer could be sent ashore in the machine with the ship's papers, thus not only saving time but possibly also making a considerable profit on goods carried through being first in. Also the passenger who is in a hurry can be sent on ahead in the machine, thus shortening his time of crossing by as much as 10 hours. On the other hand, the machine can fetch mail from ashore so that the mail can be on board the ship several hours before she reaches port. The machine can be employed to assist in navigation on approaching the coast in bad weather, and it can also be utilised for flying ahead of the ship, spotting for floating mines. In case of accident it may possibly be used for obtaining assistance quickly. Also from the land, the machine can be used with advantage. For instance, a merchant could be flown out to meet the incoming ship, which is carrying an agent, so that all the business could be transacted by the time the ship arrived in port, thus beating the competitors who have remained ashore. For use by salvage companies it would be possible to use the seaplane for taking an engineer to the place of the stranding in the shortest possible time, where he could photograph the stranded ship and even, if the sea is not too rough, alight and go on board the wrecked ship, so that the salvage contract could be completed before a competitor could arrive by steamer in the ordinary way. F.F. 33L is very suitable for practice flying for young pilots, and would make a good sporting machine. It is light and very comfortable to fly and requires little storage space, while being easy to dismantle and erect. All of which are qualities that make it specially suitable as a sporting machine for the private owner.
  "If it is a question of carrying relatively great loads at lower speeds, a machine similar to the type F.F. 41A or to the type F.F. 33, with two 260 h.p. Mercedes engines, would be suitable."
F.F. 49C
F.F. 49C
Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 59B
  "As a result of the requirements for reconnaissance machines to be capable of defending themselves against attack, and even under suitable conditions to go over to attack, the F.F. 59C shown in Figs. 32 and 33 was so designed that with the rear machine gun the gunner could fire forward between the first pair of interplane struts and the propeller disc, whilst the fixed machine gun was worked by the pilot. In order to give as large a field of fire as possible to the rear machine gun, the inner front interplane strut was moved outwards slightly farther than the corresponding rear strut, and the wing bracing of the inner bay was entirely omitted.
F.F. 59B
Flight, October 23, 1919.

SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"

"The F.F. 64
  "The success of the 'Wolfchen' as a ship's 'plane to the auxiliary cruiser 'The Wolf,' led to the construction of the F.F. 64 (Figs. 34 and 35). This machine, which had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engines, has been specially designed to be easily launched from the ship. In order to facilitate storage and launching, the wings are made to fold back, the hinges being just above the floats. The machine can also be easily dismantled and erected without its rigidity, reliability and seaworthiness being impaired.
F.F. 64
F.F. 64
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  In addition to their single-seaters and two-seaters, the Aviatik firm have also built several large machines (Riesenflugzeug), illustrations of three of which are published herewith.

The Aviatik, Type Go. G VII
  built in 1918, is a twin-engined machine of the bomber type. It was fitted with two 200 h.p. Benz engines placed on the wings in short engine nacelles. The radiators were in the nose of these nacelles. From the photograph it will be noticed that the two engine nacelles are placed comparatively close to the main fuselage, the nose of which is very short, allowing the tractor airscrew blades to pass in front of it. This arrangement of the engines has brought about a somewhat unusual strutting arrangement, as regards the inner cellule, at any rate. The tail is of the biplane type, with three rudders.
The Aviatik, Type Go. G VII
THE JUNKERS (GERMAN) TOURING MONOPLANE: Three-quarter front view. This machine, which is built of metal throughout, is of the "wireless" type, having no external lift bracing. The wings are built up of tubes and covered with corrugated aluminium sheet, as is also the fuselage. On September 13 last this machine is said to have reached an altitude of 6,750 metres (about 22,200 ft.) with eight people on board. The engine is a 185 h.p. B.M.W. ("Bavarian Motor Works").
The pilot sits in front of the cabin, immediately behind the engine
THE JUNKERS TOURING MONOPLANE: Three-quarter rear view
The Junkers Touring Monoplane: The cabin and the eight passengers with which the machine reached 22,200 ft.
Flight, October 2, 1919.

THE LINKE-HOFMANN GIANT MACHINES

  OF the firms that have designed and constructed large, multi-engined aeroplanes during the War, special interest attaches to those created by the Linke-Hofmann Works, Breslau, not only on account of their size, but also because their designer has evidently attempted to get away from the stereotyped design in which a multiplicity of engines are simply dumped on the wings and made to drive, direct, tractor or pusher airscrews. That placing the engines on the wings in this manner is a short cut to high-power propulsion is admitted, but it does not by any means follow that this is the type of multi-engined machine that will survive. It is therefore of interest to examine what others have done in their attempts to effect improvements. In our issue of last week we published particulars of some German D.F.W. multi-engined machines in which the engines were placed in the fuselage and which had shaft and bevel drives to airscrews placed on the wings. The following notes, which are translated from a descriptive article in Flugsport, deal with a similar subject, and show how another firm has tackled the problem in a somewhat different way.
  "The Linke-Hofmann Works, of Breslau, took up the design and construction of Giant aeroplanes (Riesenflugzeuge) under the direction of their chief engineer Paul Stumpf, who was formerly chief engineer to the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft (A.E.G.). Two types were built, the R I and the R II, both of which had the engines placed in the fuselage.

The Linke-Hofmann. Type R I.

  "This machine, which is shown in the accompanying photographs, had two tractor airscrews driven by four Mercedes engines of 260 h.p. each, giving a total of 1,040 h.p. The dimensions and weights of the machine were as follows :- Span, 109 ft. 6 in., length o.a. 51ft. 6 in.; chord, upper plane, 16 ft. 6 in.; chord, lower plane, 15 ft. 6 in.; height, 22 ft.; wing area, 2,850 sq. ft.; weight empty, 17,600 lb.; useful load, 7,000 lb., including fuel for 5 hours' flight. The machine attained a speed of 80 m.p.h. and with a useful load of 7,000 lb. climbed to 9,900 ft. in 2 hours. The slow glide in which the machine landed was very peculiar. As the pilot's seat was placed very high, it required a good deal of practice to learn to land the machine successfully. The rudder and elevator control was satisfactory, but the machine was somewhat sluggish on the ailerons. When taxying on the ground she answered the rudder very well.
  "The effort required on the part of the pilot for rudder, elevator, and aileron control was little greater than in the case of a small machine, and the R 1 was flown often by only one pilot. The very deep fuselage did not appear to have any adverse effect on either the flying or the steering of the machine, On the contrary, the machine was found to have much of the stability of the old Tauben. This was thoroughly tested during an hour's flight in a wind of 50 ft. per second.
  "As a result of model tests at the Gottingen laboratory, the fuselage was carried right up to the top plane. The increased lift resistance ratio of the complete machine which the model tests appeared to promise as a result of this deep body did not, unfortunately, materialise in the actual machine.
  "The ventilation of the engine room was very good, and on account of the accessibility of the engines during flight, minor defects could easily be remedied. The undercarriage was of the same simple Vee type as that of smaller machines, and was found to be very light and at the same time strong. During a series of test nights, including a number of heavy landings, any minor defects in it were discovered and put right. The wheels were of iron, and were fitted with solid tyres.
THE LINKE-HOFMANN R 1: View of the cabin and airscrew mounting.
Flight, October 2, 1919.

THE LINKE-HOFMANN GIANT MACHINES

  "The experience obtained with the Linke-Hofmann R I was taken advantage of in the design of

The Linke-Hofmann, R II,
  the chief feature of which was a single tractor airscrew, driven by the four 260 h.p. Mercedes engines. The main figures relating to this machine are as follows :- Span, 138 ft. 6 in.; length, 67 ft.; height, 23 ft. 6 in.; wing area, 3,440 sq. ft.; weight empty, 17,600 lb.; useful load, 9,000 lb., including fuel for 7 hours' flight. The speed was the same as that of R I, i.e., 80 m.p.h.; with a useful load of 9,000 lb. the climb was 11,550 ft. in 2 hours. The airscrew, which was of 22 ft. 8 in. diameter, was driven by four Mercedes engines through a central drive. Even with only two engines running the machine flew well. For long-distance flying, by doing away with the military loads, and with the following crew, the range can be greatly increased; 2 pilots and luggage 440 lb., 2 engineers with luggage 440 lb.; 2 navigators with luggage 440 lb.; instruments and wireless 660 lb.; total, 1,980 lb. The machine is still capable of carrying another 13,400 lb. of fuel and oil (probably by sacrificing performance during the earlier part of the flight - Editor, FLIGHT), which is sufficient for a flight of 30 hours' duration at a cruising speed of 74 m.p.h., which would give it a range of 2,225 miles."
  Flugsport then gives a glowing account of the ease with which the Linke-Hofmann R II starts and lands, these operations being, it is stated, quite unlike those of ordinary large machines and more like the handling of an ordinary two-seater. It is also pointed out that during flight there is a marked absence of vibration. All control organs are running in ball bearings so that they are very easy for the pilot to handle. It is said that on a cold day in January the machine was cruising round and round over the aerodrome in order not to lose itself, when one pilot put both his hands into his fur-lined boots while the other put his left hand into his pocket, the machine being steered in a circle by means of one hand. The view from the pilot's seat is said to be exceptionally good, owing to the high position, and the machine is very easy to land, partly on account of the good view, and partly because of the excellent gliding angle of the machine.
  "The passengers," Flugsport continues, "are accommodated in an enclosed cabin behind and underneath the pilots' cockpit, this position being one of the safest in the whole machine in case of a crash. All the main weights being in front of the cabin, the safety of the passengers is assured, and in the case of the machine turning over on landing, or striking with a wing tip first, there are no heavy engines or tanks to fall on them. At present accommodation is being provided for 12 passengers.
  "The risk of fire has been reduced to a minimum by placing all petrol leads and petrol pumps underneath the floor, where they are well away from any part of the engines which might give external sparks. A thorough ventilation of engine room and tank compartment ensures that there are no petrol vapours about, and any petrol leaking out of pipes, etc., flows through the bottom of the fuselage out into the open.
  "The undercarriage, which is of the same simple Vee type as that of the Linke-Hofmann RI, has proved to be immensely strong. During a landing in the snow the wheels broke through the thin frozen crust and sank into the snow as deep as 12 in., the machine rolling over two ditches and coming to a standstill without turning over. Although the snow was shovelled away in front of the machine it was not possible to move it under its own power, and a snow plough had to be employed to get it back to its shed. According to all the experts who witnessed the landing, any other machine would have turned over. It will be seen from the above examples that the general reliability of the machine is excellent. It may further be added that not only can the machine remain in horizontal flight with only two engines running, but she has actually been known to climb on two motors. The useful load in that case was 5,300 lb.
  "The advantages of multi-engined machines with only one airscrew may be summarised as follows: The propeller efficiency is very high, owing to the large diameter and slow running. The drive is of the simplest possible type, with only three spur wheels, which makes for greater reliability. The machine can continue its flight with three or even two engines running. On account of the central placing of the airscrew the danger of breakage of outrigger or interplane struts - in machines where the screws axe so mounted - does not exist, and the head resistance is considerably smaller. The single-screw type gives less weight. For instance, a multi-engined machine with shaft drive to two airscrews on the wings has 10 spur wheels and 9 shafts. The single screw type has three spur wheels and four shafts. The engine power is only transmitted through one pair of spur wheels; whereas in the twin-screw type it is transmitted through two pairs. This alone means a gain in efficiency of 3 to 5 per cent., or in other words, a gain of 30 to 50 h.p. The large propeller has stood up to its work splendidly, while, owing to its strong construction, it is practically weather-proof.
  "A further great advantage is the simple two-wheeled Vee undercarriage, which gives small weight and also small air resistance. Springing is by means of steel springs instead of rubber shock absorbers. The undercarriage is absolutely reliable, even in heavy landings, with a side wind. The wheels are so large that the machine can even taxy across small ditches.
  "The placing of the whole crew in the fuselage makes it possible for them to communicate with each other and to make themselves understood, which has the advantage of offering possibilities for reducing the number of the crew to a minimum. As there is only one central drive with four spur wheels, it is possible to build this so strong, without any undue addition in weight, that absolute reliability is provided. Even after allowing for a certain amount of patriotic enthusiasm, it would appear that the Linke-Hofmann R II is really a very serious attempt at improving the existing type of multi-engined aeroplane.
THE LINKE-HOFMANN R II: The central spur wheel drive.
THE LINKE-HOFMANN R II: General arrangement drawings.
SOME DUTCH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 3. A cabin machine which was known as a Fokker, but which was recently an L.V.G.
Flight, October 9, 1919.

THE OERTZ FLYING BOATS

<...>
  "Among the most successful, and, therefore, most noteworthy, flying boats, are those designed by D. Ing. Max Oertz, which were built at the Oertz Works at Hamburg. Dr. Oertz, the famous yacht and motorboat builder, was one of the first in Germany to realise the possibilities of flying and the suitability of his works, with their special facilities and trained workmen specialists, for the requirements of aircraft construction. Above all, the Oertz Works were not laid out as quantity production works, but were used to meet the special requirements of yacht construction by scientific investigation into the smallest mechanical details, and to devote an absolutely loving care to workmanship and finish.
  "These fundamental facts, which were reflected in all new productions of this scientifically working factory, whether boats or flying machines, could already be noticed in the very first machine built in 1910. This was a land machine, a monoplane with monocoque body, which weighed only 770 lbs., and, fitted with a 70 h.p. Gnome engine, reached a speed of 80 m.p.h. This first success encouraged Oertz to return to his proper element, the sea, and to apply the same principles to the construction of a flying boat; this was ordered by the Navy in the spring of 1913.
<...>
Flight, October 9, 1919.

THE OERTZ FLYING BOATS

  [THERE is little doubt that the development of commercial aviation will be closely allied with the progress made in the production of seaplanes, especially as far as the British Empire is concerned. It is, therefore, of interest to know what has been done until now by others as well as by ourselves, and we think that the following notes, translated from Flugsport, dealing with an interesting series of flying boats designed and built by the Oertz Works at Hamburg, may be of interest. This factory was, before the War, chiefly concerned with the building of yachts and motor boats, corresponding, in a way, to our Saunders Works at Cowes.-ED.]

  "The fight for existence between the flying boat and the float seaplane commenced in the very earliest days of seaplanes. Even now the final decision as to whether the flying boat or the float seaplane offers the best solution for aerial transport over the sea has not been made. The experience gained during the War cannot straightaway be applied to peace conditions. At the moment the flying-boat people naturally have the last word, since a flying boat was the first to cross the Atlantic safely. After the questions of weight and air-resistance, the most important point in the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the two types is that of sea worthiness. By this is meant the possibility of getting off and alighting with a certain amount of sea running, and also to be able to 'live' when on the surface in rough weather. The performance required is in direct opposition to the qualities of seaworthiness, since a seaplane, to be seaworthy, must necessarily be of very substantial construction, which can only be provided at the cost of a fairly heavy weight of the hull and machine.
  "Next, it would appear that the float seaplane would be superior to the boat seaplane in the matter of seaworthiness, since the boat has a very low freeboard, and, therefore, will be more likely to be swamped while taxying than will the float seaplane. Moreover, the lower plane of a boat seaplane is much nearer to the water than is that of a float seaplane, so that there is more likelihood of it coming in contact with the sea. It will, therefore, be seen that the difficulties that beset flying-boat constructors are by no means small.
  "With regard to the questions of weight and air resistance, it must be said that the flying boat is more favourably placed in both respects. Although for powers of 150 to 240 h.p. the weight of the two types does not differ greatly, the advantages of the boat seaplane increase with size. Thus, a float seaplane of 1,000 h.p. will be about 4,400 lbs. heavier than a boat seaplane of the same power.
  "From the point of view of air resistance, the fact that a float seaplane has a fairly extensive strutting arrangement for the floats, while the boat seaplane can be made of fairly good stream-line shape, gives the boat type a smaller resistance than that of the float type, even when, as is sometimes the case, the engine of the boat seaplane is placed on a structure above the boat proper.
  "After balancing up the pros and cons, of the case, taking into consideration the practical experience of the Navy, one arrives at the conclusion that the flying-boat type, as regards medium and large-size machines, is superior, also as regards seaworthiness. For types of up to about 300 h.p., possibly the float seaplane will be found the most suitable, while for types of from 300 h.p. to 700 h.p., there would seem to be little to choose. For larger types, however, the flying boat type appears to be the most promising. The chain of experience of both types is not, however, sufficiently long to make it advisable to decide finally for one type or the other.
  "Among the most successful, and, therefore, most noteworthy, flying boats, are those designed by D. Ing. Max Oertz, which were built at the Oertz Works at Hamburg. Dr. Oertz, the famous yacht and motorboat builder, was one of the first in Germany to realise the possibilities of flying and the suitability of his works, with their special facilities and trained workmen specialists, for the requirements of aircraft construction. Above all, the Oertz Works were not laid out as quantity production works, but were used to meet the special requirements of yacht construction by scientific investigation into the smallest mechanical details, and to devote an absolutely loving care to workmanship and finish.
  "These fundamental facts, which were reflected in all new productions of this scientifically working factory, whether boats or flying machines, could already be noticed in the very first machine built in 1910. This was a land machine, a monoplane with monocoque body, which weighed only 770 lbs., and, fitted with a 70 h.p. Gnome engine, reached a speed of 80 m.p.h. This first success encouraged Oertz to return to his proper element, the sea, and to apply the same principles to the construction of a flying boat; this was ordered by the Navy in the spring of 1913. Already in the autumn of the same year this flying boat could show its usefulness by successful test flights at Breitling, near Warnemunde. This machine, which is shown in Fig. 1, was fitted with a 100 h.p. Argus engine placed down in the boat, and driving the airscrew through shafts and bevel gearing. Tins arrangement, the constructional details of which had been worked out by Dr. Oertz himself, was something quite new for those times, and this first boat already showed the characteristics of all later Oertz flying boats. Among these is, chiefly, the division of the planes into two halves and the slanting struts, with means for quickly dismantling the complete plane cellule. In looking at this flying boat, the thing which at once attracts notice is the very large chord of the lower plane, compared with that of the top wing. The object of this arrangement was to raise the centre of pressure of the biplane, and thus reduce the undesirable pendulum effect caused by having the engine in the hull. The objections to this effect have, however, later proved to be of small importance.
  "One of the greatest difficulties of that time was to design a boat hull which should have the greatest possible amount of lateral stability when on the sea. The French flying boats of that date had very narrow hulls, which necessitated fitting auxiliary floats to the lower wings. In anything of a sea, these wing floats were a constant danger to the plane, owing to the shocks and stresses set up. It was in this respect that the art of the experienced yacht builder came to the rescue. Oertz provided a boat hull, which not only had a very good stream-line form, but which also possessed a very great amount of lateral stability on the sea; so much so that it was possible for a man to walk half-way out on the lower plane without the machine heeling over enough for the plane to touch the sea. This great lateral stability on the sea has remained one of the features of all Oertz flying boats to this day. The credit of being the first to provide this lateral stability is not in the least reduced by the fact that the American Curtiss flying boat, which was used in the Transatlantic flight, shows the same feature. In order to reduce the danger of the lower wing tips cutting under when the machine is rolling in a sea or taking off, the lower wing tips were provided with flat spring boards which prevented, by their dynamic action, the tips from cutting under. These spring boards are shown in illustrations 1 and 2.
  "Already at the first attempt the boat flew well, and proved the soundness of its design. Especially was the transmission found to work well, although, on account of trouble with the engine itself, no flights of very long duration were attempted. The first boat was perfectly smooth, that is to say, it had no step. In order to improve the getting off, experiments were then commenced on hulls provided with step. The first boat of the stepped type appeared in the spring of 1914, and is shown in Fig. 2. The machine was fitted with the first 160 h.p. Daimler engine. The photograph shows the general graceful lines of the hull and the large lower plane, which has upturned ailerons, after the manner of the old Tauben. The illustration also gives a good idea of the slanting inter-plane struts which, like those of the Hansa machines, gives equal distances between supports in upper and lower planes. On account of the late arrival of the engine, the boat was not ready for its first trial flight until two days before the great Warnemunde race planned for August of that year. All those who took part in the preparations for that race, which was postponed owing to the outbreak of War, will still remember the splendid and startling performance of this boat, which was piloted by the late pilot Stagge, who, by the way, had never flown a seaplane before. This, however, did not prevent him from doing a series of stunts on this machine. So absolutely 'right' was this boat, that it could be taken over by the Navy without any alterations whatever, and not long afterwards, piloted by Stagge, it was flying over Dover. Later boats of similar type are shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
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Fig. 1. - The first Oertz flying-boat of 1913. The engine was a 100 h.p. Argus
Fig. 2. - 1914 type Oertz flying-boat, 160 h.p. Daimler engine
Fig. 3. - The 160 h.p. Oertz flying-boat of 1915
Fig. 4. - 1915 type Oertz flying-boat, 160 h.p. engine
Flight, October 9, 1919.

THE OERTZ FLYING BOATS

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  "It was not long before a demand arose for larger and more powerful boats, and the Oertz Works received an order for a series of flying boats, which were to be fitted with 260 h.p. Argus engines. Delivery of these engines was much delayed, and when they were available they proved to have exceeded the estimated weight to such an extent that it was quite out of the question to fit them in the Oertz boats. It was, therefore, decided to fit, instead, the 240 h.p. Maybach airship motors, which were at that time quite new. This was done, and in the autumn of 1915 the first of these boats could be delivered. In spite of the fact that the boats were really too large for the engines' power, which was lower than that for which they were designed, and that the engines were heavier than had been the estimated weight of the Argus engines, the boats were able to pass their acceptance tests. One of these boats is shown in Fig. 5.
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Fig. 5. - Oertz flying-boat of 1915, fitted with 240 h.p. Maybach engine. The machine was designed for a 260 h.p. Argus, but this could not be obtained
Flight, October 9, 1919.

THE OERTZ FLYING BOATS

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  "Already at the outbreak of war, Mr. Oertz was considering the design of large flying boats. In order to reduce the overall span of large machines, which may, under certain conditions, be a great disadvantage at sea, he evolved the, in itself, quite novel idea of constructing a tandem machine. [This is incorrect. The tandem machine had already been considered, and, in fact, several had been built, although they could hardly be said to be very successful. - ED., FLIGHT.] After model tests by Professor Prandel at the Gottingen Laboratory, the construction shown in Figs. 7 to 10 was decided upon, and the boat was finished in 1916. It was given the official, and more seamanlike, title of 'The Flying Schooner.' The 'Flying Schooner' had two 240 h.p. Maybach engines, placed side by side, and attained a speed of about 71 m.p.h., which was better than the speed predicted by Gottingen. The 'Flying Schooner' was especially good for starting and alighting. In order to enable it to make shorter turns, inter-plane ailerons were fitted between the rear planes. These have not yet been fitted in the photograph, Fig. 8, but may be seen in Figs. 9 and 10.
  "The appearance of the large fast American Curtiss flying boats in the War gave the impetus for us also to start construction of large boats to a considerable extent. In connection with the Brandenburg Aircraft Works, the construction of two large flying boats with two 300 h.p. engines was commenced. The hulls of these boats were already finished when the Armistice came, but the work on the complete boats was then stopped. May it be resumed again for the benefit of peaceful development."
Fig. 9. - The Oertz "Flying Schooner" taxying
Fig. 8. - Three-quarter rear view of 1916 Oertz tandem biplane, known as the "Flying Schooner."
Fig. 10. - The Oertz "Flying Schooner" in the air. This is a unique flying shot from down under giving a good look on the construction of the large hull and the unique tandem wings.
Flight, October 9, 1919.

THE OERTZ FLYING BOATS

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  "Figs. 6 and 7 show an Oertz flying boat specially designed for the 240 h.p. Maybach engine. This machine was presented to the Navy by Messrs. Krupp von Bohlen and Halbach. All previous experience was taken advantage of in the design of this boat, and especially was the step question solved successfully. The wing-tip spring boards were replaced with small, low-resistance wing-tip floats. [So they had to come back to them after all, in spite of the previous remarks as to the danger caused by them. - ED., FLIGHT.] The actual performance of this boat exceeded the estimated figures, the speed being 87 m.p.h., as against the estimated speed of 80 m.p.h. This made the Oertz flying boat the fastest in the Navy.
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Fig. 7. - Front view of Oertz flying-boat, 1917
Fig. 6. - Oertz flying-boat (1917), with 240 h.p. Maybach engine
Flight, April 24, 1919.

THE PFALZ (D XII) SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER
[Issued by Technical Department (Aircraft Production), Ministry of Munitions]

  THIS aeroplane, which is allotted G/H.Q./6, was brought down near Dury, on 15/9/18, by Lieut. Cameron (No. 1 Squadron) and Capt. Staton (No. 62 Squadron).
  Although in construction it is strongly reminiscent of the Nieuport-like type of Pfalz, the design of this machine is entirely new, and is of considerable interest.

General Design
  As will be seen from the general arrangement drawings the D XII Pfalz has a car-type radiator in front of the engine, and wings which have two bays a side. The lower planes are faired off into the body in the characteristic Pfalz way, but the fin, which in the earlier model was built of 3-ply as an integral part of the body, is now a separate fitting.

Area of upper wings (without ailerons) 104.8 sq. ft.
Area of lower wings (both) 117.6 sq. ft.
Area of aileron (one only) 8.4 sq. ft.
Area of balance of aileron .8 sq. ft.
Area of elevators (each) 8.4 sq. ft.
Area of balance of elevator (one) .6 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 8.8 sq. ft.
Area of balance of rudder .4 sq. ft.
Area of tail plane (both sides) 16.0 sq. ft.
Area of fin .'. .. 4.4 sq.
Area, of body (horizontal) 32.8 sq.
Area'of body (vertical) 53.6 sq. ft.
Engine 180 h.p. Mercedes
Petrol capacity 18 3/4 gallons.
Guns Two Spandau (fixed).

  The portion of body 3-ply which bears an inscription regarding weight and permissible load is missing.

Wings
  The flat upper plane is built in one piece as before, but the centre section contains neither gravity tank nor radiator, and the tips are no longer heavily raked. The two ailerons of high aspect ratio are very similar to those of the D VII Fokker, as are the placing of the radiator and the form of the interplane struts.
  The lower planes, which are attached to a"kind of" centre section that may be said to grow out of the body, are of the same chord as the upper plane, and only slightly shorter in span. The lower planes possess a dihedral angle, in this case of 1 ?#, and the two pairs of interplane struts on each side slope outwards.
  The attachments of the lower plane to the body are unchanged. From Fig. 1 it will be seen that the spars are cut down to circular section at their extremities, and a piece of steel tube is bolted over.
  A lug on the fuselage has a-circular-section base round which the open end of the tube on the spar fits, while the lug itself is pinned into the fork on the spar in the usual manner. Both front and rear spars are attached in this way.
  Fig. 2 shows the upper aerofoil section compared with that of the R.A.F. 14, which is shown dotted. It will be noticed that the two sections approximate more closely than was previously the case.
  The wing construction of upper and lower planes is similar. Each lower wing contains eleven ribs, spaced at equal intervals of approximately 13 1/2 in. The wood leading edge of the plane is not of the usual "C" section, but is more solid, as will be noticed from Fig. 3. The spars retain the former Pfalz design, but the section is of a squarer shape than formerly, and the flanges are not spindled. Dimensioned sketches are given in Fig. 4, and the upper and lower plane spars are exactly similar. At those points where the strut attachments occur, the spars are solidified by the insertion of small blocks of wood, as shown in the lower sketch of Fig. 4. The various components of the spars are very strongly glued together with a casein cement, and fabric is glued round the whole.
  The tape lattice work that was found in the old-type Pfalz between the spars, and between the rear spar and trailing edge is no longer present, but a vertical rectangular-section strip of wood lies parallel to the rear spar between that member and the trailing edge, and strips of wood are tacked on to the leading edge, and on to the two spars, and finish just behind this strip. These false ribs are placed midway between the true ribs, and the space between each false and true rib is again bisected by another strip. These pieces simply pass from the leading edge to just behind the front spar, and are built up with a vertical strip so that the whole is of T section. The ribs are of 2 mm. 3-ply, with flanges tacked on in the usual way, and are lightened to the extent shown in Fig. 3, which explains clearly all the features just described. The trailing edge is of wire, and each rib has fabric sewn over it. There are twelve steel compression tubes in the upper plane, and five in each of the lower planes. The bracing varies from steel tie rods of 5 mm. diameter to 12-gauge piano wire.

Ailerons
  The ailerons, which are fitted only to the upper wings, are very similar to those of the D VII Fokker. They are balanced, and their high aspect ratio can be judged from the general arrangement drawings. They are constructed of light welded steel tube, and have the usual welded-up curved aileron lever, which works in a slot cut in the plane. The hinges by which the ailerons are attached are very simple. A length of 3/16-in. mild steel rod passes through eyebolts fixed alternately to the wing and aileron, and is secured at one end by a knob, and at the other end by a split pin. Fig. 5 shows how strongly the false spar, to which the aileron is hinged, is coupled to the rear spar.

Struts
  All the interplane struts of the D XII are of streamline steel tube, and not of wood as before. The centre section struts take the form of two "M's," as is clearly shown by the side view in the scale drawings. A slight adjustment is possible at the three central points, by the means already mentioned in the report on the Fokker biplane, i.e., there is a nut welded to the point of the strut, and a ball-headed bolt is screwed in. The ball, which is drilled, fits into a pierced round socket, and a small bolt locks the joint.
  The interplane struts are of precisely similar design to those of the D VII Fokker, and are of N-shape when, seen from the starboard side of the machine. They slope outwards from bottom to top, but, since the spars are equal distances apart in top and bottom planes, the front and rear limbs are parallel. They are attached to the spars by similar joints to those of the centre section, but in this case the strut carries the cup, and the spar has the ball-headed bolt passing through from top to bottom. Fig. 6 shows the spar fitting, and explains the manner in which the bracing is fixed by a dome held down by the bolt. The diameter and width of the struts, both centre section and interplane, are marked on a diagram, Fig. 7. The gauge of the metal has not been measured.
  The wings are braced with the usual flying and landing cables, and besides these it will be noticed from the scale drawings, that a lift wire is fitted between the lower rear spar and fuselage joint at the lower end, and the upper rear spar and centre section strut at the upper end. The lower front spar root is also joined by a cable to a lug fixed a few inches from the front of the engine bearers.

Fuselage
  It is interesting to note that, although many drastic alterations between the D III Pfalz and the new type have been made, the method of construction employed for the fuselage has not been changed.
  The body is of oval section, deeper in proportion to its width than before, and has eight lightened longerons, to which are fixed lightened cross bulkheads. Over this framework, two thin 3-ply skins are tacked spirally, as was described in the D III Pfalz report. The body is entirely without internal wire bracing. There is a strong bulkhead immediately behind t h e engine, and forward of this the 3-ply skin drops almost to the level of the engine bearers, as may be seen in the photographs. The sides of the engine are enclosed by aluminium cowls, and t he front is covered by the radiator. An aluminium cowl rounds off the lower part of the nose, and joins the 3-ply of the body.
  The pilot's seat is missing, but it was supported on a steel tubular framework, which remains, and is illustrated in Fig. 8. It should be noticed from this sketch, that the seat is adjustable both horizontally and vertically, there being three possible positions horizontally, and two vertically. The pilot's backrest is a simple strip of webbing attached to the sides of the fuselage, and the anchorage points for the safety belt are exactly as on the D III machine. The body tapers consistently towards the rear, and finishes in a vertical knife-edge, about 16 in. deep.

Tail
  The body and fin are no longer integral, as in the D III, but the fin is simply a self-contained unit of welded-steel tube and fabric, bolted into its place. The fixed horizontal tail plane, however, is integral with the body, although the joint between fuselage and tail plane is an abrupt angle. The tail plane spars pass right through the body, and are connected by ribs lightened roughly by the boring of many circular holes.
  Not only is the angle of incidence of the tail plane not adjustable, but the plane is incapable of removal. The camber is symmetrical, and its centre line is not only parallel to, but also in line with the crankshaft.
  The balanced and divided elevators (in the D III the elevator was in one piece) are hinged by means similar to the aileron hinges, and from the sketch, Fig. 10, which shows the manner of removal of the hinge-rod, it will be noticed that the leading edge of the elevator is a steel tube, flattened to a vertical oval in t he unbalanced portion, and to a horizontal oval in the balanced piece. The elevators are constructed throughout of welded steel tube, and the balanced rudder has the same construction.
  The tail skid is a sturdy piece of ash with the usual steel shoe, and is balanced about its middle. The upper half is encased in the fuselage, and the shock absorber is of double coil steel spring.
  Fig. 9 shows the framework construction at the rear of the fuselage.

Undercarriage
  This component was not salved, and in the scale drawings the D III undercarriage has been supplied, as the two are conjectured to be substantially similar. From the sockets on the fuselage, it is clear that the limbs of the undercarriage vee finished in ball joints.
  The following particulars regarding the undercarriage are taken from a French source. It is of the same type as that shown in dotted lines in the scale drawings, but the centre line of the axle is vertically underneath the leading edge of the lower planes, and 31 1/2 in. below this leading edge at the centre section. The track is given as 61 in. in the French drawings.

Engine and Mounting
  The engine, a 180 h.p. Mercedes (reported to be No. 42932, B.N. 827, M.N. 63, guaranteed till 30/1/19), is carried on rectangular-section ash bearers (3 5/16 in by 1 1/2 in.), which are lightened in places to I section. At the front end the bearers project a few inches beyond the U-shaped front bulkhead. Two other similarly-shaped bulkheads support the bearers in the places shown by dotted lines in the side view of the scale drawings, and at the rear the bearers are mortised into the behind-engine bulkhead, so that the end of the bearers are flush with the rear surface of the bulkhead. The top of the bearers is covered on either side with a 3-ply shell which extends to the side of the fuselage. In the three-quarter front view photograph may be seen an aluminium scoop (there is also one on the starboard side), which leads air round the crankcase for cooling purposes. The air escapes by holes which are visible just above the leading edge of the lower plane.

Radiator
  The radiator no longer occupies the position it had on the D III model - i.e., in the centre section - but now closely follows Fokker practice. Fig. 11 shows the shape and construction, and it will be noticed that the whole radiator is situated above the crankshaft. The tank at the head of the radiator is of sheet brass, covered with an aluminium lacquer.
  The construction, it will be observed, is very simple. A large number of oval-section tubes of thin brass (9 mm. by 4 mm. cross section), are arranged vertically between the header tank and the radiator bottom, and are supported by two intermediate shelves. The tubes are staggered, and have their cross section inclined at a slight angle to the line of flight, so that the air currents have no straight path, but must impinge upon all the tubes in their course through the radiator. There is a peculiar aluminium "blinker" on the starboard side, permanently fixed edge-wise to the line of flight. Its probable purpose is to prevent the propeller swirl from altogether missing the starboard part of the radiator, by deflecting the current.
  The fact that it is fixed on the starboard side, and that the propeller turns in an anti-clockwise direction when seen from the front, gives support to this view.
  Two aluminium shutters are fitted behind the radiator, one each side-the tops can be seen in Fig. 11 - and are worked positively and independently by means of cables.
  The radiator is supported by two sheet-steel brackets, which are fitted to the foremost bulkhead, a few inches above the engine bearers. (See three-quarter front view photograph.)

Petrol System
  As in the D VII Fokker, both petrol tanks are inside the fuselage. It will be seen that the seat is placed rather far back, and in connection with this, it is remarked that the main petrol tank (sketched in Fig. 12) is placed low down in the fuselage underneath the rudder bar, and is covered with a 3-ply foot board. Its capacity is 16.1 galls. The auxiliary tank is slung from the gun bearers, as shown in Fig. 14, and has a capacity of 2.6 galls. This gives a total petrol capacity of approximately 18 3/4 galls. Both tanks work under pressure. The usual Mercedes oil tank is present, and holds, roughly, 2 galls.
  The throttle is a simple lever, without quadrant or ratchet, which is coupled to the carburettor by light gauge steel tubing, and there is no sign of there having been any inter-connected throttle on the control lever. The welded exhaust pipe points outwards and downwards, and is visible in several illustrations.

Controls
  The stick and its connections are both clearly explained by the sketch (Fig. 13). It will be noticed that only the gun triggers are found near the handles. The rudder bar is precisely similar to that of the D III Pfalz, and has the same adjustment. From the photographs it will be noticed that the cables are enclosed in the body for the greater part of their length and that the upper elevator cable passes right through the fixed tail plane. The aileron cables pass in the usual way through the lower wings, and are protected there by rolled tubes of varnished paper. The place where they leave the lower plane and pass upwards to the aileron lever is marked in the drawings and photographs and the pulleys at this point are of aluminium, and are neatly enclosed in cases of light-gauge sheet steel.

Armament
  In common with the undercarriage and many instruments, both guns had been removed before the machine was inspected, but they were obviously of the Spandau type, fixed, and firing through the propeller path by the usual clutch and synchronizing gear. The triggers are on the control lever, and are illustrated in Fig. 13. As in the Fokker biplane, two strong steel channels are fitted under the guns, and over the engine. They are visible in all three photographs, and in the scale drawings. The double ammunition box is of sheet aluminium, but has a tinplate top, and holds 400 rounds for each gun. It would appear that links were used between the cartridges, as no special receptacle for the usual web belt could be found. A link and cartridge-case deflector is fitted to the top of the cowling.

Instruments
  These were not salved, and all that can be definitely stated is that the compass was of the Pathfinder type, and was fixed inside the cockpit. No dashboard was used, but the instruments had been distributed around the cockpit. It is reported that the pilot was provided with a parachute, which was folded into the seat, and acted as a cushion, but these fittings were not salved.

Propeller
  This is of Heine make, No. 26206; diameter 2,780, pitch 2,000. It has eight laminations of mahogany and walnut.

Fabric and Painting
  The fabric is of the usual colour-printed variety, and the body was painted dark purple from nose to rear of engine; bluish-grey to pilot's cockpit; and a dark green shading into a light pea-green extending to the tail. The fin and rudder are creamy-white, as is the part of the body above the tail planes, but the tail planes themselves, and the underneath portion of the body at the tail, are painted in broad stripes of alternate black and white. The photographs help to identify these various divisions.

D XII TYPE-Schedule of Principal Weights

Fuiselage, without engine, guns, auxiliary lbs. ozs.
  tank or oil tank, but with main tank and
  tail skid 257 0
Starboard lower wing, with control cables
  but no bracing wires. Only one side
  fabric covered 46 0
Upper wing, with bracing wires, but only
  one side fabric covered 127 0
One centre section M strut 7 4
Radiator 44 8
Brass oil tank 5 1
Auxiliary petrol tank 7 8
One outer N strut 8 9
One inner N strut 10 6
Fin (covered) 3 2
Aileron (covered) 7 12
Aileron hinge rod 0 8
3-ply tail plane (partly estimated) 19 0
Aluminium nose cowl 3 14
Cockpit cowl and padding 2 6
One aluminium side cowl 1 12
Ammunition magazine 7 12
Two clutches for synchronising gear 5 13
Two gun channels 5 5

The weights of the main components of the earlier Pfalz - D III type - are given below for comparison

Fuselage, without engine, guns, or empennage,
  but with tanks and all fittings 295 0
One lower plane, covered, but without
  bracing wires 49 0
Complete upper plane, covered, with
  ailerons, bracing wires, radiator, and
  gravity tank 225 0
One centre section strut 9 6
One U interplane strut 8 13
После войны D XII испытывался в странах Антанты и в США, куда было переправлено несколько самолетов. В настоящее время в музеях сохранилось 4 "пфальца"
A PFALZ SCOUT. - This machine was one of the first to be surrendered under the Armistice terms.
A batch of surrendered Pfalz D XII German aeroplanes
The port side of the D XII Pfalz
Three-quarter front view of D XII Pfalz
Front view of D XII Pfalz. Note radiator and sloping 'N' struts
Three-quarter rear view of the D XII Pfalz
Some constructional details of D XII Pfalz. - 1. Attachment of bottom wing spar to body. 2. Top plane section compared with R.A.F. 14. 3. Spars and ribs. 4. Reinforcement of wing spars at point of attachment of struts. 5. Strong support of false spar, to which aileron is hinged. 6. Spar fitting. 7. Diagrams of struts. 8. Tubular support for pilot's seat.
Some more constructional details of D XII Pfalz. - 9. Framework construction of rear of fuselage. 10. Sketch shows long hinge-bolt of elevator. 11. The radiator. 12. Main petrol tank. 13. Controls. 14. Diagram of gun mounting.
General arrangement drawings of Pfalz Scout D XII
Flight, March 13, 1919.

THE SIEMENS TYPE D IV SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER

  DURING the latter part of the War, a good deal was heard of the Siemens Single-Seater, but little reliable information concerning this machine was available. It was said that it had an extraordinarily good (for a German) climb, manoeuvred exceptionally well, and was strong enough to be "spun" with the engine running. The engine was thought to be a Siemens rotary, said to give exceptional power for its weight, and to be particularly good for altitude work. The reports, as is so often the case in such circumstances, differed greatly, and varied from the statement that this machine was no good at all, to the opinion that it was better than anything we had at the time. As frequently happens, the truth judging from the following description, which is translated from the German aviation journal Flugsport, is somewhere in between the two extremes. The machine is undoubtedly one of the best German machines of which detailed particulars are available, but at the same time does not come up to our best. Thus Flugsport :-
  In January, 1918, the Siemens-Schuckert Works brought out, in a competition for this class at Adlexshof, a single-seater fighter known as the D III. This machine, which had a Siemens-Halske rotary motor with 11 cylinders, had a climb that greatly exceeded the specifications of that time, and had at the same time a sufficient horizontal speed and good manoeuvrability. In order to improve upon this type, the speed was increased at the cost of climb, and the shape and section of the main planes were altered accordingly. The new machine, type D IV, is shown in the accompanying illustrations.
  The total span of the D IV is 8m.35, with a chord of 1 m. There is neither dihedral nor sweepback. The weight of the machine empty is 525 kg.
  Concerning the Siemens rotary engine, only a brief reference will be made to this, a more detailed description being reserved for a future occasion. The 200 h.p. 11-cylinder motor is a development of the previous 9-cylinder engine of 110 h.p. It differs from that engine in that, whereas in the smaller motor the crankshaft was stationary and the cylinders revolved, in the new engine the crankshaft revolves in one direction and the cylinders in the opposite direction. The cylinders revolve at the rate of 900 r.p.m. in one direction, and the crankshaft makes 900 r.p.m. in the opposite direction. This is equivalent to an engine speed of 1,800 r.p.m., while the speed of the airscrew is only 900 r.p.m.
  The arrangement of having the two masses rotating in opposite directions is attended by the following special advantages: The low speed of the airscrew results in a better propeller efficiency, which means a greater useful thrust. On account of the low speed of the cylinders the centrifugal force is smaller, which makes for reliability. The high virtual speed of the engine (by having cylinders and shaft revolving in opposite directions - Editor FLIGHT) results in greater power and lighter engine weight. On account of the low speed of the cylinders, air resistance is decreased, resulting in a better efficiency. By having the masses revolving in opposite directions gyroscopic force is approximately eliminated, which is an advantage for manoeuvring. The petrol consumption is far lower than that of any other rotary, and is about the same as that of stationary engines.
  The Siemens rotary can be throttled down from 900 r.p.m. to 350 r.p.m. The cylinders can be easily removed, and by fitting dual magnetos the reliability is increased. The engine can be started by means of a hand-operated magneto. Both inlet and exhaust valves are mechanically operated, and the motor is over-dimensioned, and consequently suitable for work at great altitudes. The normal brake horse-power is 200 h.p. and the maximum power 240 h.p., for a total engine weight, ready for running, of 194 kg. This gives a weight per horse-power of 0.81 kg. If one at the same time bears in mind the low speed of the airscrew, resulting in a good efficiency, of 68 per cent, or so, the value of the engine will be apparent. (A propeller efficiency of 68 per cent, does not impress one particularly. - Editor FLIGHT.) The value of the ratio (lbs. thrust / lbs. weight of engine + weight of screw), should be very good.
  The engine is hung on its three supports in a wrought-iron frame, which is attached by suitable fittings to the four longerons of the fuselage. Later types are improved by making the engine quickly removable with its cowling arrangement. The aluminium cowl round the motor ensures proper cooling and prevents the used oil from being thrown out. The oil tank is mounted behind the engine in order to protect it from the cold, and a short distance behind it is mounted the petrol tank which is arranged for gravity feed. The two tanks are bolted together, and may be put into and taken out of the machine as a unit. In later types the oil tank is built with double walls, the space between which is packed with heat-insulating material so that the oil, even at the greatest altitudes, retains its proper consistency.
  The air screw is a four-bladed tractor, with the four blades glued together in one plane. Its diameter is 2m.80 and the pitch 3m.90. The four-bladed screw, as shown by experiments, has certain advantages over the two-bladed, without, in the present case, having a lower efficiency than the latter. Thus the under-carriage is lower, which facilitates landing at the high speed of this machine.
  The fuselage is built of three-ply wood, and is designed for the lowest possible head resistance. The framework is formed by a series of transverse formers or bulkheads and four pine longerons, and to this the three-ply planking is tacked. Of particular interest are the diagonal formers running from bulkhead to bulkhead. These give great rigidity to the structure. Growing out of the main body and built integral with it are the vertical fin and horizontal tail plane, as well as the lower fin, which forms a support for the tail skid. The tail plane, which is of the symmetrical type, is set at an angle of incidence of 0 deg. while the vertical fin is cambered on one side only, in order to counteract the turning moment caused by the propeller torque. To the tail plane is hinged in the usual manner the one-piece, balanced elevator. The rudder is placed wholly above the elevator. Both rudder and elevator are built up of steel tubes with ribs of sheet steel, and the control cables, which are in duplicate, are so arranged as to nowhere pass over pulleys. The pilot's seat is mounted on duralumin tubes and is adjustable in two directions. The safety belt is attached to the upper longerons via coil springs. One of the accompanying illustrations shows the interior of the pilot's cockpit, which is equipped with the usual instruments: Revolutions-counter, compass, altimeter, throttle levers, switches, magneto switches, and petrol tap, etc. The control lever carries at its upper end a handle of the type that has been standardised by the German authorities (Heeresverwaltung), and the left side of which is arranged as a throttle lever. By a special locking arrangement, the control lever may be locked in any position. The longitudinal rocking shaft, which is forked round the control lever, carries at its front end a double crank for the aileron control. The latter is in the form of steel tubing throughout in order to minimise danger of damage by bullets.
  To the front part of the fuselage is attached the undercarriage, which is built of steel tube throughout. It is held together by a cross tube behind the axle and by diagonal bracing in the rear bay only. The wheel axle, which is a nickel chrome steel tube of 55 mm. diameter, is slung from the struts by coil springs wrapped around the axle. As circular section tubes are employed for the undercarriage struts, these have been streamlined with sheet aluminium. The upper plane is in one piece, and has spars of the box type, the spars being made by spindling out two halves to the desired section. Where struts, etc., occur, the spars are left solid. The ribs are built up of webs of 1.5 mm. three-ply wood, with flanges of pine. The ribs, which are placed 160 mm. apart, are carefully secured to the spars by small blocks of wood, glued on. The internal wing bracing is in the form of steel tube compression struts and steel wires. The wing fabric is stitched to the ribs. All the wing spar fittings are so designed as to surround the spars, thus avoiding piercing. There are four ailerons of the balanced type, which are hinged to the rear spar. The ailerons are operated by steel tubes lying inside the plane, an arrangement which in addition to the advantage already referred to of safety against bullets, gives less head resistance than cables placed on the outside of the wing. (This is evidently a "crib" of the Nieuport type of control. - Editor FLIGHT.) The inter-plane struts are in the form of Vees, which have their pointed end secured to a bridge piece of wood between the lower plane spars. Both front and rear struts of the Vee are of streamline section, and are hollowed out for lightness. The canopy (Baldachin) or centre section struts are braced by cables in such a manner that, by utilising the machine-gun bridge in the construction, they do not interfere with the sighting and use of the guns. The main wing bracing consists of two cables with a very high factor of safety, while an external drift wire to the nose of the body is provided to afford extra safety during a long steep dive.
  The armament consists of two machine-guns, rigidly mounted, and synchronised to fire through the propeller. Adjustment of the guns is made at the rear support.
  Sand tests carried out on the machine have given results far above the official specifications. During the most severe tests in the air, including dives and upside-down flights, no defects were found, and not a single part had taken a permanent set or stretch after the very severe test flights.
  One of the accompanying illustrations shows a barograph record taken under official tests and with the machine carrying its service load of 105 kg. The climbs are only to be described as exceptionally good, and have not, so far as is known, been equalled by our enemies. (This is not correct. - Editor FLIGHT.) The speed and manoeuvrability has drawn favourable comment from all quarters, and the machine has become a leading weapon in the hands of our skilful pilots. The Armistice has prevented the machine from appearing in quantities on the front. The enemy Press had already learned of the appearance of this machine, and we find in tne Matin, during August, an article dealing with it, and English technical journals conclude a description of the Siemens by challenging the English industry to overtake, by intensive work, the lead which the German industry has gained with this machine and motor.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Engine mounting.
THREE VIEWS OF THE SIEMENS-HALSKE ROTARY ENGINE. - In this engine the cylinders and crankshaft rotate in opposite directions.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - View of the Pilot's cockpit.
THE SIEMENS-HALSKE ROTARY ENGINE. - Part-sectional view.
THE SIEMENS-HALSKE ROTARY ENGINE. - Sectional side elevation.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Side and front elevations and plans from above and beneath.
Flight, September 18, 1919.

THE (GERMAN) DORNIER "GIANT FLYING-BOAT"
FROM A CORRESPONDENT

  IN view of its unusual arrangement, a few notes concerning the Dornier monoplane flying-boat, which was under construction when the Armistice was signed, may not be without interest. The machine was built by the Zeppelin Works at Lindau on Lake Constance, and was designed by the chief designer of that firm, Herr Dornier, who is Swiss by birth. As the accompanying diagrams show, the machine is a monoplane, and is, in a sense, of the flying-boat type, although it might be better described as a single-float seaplane. An idea of the size of the machine may be formed when it is pointed out that the wing span is 36 m. (118 ft.). The power plant consists of four Maybach motors, each of 260 h.p., driving two tractors and two pushers.
  The fuselage is placed above the wings, and in it are housed gunners and other crew. The pilots are seated down in the boat, or central float, which also accommodates gunners, one in the nose and one in the stern. In the boat, between the pilots and rear gunner, are placed the petrol tanks, which have a capacity sufficient for a 10 hours' flight. The machine carries a crew of nine, which may be constituted as follows: Two pilots, two gunners in the "hump" on top of the fuselage, one wireless operator in the nose of the fuselage, two gunners in the boat, and two engineers. With full load the machine has attained a speed of 145 km./hour (about 90 m.p.h.). One of the finest flights made by the Dornier was a non-stop trip from Lake Constance to Norderney, the Naval Air Station in the North Sea.
  With regard to construction, it should be pointed out that there is no wood in the machine, the wings, fuselage, boat and engine mountings being made of Duralumin. The Zeppelin firm have also during the War constructed all-Duralumin single-seaters and two-seaters of the twin-float type.
THE DORNIER MONOPLANE FLYING BOAT: Diagrammatic side and front elevations
THE ZEPPELIN GIANT AEROPLANE. - Looking down from the machine gunner's nest at the two pilots, the observer, and the commander.
Zeppelin-Staaken V.G.O. III. A GERMAN (ZEPPELIN) GIANT AEROPLANE. - Note the tractor airscrew in the nose of the fuselage.
ON BOARD A GERMAN GIANT AEROPLANE. - Photograph showing view looking aft from the port engine nacelle.
THE NOSE OF A GERMAN GIANT AEROPLANE. - Photograph taken from the port engine nacelle.
A ZEPPELIN GIANT. - The photograph shows how the fuselage is entered through a door in the side.
Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

The Aviatik, Type R (Riesenflugzeug)
  was a four-engined machine, following more on the lines of the Staaken type. It was built towards the end of 1918, and was fitted with four Benz engines, the two front ones being of the 200 h.p. six-cylindered type, and the two pushers of the 500 h.p. twelve-cylindered Vee type, fitted with reduction gearing. As will be seen from the photograph, this machine was of very large dimensions, with its engines placed end to end in nacelles between the planes. It had a biplane tail.
The Aviatik, Type R.
The skeleton remains on a 5-engined Gotha at Cologne.
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

Italy's Representative

  At the actual exhibition Italy is represented by two machines only. One is the large Fiat biplane, on which recently Lieut. Brack-Papa flew from Italy to England, and which was not crashed in France on the return journey as stated in the daily press, and the other is a Caproni three-engined machine, turned into a commercial aeroplane by adding a cabin to the fuselage. A third Italian machine is, however, flying at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome - the little S.V.A. biplane with Warren girder wing bracing.

THE S.V.A. BIPLANE

  Although not strictly speaking at the exhibition, the little S.V.A. biplane is included here, as it is flying daily at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome, piloted by the Italian pilot Guglielmotti. This little machine is chiefly remarkable for its wing bracing, in which no wire bracing is employed. The struts are arranged in the form of a Warren girder, and the only wires in the system are the incidence wires. The 200 h.p. engine is perched high up on the front of the fuselage, and is totally covered in, the radiator being in the nose. In front the fuselage is of rectangular section, which gradually runs into a triangular section aft of the pilot's seat. From this point to the tail the fuselage is triangular, which gives it a somewhat weak appearance, and the tail plane may be seen to warp appreciably during flight. However, this does not appear to worry Guglielmotti, who does all the usual stunts on the machine, including spins. One very peculiar thing one noticed about this machine. In taking off its tail never leaves the ground, the machine travelling along at the angle at which it is standing at rest until sufficient lift is obtained. Until one becomes accustomed to it the sight of a machine starting in this manner is rather terrifying, as one is inclined to expect to see her stall as soon as leaving the ground.
THE ITALIAN REPRESENTATIVES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 2. the S.V.A. biplane
Flight, June 19, 1919.

THE, CAPRONI BOMBING TRIPLANE CA-4-1915

  THE Caproni triplane represents a type designed and built by the famous Italian constructor since 1915. This machine was created at that time for the night bombing of important military and naval bases, railway stations and war plants. As in the preceding types of machines by the same constructor, the type CA-4 triplane has for its distinctive characteristic the number and arrangement of the motors, originated by the famous Italian constructor. There are three motors, one driving a pusher screw mounted in a central nacelle, the other two are each mounted in the nose of a fuselage and drive a tractor screw. These two fuselages and the central nacelle are attached to the spars of the middle wing, whilst the centre section of the lower plane carries the bomb rack, also designed by Engineer Caproni.
  Normally the crew of the machine consists of two pilots, seated side by side, and a gunner - who operates a 1 1/2 in. gun and two Fiat machine guns - located in the central nacelle, and a gunner or observer in each of the fuselages, which are also fitted with Fiat machine guns. Each of the crew can pass from one cockpit to another, a foot walk covered with veneer wood being provided on the middle plane between the central nacelle and the fuselages for this purpose.
  The CA-4 triplane has been successively equipped with three different types of motors. At first, three Isotta Fraschini 8-cylinder vertical 240-250 h.p. engines were used; later three Fiat A/12-bis 6-cylinder vertical engines were fitted, and finally three Liberty 12 Navy type (low compression) engines were adopted. With an aggregated useful military load of 6,600 lbs. the performance of this triplane, equipped with Liberty engines, has been considerably better than those obtained with the other types of motors, especially in climbing. In the official tests, at full load and fully armed, a speed of 98 m.p.h. at 6,560 ft. was reached. The average rates of climb attained (with Liberty motors) at full military loads were: 3,280 ft. in 6 mins., 6,560 ft. in 14 mins., and 10,000 ft. in 25 mins. The ceiling is at about 16,000 ft. The total weight of the machine, empty, is 11,100 lbs., and with full military load, 17,700 lbs. With a complete fuel load of 550 gals, the bomb rack is supposed to be loaded with 2,500 lbs. of bombs, but practically in almost all bombing raids the load of bombs exceeded 3,000 lbs.
  Each of the three planes is built up in seven sections, the corresponding sections in upper, middle and lower planes being of equal span, as follows. Centre sections, 5 ft. 6 ins.; intermediate sections (two), 13 ft. 1 in. each, and outer sections 18 ft. 3 ins. The wing spars are of box spar section, and the ribs, double ribs and box ribs are of white wood and ash. Between ribs the spars are wrapped with strong linen. The connection between the two subsequent sections is obtained with the male and female box fitting system. The covering is linen, nailed on the rib flanges and on the leading and trailing edges. On the linen, above and below the wing, maple batten strips are screwed in correspondence to the ribs.
  For the interplane struts, ash, spruce and seamless steel tubes are employed, and some of the struts have adjustable ends. The bracing is, as usual, with steel cables and wires.
  As on all Caproni bombing machines, the stabiliser, elevator, rudders and ailerons are constructed of steel tubing. The stabiliser is solidly braced to the fuselage by means of cables and steel tube struts. There are three balanced rudders and a one-piece elevator. Ailerons are fitted to all three planes. Dual control is fitted, so that the machine can be controlled by either pilot at will. The control system for the ailerons and elevator is a combination of the wheel and stick type, and the rudders are operated by a foot bar of the usual pattern.
  The petrol is fed from three tanks, one each on the fuselages and one in the central nacelle. Three wind-driven centrifugal pumps deliver the petrol from the tanks to a central distributor, and thence to the carburettors of the engines. Both pilots have close a t hand the necessary devices for controlling the petrol supply. For testing the motors on the ground two small gravity tanks are provided, but these are excluded from the main system when the machine is in flight. In cases of emergency the pilot on the left can operate a hand-pump, which is capable of feeding the three engines from the central tank. Each engine has its own oil tank and a radiator for cooling the oil. The engine radiators are mounted either in the nose of the respective fuselage or nacelle, or else above in each engine, as shown in the photographs. All the radiators are of the honeycomb type, and are fitted with shutters.
  The central nacelle is perfectly streamlined. Two main longerons with steel tube compression struts between them, wire braced, form the frame on which a set of ribs are fastened, giving the shape of the nacelle. Birch veneer and walnut are employed in the construction of these ribs - a similar form of construction to that employed for flying boat hulls. The front upper part of the nacelle is formed by a cowling made of plywood with interposed layers of fabric. The two pilots are seated behind the front gunner, and behind them again is the petrol tank. At the rear of the latter, which is of the same circular section as that of the nacelle, is a short foot-way allowing free access to the engine at the rear. The engine is enclosed by cowling.
  The two fuselages are flat-sided and of the usual girder construction - four ash longerons, compression struts, and wire bracing. All the fittings to which the diagonals are fastened are manufactured from the same set of dies, and are extremely simple, light and free from welding. Their application is such that the longerons are not pierced by bolts or screws. The engine housing is cowled with sheet aluminium. The petrol and oil tanks are situated just behind the engine. and the gunner's cockpit is located a short distance at the rear of the trailing edge of the middle plane. A tail skid is mounted on the end of each fuselage. The landing gear is of special Caproni design, and is very strong. It consists of two sets of M struts, each carrying a short skid on which are sprung two pairs of twin wheels mounted one in front of the other. Each set of wheels is located under the fuselages. The M struts are of laminated ash and spruce, wrapped with strong canvas fabric. The axles are attached to the skids by means of shock-absorbing rubber cord, and steel rods anchored in universal joints which absorb lateral oscillation. The chassis is braced in the usual manner with double steel cables.
  The following are the principal characteristics of the Caproni CA-4 triplane :-



Overall span 96 ft. 6 ins.
Overall length 42 ft. 11 ins
Overall height 20 ft. 8 ins.
Chord 7 ft. 0 ins.
Gap 8 ft. 0 ins.
Area of main planes (total,
  including ailerons) 2,223 sq. ft
Area of ailerons (six) 227 sq. ft.
Area of rudders (three) 81 sq. ft.
Area of tail plane 109.75 sq. ft.
Area of elevator 81.6 sq.ft.
Overall span of ailerons 19 ft. 4 ins.
Overall span of tail plane 34 ft. 1 in.
Overall span of elevator 36 ft. 3 ins.
Angle of incidence
  (main planes) 3° 50'.
Angle of incidence
  (tail plane) 3° 8'.
This three-engined 1,200 h.p. Caproni triplane, has a span of about 103 ft., and carries a useful load of several tons
A TRI-MOTORED CAPRONI HYDRO-TRIPLANE: It has a span of 31 metres, and the useful load is 2 1/2 to 3 tons. It can be fitted with three 300 h.p. Flat or Liberty engines, and the speed is 140 kiloms. per hour.
Two detail sketches of the Caproni CA-4 Triplane. On the left one of the tail skids, and on the right one of the under-carriage units.
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

Italy's Representative

  At the actual exhibition Italy is represented by two machines only. One is the large Fiat biplane, on which recently Lieut. Brack-Papa flew from Italy to England, and which was not crashed in France on the return journey as stated in the daily press, and the other is a Caproni three-engined machine, turned into a commercial aeroplane by adding a cabin to the fuselage. A third Italian machine is, however, flying at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome - the little S.V.A. biplane with Warren girder wing bracing.

THE CAPRONI BIPLANE

  Another Italian machine which arrived at Amsterdam by air was the Caproni three-engined biplane, which made its first appearance above Amsterdam on August 7, when, after circling over the town for about an hour, it landed on the E.L.T.A. aerodrome, fortunately without coming to grief. The machine cannot by any stretch of imagination be termed a pretty one, the twin fuselages and straight, square-tipped wings giving it a somewhat ungraceful appearance. But it seems to fly very well, and does some fairly sharp banked turns, although at times it was observed to do flat turns which one usually associates with tendencies to spin. However, the Caproni does not appear to be troubled by flat turn, and at times they appeared to be chosen deliberately by the pilot when he wanted to turn quickly.
  The three engines of the Caproni are Isotta-Frachinis, the two outer ones being placed in the nose of the twin fuselages, while the third is installed in the rear of the central nacelle, where it drives a pusher airscrew. The front portion of the nacelle projects far out in front, and here are arranged two cockpits in tandem. Slightly further aft a superstructure has been added which extends up to the top plane, and forms a cabin for the passengers. The machine carries 10 persons, and flies fairly fast with its three engines developing a total of a little over 700 h.p. The general arrangement of the Caproni will be clear from one of the accompanying photographs. Like the Fiat, the Caproni was also put into the exhibition building shortly after its arrival, and may now be examined on the Caproni stand.
THE ITALIAN REPRESENTATIVES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 3. The Caproni three-engined biplane
Caproni Triplane. - A close-up view of the cabin. This extends from the bottom to tne middle plane, and the passengers are enclosed, while the pilot is situated in a smaller cockpit on top of the cabin.
A CAPRONI PASSENGER TRIPLANE: This machine appears to be a peace-time development of the type CA 4 described in "Flight" of June 19, 1919. The two tractor engines are mounted in the nose of the twin fuselages, while the pusher engine is placed high in the stern of the central nacelle.
Flight, July 24, 1919.

FLYING FROM TURIN TO LONDON

  ON the afternoon of July 16 there arrived at the Kenley Aerodrome a Fiat B.R. biplane, piloted by Lieut. F Brack Papa, accompanied by Lieut. Bonaccini, which had flown from Paris, having taken an hour and three-quarters to fly the distance of 225 miles. On the previous day it had travelled from Rome to Paris (687 miles) in a little over seven hours, despite unfavourable weather conditions. Some days before the machine had been flown from Turin to Rome, doing the 362 miles in 2 hours 15 mins. an average speed of 161 miles an hour. This beat the record for this journey, the previous best having been 2 hours 50 mins., made by Sergt. Stoppam on a Sia machine.
  The B.R. Fiat biplane was designed by Engineer Rosatelli just before the close of the War, to be used as a high-speed long-distance bomber. It is of the single fuselage tractor type, equipped with a 700 h.p. twelve-cylindered Fiat engine (170 by 210 mm.) which is claimed to be the highest powered engine employed for air work. It has a span of 51 ft. 9 ins., a chord of 7 ft. 9 ins., overall length of 32 ft., and a total supporting surface of 775 sq. ft. The diameter of the tractor screw is 11 ft. 3 ins. The struts and wires are all streamlined. The weight of the machine empty is 2 1/4 tons, and the useful load 1 1/2 tons.
  Its maximum speed is 163 m.p.h., and its climbing speeds are as follows :- 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.), in 3 mins. 45 secs.; 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.), in 7 mins. 30 secs.; 3,000 m. (9.842 ft.), in 12 mins. 30 secs.; 4,000 m. (13,123 ft.), in 18 mins. 16 secs.; 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.), in 27 mins.


Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

Italy's Representative

  At the actual exhibition Italy is represented by two machines only. One is the large Fiat biplane, on which recently Lieut. Brack-Papa flew from Italy to England, and which was not crashed in France on the return journey as stated in the daily press, and the other is a Caproni three-engined machine, turned into a commercial aeroplane by adding a cabin to the fuselage. A third Italian machine is, however, flying at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome - the little S.V.A. biplane with Warren girder wing bracing.

THE GREAT FIAT BIPLANE

  Arriving from France by air, the Fiat biplane, on which Lieut. Brack-Papa flew from Turin to London recently, is now exhibited at the E.L.T.A. show. As the machine was described and illustrated in FLIGHT of July 24, 1919, no detailed reference to it is necessary here. It is a very large, single-engined two-seater, with a 700 h.p. Fiat engine of the 12-cylinder Vee type. The fuselage is of the ply-wood covered type, with the two seats arranged in tandem, the pilot in front. The control is of the wheel type for the ailerons. A very large petrol tank is placed between the engine and the pilot's seat. The radiator is placed in the nose of the fuselage, and under the bottom of the body, just behind the front chassis struts, is a small oil cooler of copper tubing. In order to reduce the air resistance of the 12 exhaust pipes, each set of six is enclosed in a stream-line casing projecting outwards and downwards from the top of the cylinders.
  The most interesting feature of the Fiat B.R. is, perhaps, the wing bracing, which is of a somewhat unusual type. The centre section struts are arranged as in the Sopwith 1 1/2-strutter, i.e., the form of a letter W as seen from in front. The inner bay of the wing bracing has no lift wires, diagonal struts sloping from the top of the outer centre section struts to the base of the first pair of inter-plane struts, being thus in compression under lift loads. The outer bay of the wing truss is wire braced, the lift wires being in duplicate and enclosed in a stream-line aluminium casing, while the landing wires are single Rafwires. It might be mentioned that all the terminal connections of the wing struts and wires are enclosed in stream-line aluminium casings so as to reduce air resistance. As mentioned in our issue of July 24, the machine has a maximum speed of about 160 m.p.h., and her appearance at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome was hailed with delight by the visitors, most of whom had probably never seen a machine flying at such high speed. The Fiat did not, however, remain long at the aerodrome, but was put into the exhibition the day after her arrival.
The B.R. Fiat biplane which was flown last week from Turin to London, with stops at Rome and Paris.
THE ITALIAN REPRESENTATIVES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 1. The large F.I.A.T. biplane with 700 h.p. engine
Lieut. Brack Papa, the pilot, who flew the B.R. Fiat machine from Turin to London, and the 12-cylindered 700 h.p. Fiat engine used in the flight
One of the first giant bombing 'planes built for Italy by the S.I.A. Co., of Turin, in the early part of 1916. It had two 700 h.p. Fiat engines mounted in the forward portions of the twin fuselages. The central nacelle carried pilot, observers and bombs, the useful load being 3 tons. Span, 108 ft.; chord, 11 ft. 6 ins.; overall length, 57 ft.; and weight, empty, 5 1/2 tons
Flight, September 4, 1919.

THE JACQUES SCHNEIDER CUP RACE

The Machines

The Italian Representative

  As already mentioned, Italy is to be represented by one machine only, a Savoia flying-boat of the S 13 type, fitted with a 250 h.p. Isotta-Fraschini engine. As the accompanying photograph of the standard S 13 type shows, the Savoia boat is of more or less standard construction and design. The engine is mounted on struts from the boat, and drives a pusher air-screw. The wing bracing is somewhat unusual, being similar to that familiar from the French Spad biplanes. The bracing wires, instead of going to the ends of the first pair of struts, pass through the centres and on to the ends of the outer struts. The intermediate struts are hinged in the centre, and are in the form of steel tubes, while the outer struts are of wood. The following particulars of the Savoia, refer to the standard Type S 13, but it is possible that for the Schneider Race the wing surface may be cut down.
  Engine, Isotta-Fraschini V 6, 250 h.p. Length, over all 9.022 metres. Span. 11.8 metres. Wing area, 32.89 sq. m. Weight all on, 1,350 kg. Maximum speed, 206 km. per hour.
THE ITALIAN REPRESENTATIVE. - Front view of a "Savoia" flying boat, types 13, fitted with a 250-h.p. Isotta Fraschini engine.
SCHNEIDER CUP: The Savoia flying-boat at the Saunders sheds at Cowes on the day before the race.
SCHNEIDER CUP: The Savoia flying-boat. Sr. Janello was disqualified, as he was not seen from the Swanage Bay mark boat.
THE START FOR THE SCHNEIDER CUP RACE: 3. The Savoia flying-boat.
SCHNEIDER CUP: Avanti Savoia. A snap of the Italian representative passing between the pier and the committee yacht on his fourth lap.
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE FOKKER STAND

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  The second machine on the Fokker stand is a little single-seater biplane with 80-90 h.p. Thulin (Swedish version of the Le Rhone) engine. It is designed as a sporting biplane, and has its wings placed on the fuselage top and bottom respectively, the pilot sitting in an opening in the top plane. In order to facilitate housing and transport the wing bracing is arranged so as to be quickly dismantled, when the wings, by means of suitable hooks, can be placed alongside, and supported by brackets on the fuselage. In a general way this machine is very similar to some of the earlier War machines produced by Fokker in Germany, but with, probably, a smaller engine in view of the purpose for which this machine is intended.
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SOME DUTCH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 2. A couple of Fokker biplanes, one with rotary and one with stationary engine
The Fokker Stand: On the left may be seen the port wing of a parasol monoplane, while in the centre is a sporting two-seater, shown with the port wings folded for transport. In the background, on the right, is a Fokker two-seater biplane, similar to the German Fokker type D.VII.
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE SPYKER MACHINES.

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  The second machine exhibited on the Spyker stand is a two-seater tractor, designed for school work. It is fitted with an 80-90 h.p. Thulin (Swedish) engine of the Le Rhone type. This machine, being intended for instruction work and carrying two, is somewhat larger than the single-seater, but is also a fairly small, and very pleasing, aeroplane. It has two pairs of struts aside, and the same common-sense design is noticeable in all its details. This machine has not, however, a monocoque fuselage, but one of the usual wood girder type, with struts and cross members of T section, and wire bracing. As shown, the rear part of the fuselage was uncovered so as to show the internal construction and workmanship, both of which were very good. In this machine the lift bracing is in the form of standard cables, and the manner of attaching the lower plane to the fuselage is very neat, being effected by a form of union, not unlike that employed on some of the earlier German Albatros biplanes.
  The undercarriage is of the Vee type, with very wide track, and the lower apices of the two Vees are arranged in a manner not unlike that of some of the Sopwith undercarriages. That is to say, there is a cross piece some little distance up, and a plate with guides for the axle. Needless to say, as the machine is intended for instruction it is fitted with dual control. In view of the comparatively low power the machine has a good performance, and we are informed that she has been looped, which is not bad for a two-seater with only 80 h.p.
  The Spyker firm also shows, in addition to one of their cars, a rotary engine of the Clerget type, but built by Spykers, which is rated at 130 h.p. Judging from an external examination it is a very fine job, the engine being well finished and the workmanship, as far as it was possible to judge, being very good.
SOME DUTCH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 1. A Spyker school machine
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE SPYKER MACHINES.

  Of the aeroplanes of Dutch design and construction the two Spyker biplanes exhibited are perhaps the neatest. There is about both types a certain cleanliness of outline which is very pleasing to the eye. Yet as regards their design and construction everything is simple and along common-sense lines.
  One of the Spyker machines is a little single-seater sporting biplane, fitted with a 130 h.p. Spyker-Clerget engine. It follows standard practice as regards its general lay-out, having a single pair of inter-plane struts on each side. The wing bracing is in the form of fiat steel bands, not of the alleged stream-line section now used so extensively on our own machines, but truly plain fiat steel bands, fitted in duplicate side by side and in surface contact with one another. The terminals for these flat steel strips are extremely neat, and would appear to be a good deal less expensive to make than are our own neat but super-refined trunnion terminals for R.A.F. wires. The plane struts are of wood, stream-line section. Upper and lower planes are of equal span, and both are fitted with ailerons.
  The fuselage is of the monocoque form of construction, and would appear to be of very good shape as regards air resistance. The controls are of standard type, the stick terminating at the top in a very convenient handle. A very complete set of instruments is carried on a neat instrument board in front of the controls. The top plane centre section is provided with windows so as to improve the pilot's view in an upward direction. A simple type of Vee undercarriage, having wood struts, is fitted, the axle being divided in the centre. In its show paint - the planes are yellow and the fuselage blue - the little Spyker scout looks extremely well, and has, we believe, a very good performance.
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Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

  The only other Dutch machine exhibited is that built by
VAN BERKELS PATENT, HOLLAND.
  This is a twin-float seaplane, shown at the exhibition without engine, but intended, we believe, for a Mercedes. The fuselage is built up of a light framework covered with three-ply wood. The ply-wood covering of the rear portion of the fuselage is continued outwards over the tail plane, which latter is built integral with the body. The fuselage is very deep at the rear, where as a matter of fact it performs the function of a fin, no other vertical fin being fitted. As the tail plane is at the top of the fuselage the whole tail looks somewhat unusual, especially as the rudder has its balanced portion projecting below the stern instead of, as in the majority of machines, above it.
  The two floats, which are of the single step type, are flat-bottomed as regards their front portion, but to the rear of the step the bottom gradually changes from flat to Vee bottom, finally coming to a point at the heel of the float. The construction is very similar to that of the fuselage, brass screws and nails being used throughout. The floats are, of course, fitted with water-tight bulkheads, easily detachable inspection doors being provided in the deck for examining the interior.
  The wing bracing of this seaplane is unusual, in that there is only one pair of struts on each side, in spite of the comparatively large span. The upper plane is of slightly greater span than the bottom one, and the inter-plane struts slope outwards to obtain the best load distribution on the respective spars. The lift and landing loads are taken by tubes sloping from the floats outward to the lower surface of the bottom plane at the points where occur the inter-plane struts. As the float strut formation is in the shape of a letter M, as seen from in front, and having a transverse horizontal strut between the floats, the outward component of the lift pull on the sloping struts is transmitted to this horizontal strut, which is therefore in tension when the machine is flying, and probably in slight compression when the machine is at rest. We understand that this machine has not yet flown, but a speed of 155 km. per hour is estimated for her.
  Another exhibit on this stand which attracts attention is a small 8-cyl. rotary engine of the two-stroke type. It was, we learn, designed by Mr. Kerner, of the technical staff of Van Berkels. Its chief feature is that, in order to avoid the trouble experienced in all two-stroke engines at certain speeds - either a mixing of the fresh charge with residual gases, or a waste of fuel through blowing part of the fresh charge out through the exhaust ports - a small piston disc is interposed between the fresh charge and the exhaust gases, thus preventing them from mixing, while at the same time being limited in travel so as to prevent the escape of the fresh gas through the exhaust ports. This piston disc is mechanically operated, but we were unable to ascertain the details of the mechanism. The Kerner engine is provided with external inlet pipes, and very large inlet valves are fitted in the cylinder heads. We understand that the engine has passed through satisfactory test runs, and it is claimed to develop 120 h.p. for a weight of 95 kgs.
Van Berkels Patent: On this stand is shown a twin-float seaplane without inter-plane wing bracing, the lift being taken by tubes from the floats. This machine was shown minus engine.
Three views of a four-engined Sikorsky biplane in flight
A 1,000-lb. bomb in front of a Sikorsky biplane
Three views of one of the early Sikorsky biplanes, fitted with two 250 h.p. Salmson engines, which side-slipped from about 20 metres during the retreat from Warsaw
An American camouflaged speed scout, the Berckman, built by the Berckman's Aeroplane Co. It is equipped with a G. V Gnome.
Flight, October 9, 1919.

THE CATO SPORTING MONOPLANE

  This single-seater machine was designed by Mr Joseph L. Cato, of New York, primarily as a sporting monoplane, the objects in view being a very slow landing speed, quick getaway, and ease of control, together with inherent stability and good manoeuvrability both in the air and on the ground. With these objects in view, a wing of wide chord was adopted, and a special wing-section was laid out as existing sections were found to be unsuitable for the required performance.
  This wing-section - known as Cato No. 4 - which is shown with dimensions in one of the accompanying illustrations, was designed to give good climb and low landing speed rather than a very high speed, and recent tests have proved that it can accomplish all that was required of it. A climb of 4,600 ft. in 10 minutes was obtained with this section, whilst the speed range obtained was 22 to 70 m.p.h.
  Constructionally the Cato monoplane has received much thought and consideration for detail, and throughout the general design is the keynote of simplicity - by far the best method of attaining light weight, which is so desirable in a small, sporting machine of this kind. Simplicity also makes for low cost of manufacture, which in turn brings the selling price within the reach of the average sportsman. The controllability of the Cato monoplane at low flying speed is exceptionally good, and on landing the machine comes to a dead stop within 45 ft., whilst to get away a run of no more than 50 ft. is necessary. The longest run made at highest landing speed was 120 ft. to a dead stop.
  As will be seen from our illustrations, this machine is a monoplane of the parasol type. The fuselage is of good streamline shape, comparatively deep in section. It is of monocoque construction, built up of three layers of cedar, and weighs, as it comes off the mould, 58 lbs. A portion of the fuselage, on the port side of the cockpit, is cut away to give access to the latter, thus avoiding the necessity of the pilot climbing over the top of the fuselage, a considerable improvement on the hitherto awkward method of "embarkation." The bottom of the fuselage being 22 ins. from the ground, it is possible for the pilot to step into the cockpit as easily as one would step into a car. The pilot's seat is mounted 16 ins. from the floor of the fuselage. A wind screen is rendered unnecessary owing to the shape of the top of the fuselage at the rear of the engine.
  A neat stick control is installed, and the rudder bar has three adjustments - short, medium and long. The throttle control is located on the starboard side of the cockpit.
  The construction of the wings follows more or less standard practice. The wing spars are of I-section, and the wing-bracing strut attachments are held on by four bolts clamping the spar through maple blocks. The wings are built in two halves, and are braced by four main struts anchored at their lower ends to the sides of the fuselage. These main struts are interchangeable from right to left and from front to rear. The wings are mounted some 14 ins. above the fuselage on central cabanes, and are given a backsweep of 5# and a dihedral angle of 2#; the angle of incidence is 4#. The inner ends of the ailerons are set back at an angle of 4# in order to render them more effective at very low speeds. These ailerons are interchangeable.
  The tail plane is of the divided type, of symmetrical section, and is permanently mounted some 6 ins. below the line of thrust. Each half of the tail plane is interchangeable. The elevators are also interchangeable from right to left, and are further interchangeable with the rudder. The triangular fin is slightly offset to overcome the torque.
  The landing chassis is of the V type, the Vs being of steel tube and interchangeable, whilst large-diameter wheels are fitted to provide easy rolling. The axle is sprung by means of the usual elastic cord. The tail skid consists of a three-leaf spring.
  The power plant is a two-cylinder horizontally opposed air-cooled Cato aircraft engine, developing 72 h.p. at 1,825 r.p.m. It is mounted on a steel plate riveted to the front end of the fuselage. It is well protected by an aluminium hood, the only part exposed being the two air-cooled cylinder heads, and the carburettor intake. The engine drives direct a tractor screw of 7 ft. 2 ins. diameter by 4.38 ft. pitch.
  The petrol tank is located on the root of the right wing, and has a capacity of 12 gallons, which is sufficient fuel for about three hours' endurance. The oil tank is also situated in this position. Both petrol and oil are supplied to the engine by gravity.
  The general specifications of the Cato sporting monoplane are as follows :-

Overall span 28 ft. 11 1/2 ins.
Overall length 20 ft. 10 ins.
Chord 7 ft.
Sweepback 5°
Dihedral 2°
Angle of incidence 4°
Total area of main plane 186 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 23.8 sq. ft.
Area of tail plane 15.5 sq.ft.
Area of fin 6.9 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 13.8 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 6.9 sq. ft.
Weight, empty 474.26 lbs.
Useful load 253 lbs.
Weight fully loaded 727.26 lbs.
Loading per sq. ft. 3.9
Loading per horse-power 10.1
Speed range 25-68 m.p.h.
Climb in 10 minutes 4,500 ft.
Ceiling 12,000 ft.
Endurance at high speed 3 hours.
Three-quarter front view of the Cato sporting monoplane
Side view of the Cato sporting monoplane
Wing section of the Cato sporting monoplane
The CATO SPORTING MONOPLANE: Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
Flight, February 13, 1919.

THE CHRISTMAS STRUTLESS BIPLANE

  SEVERAL attempts have been made for years by experimenters to perfect an aeroplane with flexible wings, or following closely the flexibility of the wings of a bird. The biplane designed by Dr. W. W. Christmas appears to have met with much success in the structure mentioned, and his theories of flexing wings have shown more practicability than most rigid-wing adherents were apt to believe possible.
  The British and French Governments have manifested considerable interest in this machine, probably because of reports of the great speed accredited to it.
  A most radical departure from what has heretofore been believed to be necessary practice is the entire elimination of struts, cables, and wires in the bracing of the wings, as well as the absence of wiring in the internal structure of the wings. The wing curve is one developed by Dr. Christmas, and is of fairly deep section between the main wing beams, but tapering off sharply aft of the rear beam, and merging into a fiat thin, flexible trailing edge. The effect of the section is to maintain a high angle of incidence as the machine is travelling at low speed, and a low angle as the machine gathers speed, flattening out the wing and presenting very little resistance.
  Upper and lower wings have the same aspect ratio. Upper wing has a thickness of 5 in. Patents are pending on the wing construction, and full details cannot now be given of these features.
  With the wing section used. Dr. Christmas has succeeded in obtaining a 72 per cent, lift on the upper surface, a higher vacuum than found on any other section. Wings are set at an incidence of 3 1/2 degrees.
  As the wings are not braced transversely, flexibility is also obtained in that direction. Puffs of wind or sudden changes of direction, do not sharply affect the machine's progress, for the shock is transmitted only after being partially absorbed by the resiliency of the wings. It would seem that such construction would result in a low factor of safety, but the designer claims a safety factor of seven throughout.
  When at rest on the ground, the wing droops in a negative dihedral of -17 degrees. In flight the wing tips have a range of flexibility of 3 ft.; that is, the wings can assume positive or negative dihedral measuring 18 in. from the horizontal in either direction.
  It has been demonstrated that the wings carry a load no greater than necessary to sustain the machine in flight, and this load is carried regardless of wind puffs or extra strains due to increased wind pressure above or below the wing.
  The principal specifications of the Christmas "Bullet" are as follows :-

Span, upper plane 28 ft.
Span, lower plane 12 ft.
Chord, upper plane 5 ft.
Chord, lower plane 2 ft. 6 in.
Area, upper plane 140 sq. ft.
Area, lower plane 30 sq. ft.
Length overall 21 ft.
Weight, machine empty 1,820 lbs.
Weight, fully loaded 2,100 lbs.
Minimum speed 50-60 m.p.h.
Maximum speed 175 m.p.h.
Cruising radius 550 miles
Ceiling 14,700 ft.

  A Liberty "6" is used, giving 185 h.p. at 1.400 r.p.m.; the machine attains 170 miles at three-quarter throttle. The weight fully loaded is with 50 gallons of gasolene and 5 gallons of oil, sufficient for a sustained flight of three hours.
  The "Bullet" was originally designed as a single seater fighter. The pilot has an unobstructed range of vision, as his eyes are at the level of the upper plane and the lower plane has such a narrow chord that it offers but very little obstruction to vision. Although military necessity does not now demand the adoption of the machine as a fighter, it lends itself admirably to the needs of civilian uses. The planes are readily detachable and are easily set up, as there are no wires to align. When the planes are removed, they can be strapped alongside of the fuselage and the machine then takes up only about one-fifth of the room ordinarily required for storage. The machine can be rigged up ready for flight in 15 minutes.
  All the controls are exceptionally easy in their operation. The tail is flexible, and its efficiency is illustrated by the fact that a 1 in. deflection causes a controlling moment equal to that produced by a rigid flap movement of 4 in.
  The two main tail beams are 1 1/2 in. by 1 3/4 in. laminated spruce. A horizontal V section spruce leading edge is used. The battens are air-seasoned white ash.
  Ackerman spring wheels are used, which cut down resistance and do away with the usual rubber shock absorber cord.
  The principle of radiation is original. Besides the nose radiator of the "Livingston" type, copper mesh screens cover in the sides and top of the fuselage, forward of the wings, and this surface has proven adequate for the Liberty "6." Much of the radiation is thereby effected by skin friction rather than by dead head resistance.
  The propeller was designed by Mr. Caldwell at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio. It has a 10 ft. 6 in. pitch and is 7 ft. in diameter, designed for a speed of 195 miles an hour, which the machine is expected to make with full power.
The Christmas "Bullet": Three-quarter view from front.
THE CHRISTMAS "BULLET." - Details of the fuselage and tail group.
Flight, July 31, 1919.

U.S.A. NAVY F-5-L FLYING BOAT

  THE F-5-L boat seaplane is a twin-motored tractor biplane, having a total flying weight of nearly 7 tons, a cruising radius of 10 1/2 hours as a fighter, or 8 1/2 hours as a bomber. It carries a military load of over 1,400 lb., with a crew of four men. This machine is a formidable engine in naval war craft, and it is so designed that it may be quickly and efficiently made under war conditions.
  In the case of this machine the United States Navy, as did the Army, took a foreign design and modified it to meet American production methods. It is interesting to note, however, that in this particular case the English design had been based upon an American model, the large Curtiss flying-boat - the H 12 - which was the forerunner of both the H-16 and the F-5-L.
  The F-5-L is a somewhat larger machine than either the H-12 or the H-16, and is capable of carrying a greater useful load. It was originally developed at Felixstowe, and the name "F-5" was chosen to denote the English experimental seaplane factory at Felixstowe ("F"), and the model number design in machine ("5"). The United States Navy added the letter "L," indicating that, as built in U.S.A., it is driven by Liberty engines.
  The lines, overall dimensions and main constructional features were worked out in England, and an experimental plane was constructed there. The details with many modifications were worked out at the Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, to correspond to its production methods. The planes were then put into production at that and other factories, such changes from the first drawings being made as they were found necessary by tests.
  Fundamentally the plane is similar to the American Curtiss flying-boats - particularly the H-16 model. But in size and details it is quite different, being larger and better fitted to emergency production. For example, with few exceptions, the fittings are soft sheet steel, cut from flat patterns and bent to shape. This obviated the necessity of dies and drop forgings, which are particularly difficult to obtain under war conditions. The struts, likewise, are uniform sections, that is, not tapered, so that they can be shaped with a minimum of hand labour. Throughout, the parts are such that duplication is easy, production methods possible, and readily available equipment suitable.
  The most noticeable feature in the F-5-L is the degree to which the hull or boat has been streamlined. The hull cover sweeps aft, broken only by the cockpit openings. From an aerodynamic standpoint this is more efficient than the construction of the H-16, where a raised cabin is used. On this model, as on the H-16, the fin edges are continued aft, and join into the lower longeron, giving a much stronger and better streamline form. Another feature in the hull construction that is noteworthy is the use of veneer instead of linen doped and painted on the after hull sides. It was found in practice that the linen failed in heavy seas or on a bad landing, but this failure was obviated by the use of veneer.
  The specifications herewith will give some idea of the size and capacity of this seaplane. It will be noted that the lift, per square foot of surface is from 9.3 to 9.5 lb. per sq. and is somewhat greater than land practice.

Overall span (top plane) 103 ft. 9 1/4 ins.
Overall span (lower plane) 74 ft. 4 ins.
Overall length 49 ft. 3 11/16 ins.
Overall height 18 ft. 9 1/4 ins.
Hull beam 10 ft. 1 1/4 in.
Chord (H-12 curve) 8 ft.
Gap 8 ft. 10 1/2 ins.
Angle of incidence.. 3° 40'
Dihedral 1° 30'
Angle of incidence of tail 2° 30'

  Areas
Top plane
  (including ailerons) 848 sq. ft.
Lower plane 546 sq. ft.
Ailerons (two) 118 sq. ft.
Total of main planes 1,394 sq. ft.
Main plane fins 30 sq. ft.
Gross weight 13,659.5 lb.
Useful load
  (1,405 lb. military load) 5,224 lb.
Loading per sq. ft. 9,5
Power plant Two 330 h.p. Liberties.
Speed range 57-90 m.p.h.
Climb 2,600 ft./10 mins.

  With few exceptions, all large seaplanes have been previously built with unbalanced control surfaces. However, on the F-5-L both the ailerons and rudder are balanced. The purpose is, of course, to increase the controllability of the unit, and in the case of the aileron control the result is as anticipated. Differing from the usual control surface balance construction, the balance on these ailerons is cambered so that it has a positive lift. By this construction the ailerons tend to be more sensitive in their action and to operate with less difficulty and with less balance surface.
  The planing action is increased by the use of vents extending through the hull aft of the rear steps. Although the cabin top over the pilot's cockpit is eliminated, a certain amount of protection is afforded the pilot by small adjustable windshields.
  The whole lay-out of the machine is such that the duties of the crew may be most readily carried out. The observer's cockpit is in the nose of the machine, and from it the widest range of vision is possible. At the bow is mounted the bomb sight, and adjacent to it are the bomb-release pulls, ammunition racks, signal pistols, binoculars, etc. A machine-gun turret is mounted on the scarff-ring of the forward cockpit.
  The pilot's cockpit is just aft the observer's cockpit, and may be readily reached from it when the machine is in operation. The pilots are seated on comfortable seats, hinged on a bulkhead and attached to a transverse tube by means of a snap-catch that may be instantly released. This permits the observer to pass aft at will without disturbing the pilot.
  A wheel control of the dual type is used. It comprises a laminated ash yoke on which are mounted the two aileron wheels connected by an endless chain. An instrument-board, containing tachometers, altimeters, air-speed indicator, oil-pressure indicators, inclinometer, and pilot-directing bomb sight is mounted directly in front of the pilot.
  On the starboard side of the hull are the individual engine switches, ammeters and emergency switches, together with the circuit breakers. The two compasses are mounted at some distance apart, so that they cannot interfere with each other. One is on the deck and the other on the floor. All instruments are self-luminous, but instrument-board lights are provided. The spark controls are at the starboard side of the starboard pilot's seat, but the throttle controls are between the two pilots, so that either may operate them. Fire extinguishers are placed conveniently at each station, those in the pilot's cockpit being attached to the bulkhead beneath the seat. The wireless operator's station is on the starboard side, just aft the pilots. The equipment is mounted on a small veneer table, and used in conjunction with a telescopic mast that is carried in the stern. A celluloid window in the hull side provides necessary light. The mechanics' station is amidships by the petrol tanks and pumps, and their main duty is to see that the plane is "trimmed" by pumping petrol from the tanks alternately; to see that the engines do not overheat, and that all parts function properly. The water and oil thermometer are mounted on the sidewalk beam adjacent to the mechanics' station.
  Aft the mechanics' station, or wing section, is the rear gunner's cockpit. Three guns are accessible from this station, and it also provides a good point of observation or position for aerial photography. All machines are equipped with inter-communicating telephones, the receivers being incorporated in the helmets and connection effected by terminal boxes at each station. It is thus possible for all members of the crew to be in constant communication. In addition to the equipment indicated, the following are some of the miscellaneous items usually carried: tool kits, water buckets, range and running lights, pigeons, emergency rations, drinking water, medicine chest, sea anchor, chart board, mud anchor, anchor rope, heaving lines, signal lamp, binoculars, Very's pistol, ammunition, life jackets, and possibly electric warmers. Included also are the priming cans, drinking cups and usually several personal items. All this is exclusive of the ordnance equipment of bombs, machine guns, etc.
  Considering the size of the machine and the amount of material carried, the performance is quite remarkable. In fact, it compares very favourably with the performance of land planes having the same specifications and not hampered by the heavy boat construction. The time required to get the machine from the water varies with the wind velocity, but with a 15-mile wind and the plane fully loaded, from 30 to 40 sec. is required. The speed at take-off is about 47 knots on the air-speed indicator, and a machine of this design has made a climb of 4,200 ft. in 10 mins. A horizontal speed of from 85 to 90 m-p.h. is attained, but on patrol duty they are generally flown at a more economical speed, such as 70 m.p.h. When geared Libertys were tried out in one of these machines a speed of 102 m.p.h. was attained, but this was a special power-plant equipment. The engine revolutions are about 1,500, though this, of course, varies with the types of propeller used. At full speed the petrol consumption is about 65 galls, per hour, and the oil consumption about 2.6 galls, per hour. By throttling down the engine to 1,350 r.p.m., or to a speed of about 60 knots, the petrol consumption per hour is reduced to 44 galls., the oil consumption remaining the same. This gives a maximum cruising time of 10.6 hours with a light machine, or 8 1/2 hours fully loaded. The cruising time at full speed is 7.3 hours and 5.9 hours respectively.
  The advantages of operating at cruising speed are many, and it is at this speed that the plane is chiefly operated. Among the advantages are increased engine life, greater ease of control, longer cruising radius, less strain on plane parts, and time for more extended observation. When running at full speed, control is not particularly easy, though under normal conditions one pilot can operate the machine without difficulty. However, the reserve control is necessary to lift the machine from the water, and in cases of emergency, though not ordinarily used.
(To be concluded.)


Flight, August 7, 1919.

U.S.A. NAVY F-5-L FLYING BOAT
(Concluded from page 1026)

  THE hull is built up around four longerons, as is a land plane, and has in addition a keel and a planked V-bottom that is flared out to present more landing surface. The flared out portions are called fins, and in this place are an integral part of the hull structure, and are continued aft, and streamline into the hull sides. This is not the case in many previous seaplanes, namely, the H-12 and the HS-1 and 2, where the fins are stopped abruptly about one-third the hull length aft from the bow, and the advantage is increased strength and better streamline form.
  Before entering into a detailed description of the hull construction, it may be well to define some of the terms used. The following defines them roughly, and is the order in which they enter the hull construction :-
  Keelson. - A wide thin plank extending from near the bow to the stern, above the keel.
  Keel. - The bottom-most longitudinal member forming the backbone of the hull.
  Floor Frames. - The transverse planks jointed at right angles to the keelson.
  Longerons. - All longitudinal members extending from the bow to the stern with the exception of the keel.
  Fin Edges. - The two outside longitudinals of the fins.
  Stringers. - The longitudinal strips connecting the floor frames on the bottom and the strips on the fins.
  Bulkheads. - All transverse veneer structures dividing the hull framing.
  Transverse Bracing. - The central structure connecting the hull to the two wing beams extending through the hull.
  The keelsons are 1/2-in. basswood, built in not more than five sections, having a t least a 9-in. scarf at the joints and held together with copper rivets. To this the floor frames, also 1/2-in. basswood, are notched and securely riveted by two corner stringers. Throughout it will be noted that built-up members are used, permitting the use of readily available material.
  White ash is used for keel, longerons, fin edges and the bent ends of the stringers. These two may be built up or spliced, but not more than four sections may be used. The scarfs in the keel must be at least 18 ins. long, and are copper riveted. Formerly a straight scarf was used, as it was considered a better production proposition, but now a stepped scarf is used, as it was found that the time saved in making the straight scarf was lost in assembly.
  Similar methods of splicing are used in the case of the longerons, fin edges and stringers, and here the joints are served and doped. Care is taken in the location of all splices in longitudinal members, so that a number of splices will not occur in any one section, causing a weak section and failure. For example, not more than two longeron splices may appear in any one bay, and these must both appear in either the upper pair - to balance each other. By this method of splicing ash longitudinals, and the careful location of joints, short lengths of ash can be used. And this is important, as airplane ash under any condition is not easy to secure. All ash members are steam bent to assembly shape before assembly on the hull forms. This bending and the splicing of the complete longitudinals are done in a separate part of the shops. Likewise the keelsons and floor frames, stringers, bulkheads, posts, struts, braces, etc., are sub-assembled, and when delivered to the hull erection floor are ready for assembly but with little fitting. This idea is carried out even to the bottom planking, which is delivered in amounts sufficient for one hull. But a detailed description of this sub-assembly is too involved for comment here.
  Throughout the hull construction all parts are tied together by metal fittings - and concerning these metal fittings three points are noteworthy as aiding increased production. The first is a choice of material used. One generally considers the steel entering into airplane construction as being the best possible, and heat-treated to the greatest strength. But fittings on this plane are in general soft or mild carbon steel.
  The reasons for this are that such steel can be procured almost anywhere, is easily worked and welded, and loses little of its strength through abuse in brazing, welding or forming. The second point to be noted in the fittings is that, with few exceptions, they are built up from flat patterns bent and brazed or welded. This eliminates drop forgings, which were so difficult to secure, and permitted production to go ahead without waiting on the construction of dies. The third feature of the fittings is the use of identical fittings in many places. For example, throughout the hull, the junction of the posts and the longerons, the point of attachment of the floor frames to the longerons, and the plates covering the joints of the hull bracing - fittings differed only slightly at the different stations.
  However, originally each similar fitting differed slightly, necessitating a separate template, a separate print, part number, operations, etc., throughout the whole construction. But a study was made, and an "average fitting" produced that would suffice for several similar stations. The fact that such fittings did not exactly fit anywhere, or had lugs that were not needed in other places, amounted to less than they saved time in production. And they were structurally as good.
  A further difference in the construction of this hull and that of similar hulls of its predecessors is to be noted. On previous models, riblets were used to connect the keel with the fin edge stringers. These riblets were about 1/2 in. by 1/2 in. ash, spaced at distances varying from 9 to 15 ins. transversely across the boat bottom. To bring their bottom surface flush with the stringers, lower longerons and fin edges, it was necessary to notch keel, stringers, longerons and fin edges that they might be set in. And it was a slow, tedious job. On this unit, the riblets are omitted, though several ash-tie strips are used to connect the keel with the fin edges. It is considered that these, together with the planking, provide transverse strength in abundance. Another feature in the construction is the extensive use of steel tubing as struts and posts in the body bracing. This is particularly noticeable in the tail, where the parts are under no great strain, and are not used for the attachment of other parts. Steel tubing is readily procured, and ready for use by simply cutting to length.
  The central or transversal bracing unit is a complete unit in itself, and is set up as a separate assembly previous to installation in the hull. This differs from the usual construction and permits the use of templates to assure accuracy. The transverse bracing connects the hull to the wings and the hull may be said to be built around this unit. By making all transverse bracings identical, any set of F-5-L wings, engine mountings, etc., may be more readily installed. It is also to be noted that the wing spars passing through the hull are spliced at the centre. These spars, styled the sidewalk spars, as they carry a short veneer covered wing section at each side of the hull that is used as a sidewalk for the mechanics to reach the engine, may be removed when the hull is packed for shipment, permitting the use of a much smaller shipping crate.
  The bottom planking comprises an inner and an outer skin, each of 7/32-in. cedar. The inner skin is placed at right angles to the keel, differing from usual practice wherein both layers are at an acute angle to the keel. As riblets are eliminated, the right-angled inner planking tends to replace them as strength members. This inner planking is either Port Oxford or Spanish cedar in random widths of from 4 to 10 ins. The outer planking is placed at an angle of 45 deg. to the keel, the acute angle being on the aft side. All pieces are from 4 to 5 ins. wide, Spanish cedar, and are screwed to all longitudinals. The two layers of planking are secured together by brass clinch nails. Courtrai, a special fabric, is laid in marine glue between the two layers of planking, and is used extensively in rendering all joints tight. All planking is laid with a slight clearance to allow a go-and-come resulting from moisture changes.
  The bottom steps are secured in place after the hull is planked. They are two layers of 7/32-in. mahogany planking, fabric and marine glue between, screwed and clinch-nailed together, and secured to the hull bottom by copper rivets, being separated from it by triangular ash strips. The forward ends of these steps are scarfed and set into the hull planking, a thick brass strip being set in flush over the joint. For the rest of the hull 1/8-in. three-ply waterproof veneer is used.
  The top plane is built up in five sections, comprising a centre section of 13 ft. 6 ins. span (108 sq. ft.), two intermediate, 27 ft. span (216 sq. ft. each), and two outer extensions, 15 ft. 11 ins. span (95 sq. ft. each). The lower plane is in four sections, consisting of two centre sections (or sidewalks) mounted one on each side of the hull, giving the same overall span as the top centre section and having a combined area of 66 sq. ft. The balance of the lower surface consists of port and starboard wings, 30 ft. 5 ins. span (240 sq. ft.) each. Vertical "non-skid" fins are mounted above the top planes at each outermost interplane strut.
  An extended technical description of the panel, strut and tail construction could be expanded to many volumes. But the outstanding features of these are laminated spars, simple strap type wing and strut fittings and laminated uniform section struts.
  At one time laminated or spliced spars were not in favour, but the shortage of long spruce necessitated the use of laminated and spliced spars, and it is found that the laminated spar is better than the unlaminated one. Outside of the economy of material, the ease of drying pieces of small cross section and the resulting dependability of built-up spars more than off-sets any additional expense in manufacturing. Two types of laminated spars are used - the two-piece and the three-piece. The former is simply two pieces placed back to back, and glued together. The two halves are of equal thickness, and are lightened as was the solid spar except at splice positions. Scarfed splices are used, and staggered in the two halves. The two-piece is used in the following places: all front spars (except engine section), horizontal stabiliser spars, and rear aileron spars. The three-piece spar comprises a thin piece sandwiched between two thicker outside pieces, glued together, and lightened similar to the solid spar, except at splices. This construction is used in the sidewalk and engine section, or for rear spars. Of the two types, the two-piece is considered stronger, and hence the above distinction of their use.
  The idea of using strap fittings and the elimination of forgings and machined fittings extends to the strut and wing fittings. Here also mild carbon steel is used, cut from flat patterns and bent to shape. The base wing fitting is a U-strap, bent around and bolted to the spar. From it lugs are bent for interwing wiring, and the interplane side has a cloverleaf extension for the attachment of the struts and wire terminals. These are reinforced by washer plates to provide bearing for the bolts. Roughly, the spars are secured to the strut ends by a bolt passing through the central clover leaf and the strut end, and the usual strut socket is eliminated. In detail, the strut end is squared down, drilled to mate with the central cloverleaf hole, and a steel tube fitted in the end to give greater bearing and prevent the strut end from being crushed when the through-bolt is tightened. The through-bolt has a standard eye head, permitting the attachment for the drift and anti-drift wires, where a single wire is used. When double drift wires are used, the through-bolts holding the flying and landing wire clevises are made with an eye. Bearing for the strut ends on the spar is secured by means of a thin bearing plate between the strut and the spar.
  It was observed that considerable time was lost in shaping the tapered streamline section struts, and furthermore, these being in two-piece construction, required thick material that was difficult to obtain. Hence, a three-piece uniform section strut was chosen. As stated, this strut is three-piece, and all the lightening is done in the central portion. In the rough it is a flat board, the length and width of the strut, with a series of oval holes cut out of the central portion on a vertical spindle shaper. The cheek pieces are then glued on each side, and the strut rough-machine planed to a streamline section. It is then finished to the desired section by hand.
  Two Liberty engines comprise the power plant. These engines are identical with the engines used by the Army, with the exception of the pistons, which pistons are given more clearance, so that the compression pressure is reduced. The result is a slight reduction in maximum horse-power, but greater engine life. This is advantageous because in seaplane service long patrols place a premium on dependability and a seaplane does not habitually frequent high altitudes or require the maximum available horse-power.
  In the main, the engine mounting differs only slightly from the mounting of the Liberty engines in the Curtiss H-12 and H-16 seaplanes. Horizontal laminated engine bearers are carried on wooden V-struts over each main wing hinge fitting, and are attached to the upper panel by tubular A-struts. The radiator is carried on a bracket at the front, and the oil supply in streamlined tanks at each side of the bearers. However, in details, the F-5-L mounting is simplified and made a better production-proposition. The first step was the elimination of drop forgings. Strap fittings built up and brazed together are used for attachment of bearers to V-braces, and the upper attachment of the A-brace to the engine section is also a strap fitting. This attachment is strong and simple. The ends of the tube are first fitted with a tubular sleeve, and then formed to a U-section. In addition to the simplicity of construction, this end is extremely rigid. The A-braces are attached to the spar fitting through a universal joint bearing plate. This is also a built-up fitting. The forward A-brace is bowed to clear the engine cylinders, and the halves are tied together by a cross-tube and through bolt. This brace must be removed before the engine can be taken from the plane, and the removable cross-tube and through bolt permit this to be done. Differing from previous construction, the engine bearers are carried forward so that a straight radiator bracket may be used. Previously, the bearers were cut off by the front engine flange and arched brackets used. However, the straight bracket is simpler to construct, and is possible, on Liberty installations.
  In an installation of this nature, it is, of course, impossible to start the engines by hand cranking on the propeller. For this reason a rear hand starter, comprising a reduction gear and clutch engaging the crankshaft is used. One man can readily turn the engine over, though two are generally used. As stated, the oil tanks are streamlined, cylindrical, and mounted at each side of the engine bearers. The total capacity per engine is 17 galls., and the two tanks are connected by a manifold, the division simply being constructional. In later planes the side oil tanks are being superseded by one streamlined tank mounted between the engine-bearers and behind the engines. Tins serves to clean the installation up to a marked extent. A long-distance thermometer bulb is installed in the oil return line, and the gauge is mounted in the mechanics' compartment by the tanks. The oil-pressure gauge is installed on the pilots' instrument-board. A water thermometer gauge likewise is in the mechanics' cockpit. This location of the thermometers is because engine temperatures are of enough importance to demand quite frequent attention.
  The petrol supply is carried in five tanks placed amidships in the hull. There are two large cylindrical vertical tanks, one fore and aft horizontal tank, and two transverse horizontal tanks. The latter two were originally consolidated, but the single tank could not be removed without taking the plane to pieces. All have a total capacity of approximately 498 galls. As these tanks are below carburetor level, a header or gravity tank is necessary. This is located in the upper wing, between the two engines, and carries about 20 galls. The petrol is pumped from the hull by a double-barrelled windmill pump, and forced into the gravity tank sump. From the sump leads are taken to the two engines, and the surplus over this amount flows through small holes in the sump sides into the gravity tank. When the gravity tank becomes full, an overflow pipe carries the excess back through a sight box into one of the tanks. This overflow serves to show the mechanic that petrol is being pumped, and that the gravity tank is full. The construction of the gravity sump is noteworthy. It will be noted that the base of the sump is somewhat below the bottom of the tank, and that the two are only connected through small holes at the sump sides. Hence if the gravity tank be shot away, the supply of petrol pumped may be shut down to the amount used, with the base of the sump alone serving as a header tank. A semi-rotary hand pump is used to fill the gravity tank when the windmill pumps are inoperative. This pump is an English design, and a similar pump is also used for bilge water.
  The leads from all the supply tanks are consolidated into one manifold, and by regulating the valves petrol may be pumped from any tank into the gravity tank. However, it all returns into the starboard forward vertical tank, and in flight petrol is pumped alternately from this tank and each of the other tanks in rotation. It is necessary to pump from the tanks in rotation in order to trim ship, and a separate manifold would be necessary to return the overflow petrol to any tank. It is to be noted that the manifold incorporates a filler-valve piped to a union at the hull sides. This serves for the attachment of a pipe-line from a supply boat or tank that the seaplane tanks may be filled by petrol under pressure. Though this method of filling is not much used, it is stated all the tanks may be filled thus in a few minutes, whereas the funnel and measure method takes from a half to one hour.
  There are few other points of interest in the petrol system, standard sumps being used to prevent water and dirt from reaching the engine and dial gauges being used on the tanks to show the gasoline supply at hand. Throughout the system all pipe-line connections are through olive joints, and the features here are ease of connection, flexibility, and the fact that full flow of petrol is permitted. As an aid to starting, a small hand primer permits raw petrol to be pumped into the intake manifold.
  The outstanding features of the flying controls are the laminated-yoke dual elevator and aileron control mounting, and the adjustable rudder bar installation. The yoke itself is built-up of 1/8-in, laminations of ash, glued and riveted together, making a strong and light construction. Each end is extended to form the elevator throw, and the aileron control wheels arc mounted on brackets at the top. These wheels are connected by an endless chain, from the middle of the lower part of which are taken the aileron control wires. The cross-tube is integral with the yoke, and the whole swings on bearings at the hull sides. In addition to lightness of construction, rigidity, and simplicity of wiring, this control affords a maximum amount of room for passing from the front to the rear cockpit, and does not interfere with the legs of the pilots as does a post-type control.
  Originally, adjustment of the distance between the pilot and the rudder-bars was effected by shifting the seat. But this also brought the control wheel closer, and the installation was complicated. Adjustment on this plane is effected by shifting the rudder-bar bodily fore and aft the required amount. The rudder-bar is carried between two straps that are supported on a tubular framework in front of the pilots. These straps have a series of holes, and the rudder-bar may be set to swing on a pin passed through any one of these. A similar adjustment permits the outer end of the bar to be set properly in connection with the rudder-cable. As these pins are set in place by a small brass cotter, any desired setting can be made quickly.
  Under severe flying conditions, or in the case of tail or nose heaviness, it is sometimes necessary for the pilot to exert a continuous pressure on the controls. On the elevator or rudder controls, this continuous pressure may be applied at will, in any desired amount through rubber cords, called "bungies." The complete bungy is simply two pieces of rubber cable, connected by a small chain, and having both ends secured to the hull sides. The chain passes adjacent to the control it governs, and is hooked to it at will with a snap-hook. The pressure is applied to the control by extending the rubber cable before the attachment of the chain. All control cables are carried on brass ball-bearing sheaves, and the sheave-housings are fitted with guards to prevent the cables from coming off. With the exception of the point where the aileron cables pass through the upper wing, all control cables are open to inspection.


Aeromarine

  In the Philadelphia Navy Yard were stored considerable numbers of F-5-L flying boats for which the Navy had no immediate need. 20 of these flying boats were offered for auction on 22 September 1919. Paul G. Zimmerman of the Aeromarine Plane and Motor Co was of the opinion that their sale at the low price would flood the market. He put forward a scheme whereby they would be given to cities and municipalities who would operate these after conversion to civilian passenger carriers by members of the Manufacturers Aircraft Association. Hunsaker replied that while he had read the proposal with “considerable interest” he was of the opinion that it would take an act of Congress to allow for the disposal of the boats in the manner presented by Zimmerman. This scheme came to nothing.
  In March 1920, Zimmerman again wrote to Hunsaker. He stated that the company was just working on their first conversion of an F-5-L into a commercial machine. This was purchased for around $6,500. Five machines were contemplated for conversion. “We are satisfied that as soon as the first machine is flown much publicity will be given to it and from this publicity inquiries will result.” Zimmerman wanted a full set, some 2,000 drawings for the F-5-L. In reply to this request, the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts noted that six F-5-L machines had recently been sold at a price of $10,850 each and it was understood, unofficially, that Aeromarine would modify the aircraft. The Bureau thought that Aeromarine should pay for the drawings. What the result was is not known, however about eleven F-5-L boats were converted by Aeromarine Plane and Motor Co to a passenger configuration. Given the designation Aeromarine 75 they were capable of carrying ten passengers. The aircraft were operated by the company’s own airlines: Aeromarine Airways and Aeromarine West Indies Airways, flying from Key West to Havana; New York to Atlantic City, and Cleveland to Detroit. They are credited with carrying the first international air mail from the USA.
  Aeromarine literature stated that this
  Aeromarine aerial cruiser, which has ample accommodation for ten passengers, exclusive of pilot and pilot’s mechanician, has been designed for aerial voyages from New York to Asbury Park Atlantic City, Norfolk, Washington, Baltimore, Southampton, New Haven, New London, Newport, Miami and other points on the Atlantic.
  The trip would be made “in appointments that even the custom-built creations of the Automobile world, this new Aeromarine cruiser has a comfort all its own.”
  The “Aircraft Yearbook” for 1921 listed two F-5-L Cruisers with Aeromarine Sightseeing & Navigation Company (merged with Aeromarine West Indies Airways Inc), and six F-5-L Cruisers with Aeromarine West Indies Airways Inc. In the 1924 edition it lists five F-5-L thirteen-passenger craft with Aeromarine Airways Corp.
  In February 1921 the Bureau of C&R recommended the sale of two F-5 flying boats to the Aeromarine Plane and Motor Co. They were to be delivered as is and not removed from their crates for overhaul. If any surfaces required covering, this was to be furnished separately.
  Aeromarine Airways lasted until 1924 when it ceased operations. The full story of his pioneer airline may be found in “Aeromarine Airways - Its Aircraft and History,” by D Koch, in Skyways, the Journal of the Airplane 1920-1940, No.52, Oct 1999.
The F-5-L flying-boat in flight
Detail view of the F-5-L flying-boat, showing the engines and rear "cabin"
Three views showing the construction of the hull of the F-5-L flying-boat
The petrol tanks and windmill pumps on the F-5-L flying-boat, which are located in the centre of the hull
View of the pilot's and wireless operator's quarters on the F-5-L flying-boat
Diagrams of the fuel installation on the F-5-L flying-boat
THE U.S.A. NAVY F-5-L FLYING-BOAT. - Drawings of the hull.
THE U.S.A. NAVY F-5-L FLYING-BOAT. Plan, front and side elevations to scale
Flight, December 4, 1919.

THE U.S. NAVY HS-1L AND HS-2L FLYING-BOATS

  A VERY successful type of flying-boat for coastal patrol work was put into quantity production by the United States Navy during the War, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation and the Standard Aero Corporation turning out most of the machines between them. There are two models of this flying-boat, the HS-1L and the HS-2L, but the only difference between them is that the latter model is 12 ft. greater in span than the 1L, and has a larger rudder. Apart from this and minor details, therefore, both models are identical, so that the following description and illustrations of the HS-2L apply equally to the other model. The additional wing surface of the HS-2L is obtained by inserting a 6-ft. panel between each outer extension and the centre section. All the other parts - except, of course, the rudder - required to convert the 1L to the 2L are duplicates of other parts already on the former model, and the following is a list of the parts and alterations required in converting the 1L to 2L:- (1) Four 6-ft. panels, complete with hinges, and standard HS-1L wing-post fittings. (2) Upper centre section panel, with unrouted spars. [These are routed in the 1L.] (3) Front centre section lift wires changed from two 3/16-in. to two 1/4-in. non-flexible cable, and rear lift wires from two 3/16-in. to two 7/32-in. non-flexible cable. (4) Two 7-ft. front interplane struts 2 5/8 by 6 5/8 ins., and two 7-ft. rear 2 3/16 by 5 1/2 ins. (5) Four 1/8-in. stagger wires, with turnbuckles and end connections. (6) Larger size rudder, having 26.5 sq. ft. area instead of 19.6 sq. ft. (7) Aileron control cables lengthened.
  The main planes, which have neither stagger nor sweepback, have the R.A.F. No. 6 wing section, and comprise a centre or engine section, the lower panels of which being divided by the hull and attached to small "sidewalk" panels built integral with the hull; 24 ft. outer extensions, which in the case of the L1 are mounted direct to the centre section; and, in the L2, 6 ft. intermediate sections. The centre section surfaces are "straight," but the outer sections are set at a dihedral angle of 2°. Balanced ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower planes, the upper ailerons having a maximum chord of 2 ft. 2 ins., and span of 17 ft. 8 1/2 ins., whilst the lower ones have a maximum chord of 1 ft. 10 ins. and a span of 12 ft. 9 ins. The main spars are spaced 4 ft. apart, the front spar being located 9 ins. from the leading edge. The fabric is sewn to the wings with the seams laid diagonally or normal to the leading edge. It is doped with two coats of cellulose acetate, two to four coats of cellulose nitrate, two coats of anti-actinic grey wing enamel on the top and vertical surfaces, and one coat of the latter on the under surfaces. All the strut fittings are of steel stampings and forgings, the main spars are of spruce, and the trailing edges of flattened steel tubing. The compression ribs are of solid pine, and the intermediate ribs of lightened pine. The tail is of the non-lifting type, mounted high up on the stern above the fin. The elevators are divided and unbalanced, whilst the rudder is balanced.
  The hull is similar in form and construction to the other flying boats of the H-12 and F-5L type. It has an overall length of 34 ft. 5 ins., a width of 4 ft. for the main body and 8 ft. across the planing fins. The planking is of pine or cedar, made up of 3/16 -in. outer layer and 5/32-in. inner layer, with fabric in between. The frames, keel and stern post are of ash, whilst the keelson, deck stringers and floors are of pine or cedar. The chine stringers are also of pine, or Port Orford cedar, and the seam strips are Spanish cedar. The bulkheads are of three-ply waterproof veneer. The hull itself is finished with low visibility grey wing enamel, and all metal parts are enamelled.
  The power plant consists of a single twelve-cylindered, low-compression Navy type Liberty, developing 330 h.p. at 1,700 r.p.m., and driving a four-bladed pusher screw. The engine is carried on laminated ash-spruce-ash bearers mounted above the hull on streamlined steel tubing, braced with non-flexible tension cables. The main fuel tanks, having a capacity of from n o to 125 galls., are located in the hull at the centre of gravity, a gravity tank of about 30 galls, capacity being mounted on the top plane centre-section.
  Dual control is fitted, consisting of an inverted U ash frame equipped with two 16-in. hand-control (aileron) wheels. The rudder-bars are of ash, mounted on bronze blocks. The throttle and ignition levers are located in the cockpit, on a diagonal bridge between the two seats.
  All bracing cables are galvanised, non-flexible. The centre-section and intermediate cables in the 1L are 3/16- in., the outer cables being 5/32 in. All flying cables are doubled The following is a general specification of the HS-1L, and, in.brackets, HS-2L :-

Span, upper 62 ft. 0 ins. (74 ft 0 ins.)
Span, lower 52 ft. 1 5/8 in. (64 ft. 1 5/8 in.)
Chord 6 ft. 3 ins.
Gap 7 ft. 6 ins.
Overall length 38 ft. 6 ins.
Height 14 ft. 4 1/4 ins.
Angle of incidence, upper 5 1/2 #
Angle of incidence, lower 4#
Dihedral 2#
Area, main planes
  Upper 307 sq. ft. (380 sq. ft.)
  Lower 241 sq. ft. (315 sq. ft.)
Ailerons 105 sq. ft.
Total surface 653 sq. ft. (800 sq. ft.)
Area of tail plane 54.8 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 45.6 sq. ft.
Area of fin 19.6 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 19.6 sq. ft. (26.5 sq. ft.)
Area of non-skid 16 sq. ft.
Weights, 1L -
  Hull (including sockage) 1,265 lbs.
  Wings, tail, bracing, etc.1,400 lbs.
  Engine and equipment 1,336 lbs.
  Ordnance equipment 560 lbs.
  Electrical equipment 53 lbs.
  Navigation equipment 32 lbs.
  Crew and fuel 1,090 lbs.
  Accessories 52 lbs.
  Miscellaneous 112 lbs.
  Total weight 5,900 lbs.
Total weight, HS-2L 6,223 lbs.
Useful load, HS-2L 1,864 lbs.
Loading per sq. ft. 9.03 (7.77)
Loading per h.p. 17.9 (18.85)
Maximum speed 91 m.p.h.
Minimum speed 53 m.p.h. (55 m.p.h.)
Climb, 500 f t / 3 mins. (1,800 ft./10 mins.)
Three-quarter front view of the U.S. Navy HS-2L flying-boat
Side view of the U.S. Navy HS-2L flying-boat
THE U.S. NAVY HS-2L FLYING-BOAT: Plan, side and front elevations to scale
Flight, May 29, 1919.

THE CURTISS MODEL 18-T TRIPLANE

  WE are able to give this week further particulars, with scale drawings (for which we are indebted to our American contemporary, Aerial Age), of the Curtiss 18-T triplane. Special attention to streamlining has resulted in the production of a machine which is not only pleasing to the eye, but is, at the same time, mechanically and aerodynamically efficient. The fuselage presents an almost continuous contour, whilst the tail units are so formed that they appear as natural and expected extensions of the body, the engine cowling and exhaust manifolds completing the unity of the design. The machine is designed around the Curtiss K-12 400 h.p. engine (12-cyl. "V"), and the tractor screw is practically centred on the engine and fuselage by the location of the reduction gears integral with the engine. The tractor screw is either two or four-bladed, and is supplied according to requirements of performance. Standard instrument equipment includes a tachometer, oil gauge, petrol gauge, and complete set of tools.
  The main planes of this machine are of equal span and chord, but it will be noticed that gap between the middle and lower planes is slightly less than that between the middle and upper ones. They are braced by one pair of interplane struts a side, and the usual flying, landing, and incidence wires. The top plane is attached to a small centre section supported on the fuselage by four struts sloping outwards, whilst the middle and lower planes are attached to the top and bottom longerons of the fuselage respectively. The following are the main characteristics of the Curtiss 18-T :-

General Dimensions

Wing span (all three planes) 31 ft. 11 in.
Chord (all three planes) 3 ft. 6 in.
Gap between upper and middle 3 ft. 6 in.
Gap between lower and middle 2 ft. 11 9/16 in.
Overall length 23 ft. 3 3/16 in.
Overall height 9 ft. 10 3/8 in.
Angle of incidence, mainplanes 2 1/2 deg.
Angle of incidence, tail plane 5 deg.
Wing section Sloan.

Areas (sq. ft.)

Upper plane 112
Middle plane
  (minus ailerons) 87.71
Lower plane
  (minus ailerons) 87.71
Ailerons (four) 21.58
Tail plane 14.3
Elevators (two) 5
Rudder 13.02
Total supporting 8.66
  surface 309

Loading and Weights (lbs.)

Weight per sq. ft. 9.4
Weight per rated
  horsepower 7.25
Weight of machine, empty 1,825
Weight of machine, loaded 2,901
Weight of fuel (67 gals.) 400
Weight of oil (6 gals.) 45
Weight of pilot and passenger 330
Useful load 301
Total useful load 1,076

Performance

Speed range (m.p.h.) 58-163
Climb 15,000 ft. 10 mins.
Maximum range at economic
  speed 550 miles.

Power Unit

Curtiss (K-12) 12-cyl. "V" watercooled,
  4 1/2 in. by 6 in.
H.P. at 2,500 r.p.m. 400
Weight without fuel and oil 680 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 1.7 lb.
Fuel consumption per hour 36.7 gals.
Fuel consumption per b.h.p. 0.55 lb.
Oil consumption per b.h.p. 0.03 lb.


  
Flight, July 10, 1919.

THE CURTISS MODEL 18-B BIPLANE

  AFTER the successful trials of the Curtiss Model 18-T Triplane (described in FLIGHT, May 29 last), the two-seater 18-B Biplane was brought out by the Curtiss Engineering Corp. This machine is built around the same fuselage and power plant as the triplane, but having a lesser overall height the gunner has a wider arc of fire. The housing of the engine is particularly neat, it being entirely encased by cowling with the streamlined exhaust stacks projecting upwards. The cowling around the engine is removable, giving access or adjustment and repair.
  As in the triplane, all interplane bracing cables are of true streamline section, and where cables cross one another they are clamped by streamlined blocks.
  A peculiarity of this machine is in the employment of ailerons on the lower plane only. These ailerons are operated by steel tubes running through the lower plane and directly connected to the control column. This arrangement eliminates entirely all outside control cables and rigging. Rudders and elevators are operated by levers enclosed in the fuselage termination, thereby doing away with all outside control cables. There are no external braces for the stabilizer or fin.
  The main planes are rectangular in plan form, and have no dihedral or sweepback. They are built up in five sections, three for the top and two for the lower. The centre section over the body is 2 ft. 6 ins. wide, and the outer sections of both top and bottom planes are 17 ft. 5 7/8 ins. span. As indicated in the accompanying scale drawings, the ribs are spaced about 6 ins. apart, and instead of the usual two main spars, the Curtiss 18-B employs five - the idea being to more evenly distribute the loading on them.
  The chord of the upper plane is 4 ft. 6 ins., and the front main wing spar is located 9 ins. from the leading edge, the fourth spar, which carries the rear body and interplane struts, being 2 ft. 9 ins, from the leading edge. The chord of the lower plane is 4 it., and its forward main spar is similarly placed 9 ins. from the leading edge, the other spars being spaced 7 5/16 ins. apart.
  The ailerons on the lower plane have a very high aspect ratio, being 13 ft. 5 1/16 ins. in length and 10 3/4 ins. chord. The intermediate interplane struts are centred 6 ft. 1 1/2 ins. from the body struts, the outer interplane struts being 7 ft . 8 1/2 ins. from former, leaving an overhang of 3 ft. 7 7/8 ins.
  The fuselage is of monocoque construction, finely streamlined, and 21 ft. in length. The pilot's cockpit is just below the trailing edge of the top plane, and aft of the pilot is the gunner's compartment so arranged that a wide range of fire is provided for the two Lewis machine guns, one of which is located on a rotatable scarff ring surrounding the cockpit, and the other fires through an opening in the underside of the fuselage.
  The landing gear is of the V-type, and is similar to that on the 18-T Triplane. The track of the wheels is 4 ft. 11 1/8 ins., the wheels themselves being 2 ft. 2 ins. diameter. The axle is located 3 ft. 8 3/4 ins. from the nose of the fuselage, and 4 ft. 1 1/2 ins. below the line of thrust. With the machine in flying position, the centre of gravity of the machine occurs at a point 1 ft. 4.6 ins. behind the axle. When at rest on the ground, a straight line from the wheels to the tail skid makes an angle of 11° 15' with the centre line.
  The tail consists of a small divided horizontal stabilizer with elevator flaps hinged to the trailing edges, a triangular vertical fin (3 ft. by 3 ft. 6 ins.) and an unbalanced rudder (3 ft. 10 ins. by 2 ft. 7 11/16 ins.).
  The engine is a Curtiss model K-12 12-cylinder V-type, with cylinders cast en bloc. Aluminium is used extensively in its construction. The bore and stroke is 4 1/2 ins. and 6 ins. respectively, and the rated horse power at 2,500 r.p.m. is 400. Ignition is by two high-tension double spark "six-cylinder" magnetos, located at the forward end of the engine, and driven through flexible couplings by beveled gears from a vertical shaft. Two Duplex carburettors are used, located between the groups of cylinders. They are supplied with an auxiliary altitude hand-controlled air valve, and also with non-back-firing screen.
  Without oil or water, the engine weighs 680 lbs.; the deadweight per rated horse power being 1.7 lbs. The petrol consumption is at the rate of .55 lbs. per brake horse power per hour, and the oil, .03 lbs. per brake horse power per hour.
  The tractor screw is 9 ft. in diameter, and when the machine is in flying position, the tips clear the ground by 8 1/2 ins.
  The general specifications of the 18-B biplane are as follows :-

Span, top and bottom planes 37 ft. 5 3/4 ins
Overall length 23 ft. 4 ins.
Overall height 8 ft. 10 1/2 ins
Chord, top plane 4 ft. 6 ins.
Chord, bottom plane 4 ft.
Gap 5 ft .
Stagger 1 ft. 4 1/2 ins
Weight, fully loaded 3,001 lbs.
Useful load 1,013 lbs.

  Performance
Service ceiling 22,000 ft.
Maximum ceiling 23,000 ft.
Climb in 10 minutes 12,500 ft.
Climb in 10 minutes
   (light load) 16,000 ft.

   Sea 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
   Level. ft. ft. ft. ft.
High speed (m.p.h.) 160.5 158.5 157.5 155 152
Low speed (m.p.h.) 59 68.2 73.6 79.8 86
Economical (m.p.h.) 80 85 92 100 118
Rate of climb
  (ft. per minute) 2,390 1,690 1,040 580 210
Time of climb 0 2.5 6.3 12.9 27

Endurance (high speed) 283 miles 1.75 hours
Endurance (economical speed) 536 '' 6.7 ''
Three-quarter rear view of the Curtiss model 18-T triplane
Front view of the Curtiss model 18-T triplane
Side view of the Curtiss model 18-T Triplane
Three-quarter front view of the Curtiss 18-B biplane.
Side view of the Curtiss 18-B biplane.
THE CURTISS MODEL 18-T TRIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
THE CURTISS MODEL 18-B BIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
Flight, May 15, 1919.

THE U.S. NAVY FLYING-BOAT, N.C. 1

  THE machines representing America (non-competitive) in the Atlantic flight are the U.S. Navy flying-boats of the N.C. (Navy Curtiss) type, built by the Curtiss Engineering Corporation, to the designs supplied by the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the Navy Department. Three of these machines N.C.-1, N.C.-2 and N.C.-3 are, we believe, all of similar type, whilst the fourth machine, N.C.-4, differs in having four engines instead of three. The following illustrations and description of the original N.C.-1 type flying-boat should, therefore, be of general interest just now, this particular type differing from the Atlantic machines only in a few modifications rendered necessary by the requirements for the long-distance flight. Certain alterations in the arrangement of the engines have, we understand, been made in one or more of the Atlantic machines, such as the location of two screws as tractors and the third as a pusher.
  As will be seen the N.C.-1 is a flying-boat of the short-hull type, with the tail planes carried from the hull and top main planes by means of outriggers. The hull is 44 ft. 8 3/4 ins. overall length, with a maximum beam across the side-fins of about 10 ft. It has a single step 27 ft. 8 3/4 ins. from the nose, and a V bottom. The main planes are built up in seven sections, three (two outer extensions and one centre section) in the top, and four (two outer extensions and two centre sections) in the bottom. The spans of the outer sections are 44 ft. 4 ins. and 35 ft. 4 ins. for the top and bottom planes respectively. The top plane centre section is 25 ft. 4 in. span, and each lower plane centre section mounted on either side of the hull is 10 ft. 8 in. span. The outer extensions of the lower plane have a 3 deg. dihedral, all other plane sections being "flat." The angle of incidence is 3 deg. top and bottom. Midway between the top and bottom planes are located the three engine nacelles, each supported by two pairs of interplane struts. The central nacelle, which is larger than the other two, contains the pilot's cockpit and control. Each of the outer engine nacelles are situated 11 ft. from the centre of the machine, and two pairs of interplane struts, located respectively 26 ft. 11 in. and 41 ft. 6 in. from the centre separate the top and bottom planes of the outer extensions. The overhang of the top plane is 15 ft. 6 in., and that of the lower plane 6 ft. 6 in. Balanced ailerons are fitted to the top planes only. Cockpits for the crew are provided in the nose and the centre of the hull.
  The tail is of the biplane type, carried on three hollow spruce outriggers, braced by wire cable and struts. There are three rudders mounted between the tail planes, one of which, in the centre, is balanced, and the other two being hinged to vertical panels at each outer extremity of the tail. One-piece balanced elevators are fitted to both top and bottom tail planes. The gap of the tail is 9 ft. 3 in., and the overall span of the upper and lower planes is 37 ft. 11 in. and 26 ft., respectively.
  The engines are of the Liberty, low compression, Navy type, developing about 350 h.p. each. The gross weight of this particular type of machine is 21,560 lb., the useful load being 7,750 lb. The speed range is about 81 to 61 m.p.h., and climb 2,000 ft. in 10 min. It was one of these machines that, in November last, carried 45 passengers in addition to a crew of five at Rockaway, N.Y., and also flew from New York to Washington with a crew of five and ten passengers.

  

Flight, June 5, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT

  IN our last issue we were able to record briefly the arrival of the N.C. 4 at Lisbon, and on Saturday last she arrived at Plymouth and was given a real British welcome. She left Lisbon on May 30 at 5.29 a.m. Greenwich time, but had to ome down at the Mondego River at 7 a.m. owing to trouble with one of the engines. At 1.38 p.m. a re-start was made, and Ferrol, 340 miles from Lisbon, was reached at 4.47 p.m.; it was then decided to stay for the night. At 6.27 the next morning, although the weather was thick and squally, Commander Read resolved to go on and Ferrol was left at 6.27 a.m. Only two destroyers were sighted, and at 11 o'clock the machine was over Brest, and met a head wind across the Channel. Plymouth was sighted at twelve minutes past one, and the N.C. 4 missed the three F. 2A flying-boats which had been sent out by the R.A.F. to meet them. The N.C. 4 crossed the breakwater at an altitude of about 15,000 ft., circled round Drake's Island, made a spiral descent opposite the Citadel, and settled on the water at 1.26 p.m., being greeted by a storm of cheering and the sounding of every siren and whistle within range. As soon as the machine was moored the officers and crew of the N.C. 4 were taken off by an American pinnace to the U.S. flagship Rochester, where they met Rear-Admiral Plunkett of the U.S. Navy, and the officers and crews of the N.C. 1 and N.C. 3, and a number of British Naval and Air Force officers. They were welcomed to England by the Mayor and Corporation of Plymouth; later in the afternoon, when they went ashore, they were led in procession to the Grand Hotel, where Admiral Cecil Thursby welcomed the men of the N.C. 4 on behalf of the Navy, and Col. Shepherd on behalf of the Air Force.
  The King, immediately he heard of the N.C. 4's arrival, sent an Equerry to the United States Ambassador to ask him to convey His Majesty's hearty congratulations to Commander Read and his companions, and to the United States Navy on the accomplishment of the flight.
  Besides Commander Read, the men on board the N.C. 4 were: Lieut. E. F. Stone (pilot), Lieut. Walter Hinton, U.S.N. (pilot), Ensign H. C. Rodd (wireless operator), Lieut. J. L. Breese, U.S.N. Reserve Force; and Chief Mechanics' Mate E. S. Rhoads, U.S.N.
  On Sunday afternoon Commander Read and the other officers and men of the N.C. 4 came to London, and although very few people knew they were arriving, a large crowd quickly gathered at Paddington Station, and gave them a most rousing reception. Mr. Hawker being the first to greet Commander Read when he stepped from the train. The crowd insisted on chairing Commander Read and Mr. Hawker, and then they were taken from the station to the Royal Aero Club, afterwards proceeding to Hendon as explained elsewhere.
  At Lisbon the aviators were decorated by the Portuguese Minister of Marine with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.
The great American Curtiss flying boat, which has a capacity for carrying fifty passengers, and which was designed as a submarine chaser, on the slip-ways, ready to start. It is stated this machine has a carrying capacity of about six tons, a wing spread of 70 feet, contains three motors, and can carry sufficient fuel for a 13-hour trip. Its speed is 80 miles per hour, and it can attain a height of 2,000 feet in 10 minutes. Its crew consists of five men, two of whom are pilots. It is the intention of the owners to attempt a flight across the ocean with this machine.
Three-quarter front view of the N.C. 1 flying-boat
The Curtiss-built N.C.1 Flying Boat, designed by the U.S. Naval Aircraft Department.
Two detail views of the power plant on the N.C. 1 flying-boat
One of the four-engined "Atlantic" N.C. flying-boats just taking off
The N.C. 1, 3 and 4 leaving Rockaway Air Station on their first leg of the Atlantic flight via the Azores.
The U.S. Naval Seaplane N.C. 4 arrives at Plymouth, completing the crossing of the Atlantic by the air. The N.C. 4 is to the left in Plymouth Harbour, and taxying is British Seaplane N 4499, flying the British and American flags, on its way to greet the voyagers.
THE U.S. NAVY N.C. FLYING-BOAT. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale
Flight, September 11, 1919.

THE "LAWSON" AERIAL TRANSPORT

  WE have received the following particulars of the latest American commercial aeroplanes, the Lawson "Aerial Transports," designed by Alfred W. Lawson, of the Lawson Airline Transportation Co., Milwaukee, Wis.
  The accompanying drawings are of the Type C 1, to which our description mainly refers, whilst the photographs show the Type C 2, which has just been completed and put through its trials. The C 2, which, with a large fleet of the same type, is intended for a daily service between New York and San Francisco, differs from the C 1 only in some of the dimensions and the arrangement of the air-screws. These, it will be seen, are pushers in the C 1 and tractors in the C 2. The following description of C 1, therefore, will also serve for C 2.
  The whole machine has been designed from a strictly commercial point of view, and all the details of its construction and performance characteristics take into consideration the safety and comfort of the passengers. It possesses a high degree of inherent stability, a very flat gliding angle, and a relatively high factor of safety. The manoeuvrability, both in the air and on the ground, is good, all the control surfaces being of generous proportions and well balanced.
  The fuselage is built to accommodate 26 passengers, the seats being placed at windows on each side of the body, as shown in the illustrations, and an aisle between the seats allows passage from the front and rear of the cabin. On the port side of the cabin, forward of the wings, is a door of ample proportions to ensure easy entrance and exit, one of the pilots' seats being made to swing back out of the way. All the seats are of wicker construction, upholstered with green leather and provided with safety belts. They are secured to the floor, but are readily detachable, and sleeping quarters may be installed for a fewer number of passengers when cruising for considerable distances.
  The interior of the cabin is finished in polished mahogany, and the floors are covered with carpet. The depth of the body is sufficient to allow one to stand up without stooping when walking through. The cabin is built up on box formers without transverse bracing, and is covered with veneer. The rear portion of the fuselage is of girder construction with veneer panel struts and wire bracing, and is covered with fabric. The longerons are of solid section ash in the cabin portion, and spruce at the rear.
  The main planes, which have the U.S.A. 5 wing-section, are in seven sections, comprising one top and two bottom centre sections carrying the power plant, and the outer sections. The latter have a sweep back of 6° and a dihedral angle of 1°. The wings have a comparatively high factor of safety of 14, and are strongly braced internally and externally by double cables. The interplane struts are of deep streamline section wood. Balanced ailerons of wood construction are fitted to both top and bottom planes.
  A large biplane tail is fitted having a cambered upper surface and a comparatively flat under surface. The fuselage terminates in a tubular steel stern post to which is attached the rear spar of the lower tail plane, and also the tail skid. The tail plane is adjustable. The rudders, of which there are three, and elevators are of the balanced type of wood and steel construction, mainly the latter in the case of the rudders.
  Dual control is provided at the forward end of the cabin, the wheels being 18 ins. diameter, and mounted on columns carried by a transverse rocking shaft extending right across the body; the usual foot-bars operate the rudders. All control cables are duplicated. For night flying, electric lights are provided for the instrument-board, cabin interior and wings.
  The landing-gear is composed of two pairs of 36 ins. by 8 ins. wheels, carried on large streamlined tubular steel struts. One pair of wheels is located under each engine in such a way as to take up evenly the landing shocks with a minimum of strain to the fuselage and wings.
  Two Liberty engines, of 400 h.p. each, are installed, mounted on stout ash bearers, braced by steel tubes. They are completely enclosed by neat metal "bonnets," in the nose of which are mounted the radiators. Effective silencers are fitted, which add greatly to the comfort of the passengers.
  The general specifications are as follow :-

Span, top and bottom 80 ft. (95 ft C 2)
Chord, top and bottom 9 ft. 6 ins.
Gap 9 ft. 3 ins.
Overall length 47 ft. 7 ins.
Overall height 14 ft.
Area of main planes
  (including ailerons) 1.440 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons (4) 168 sq. ft.
Incidence of main planes 3°
Weight of machine fully loaded 12,000 lbs.
Speed 100 m.p.h.
Climb in 10 mins. 4,000 ft.
Ceiling 15,000 ft.
Gliding angle 1 in 8.
Fuel duration 5 hours.
Range 500 miles.
Three-quarter front view of the Lawson "Aerial Transport," Type C 2.
Two views of the fuselage with centre sections and engines, of the Lawson "Aerial Transport."
The interior of the cabin of the Lawson "Aerial Transport."
THE LAWSON "AERIAL TRANSPORT," TYPE C 1: Plan, front and side elevations to scale.
A Lowe, Willard and Fowler DH-4B postal conversion with two 200 h.p. Hall-Scott L-6 engines. Others had 150 h.p. Hispano-Suizas.
An American de Havilland converted from a single to a multi-engined machine. The engines are two six-cylindered Libertys, one of which is capable of maintaining the machine in flight. It is being used, in conjunction with the Martin "bombers" for mail-carrying, and is said to be nice and easy on the controls.
Flight, February 20, 1919.

The Transatlantic Flight

  CAPT. HUGO SUNDSTEDT, who is engaged in assembling a seaplane in Newark Bay, New Jersey, as mentioned in our last issue, has now made a formal entry for the Daily Mail ?10,000 Transatlantic Prize. This makes the fourth actual entry, the others being a Whitehead entered by Capt. Fayze and a Handley Page and a Caproni entered through the Aero club of America.
  Lord Auckland, who arrived in Liverpool recently from America, stated that he intends to attempt an aerial flight from Britain to the United States next August on a British machine. He expressed the firm conviction that an air journey to America is possible, but thinks the time is not yet ripe for a continuous service between the two countries.


Flight, February 27, 1919.

The Transatlantic Flight

  CAPT. HUGO SUNDSTEDT made a test flight with the machine entered for the Daily Mail ? 10,000 prize on February 21. He had proceeded a mile over Newark Bay, N.J., when engine trouble developed, but he expressed satisfaction with the way in which the machine answered the controls. Further tests will be carried out before an attempt is made made to fly to St. John's. Newfoundland.
  It has been announced that Capt. Roy Francis who is in charge of the plans of the U.S. Army for an attempt to fly the Atlantic. He has been installed in the Trant Company Institution, formerly the headquarters of Count Bernstorff's propaganda department.


Flight, April 3, 1919.

THE TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT

  DURING the past week no further entries have been received for the Daily Mail prize, and the number of probable competitors has been reduced by one owing to the accident to Capt. Sundstedt's flying boat. It appears that the machine was taken out by Comdr. Czenzki, a Russian pilot, and failed to come out of a spiral 400 ft. up.
  Some comment has been caused by the abstention of the French makers, but it is likely that unless the prize is quickly won there will be a t least one or two competitors bearing the French colours. It is an open secret that one of the leading firms has been experimenting to this end for some time, but no definite entry will be made until everything is ready for the attempt to be made.
  Mr. Hawker and Capt. Grieve, with the Sopwith aeroplanes, arrived in St. John's, Newfoundland, on Sunday, and they are making their preparations to start at 2 p.m. on April 16, in order to take advantage of the full moon, if the weather conditions are favourable.
  Mr. Raynham and Capt. Morgan, with their Martinsyde, are now on their way to St. John's. A series of thorough tests, including a ten-hours flight, during which the machine flew from Woking to Southampton and back five times have been made. The "Raymor" has a span of 41 ft., and is 26 ft. long. It is fitted with a 285 Rolls-Royce "Falcon" engine and, carrying 375 gallons of petrol, the weight will be about 5,000 lbs. Capt. Morgan only recently returned from Newfoundland, where he was making preliminary arrangements. It is hoped to make a start towards t he end of April.
  The Fairey seaplane will be of the 3C type - a biplane having a span of 46 ft. 6 ins. and an overall length of 36 ft. It will be fitted with a 365 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engine, and will carry 385 gallons of petrol, sufficient to carry her 17 1/2 hours a t 120 m.p.h.
  The Short biplane will be of the Shirl type, having a span of 62 ft. and an overall length of 37 ft. It will be fitted with a 385 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engine. The 650 gallons of petrol will be carried in a torpedo shaped tank 18.ft. long and 3 ft. 2 ins. in diameter slung beneath the fuselage. It is expected that the machine will be ready for a trial at Gosport in a few days.
  The machine will be painted white, with a Union Jack on the tail. Major J. C. P. Wood, the pilot, and Capt C. C. Wylie assistant pilot and navigator, will sit one behind the other. Their equipment will include electrically heated boots, jackets and gloves and they will also wear special long-distance helmets fitted with wireless telegraphic receivers, all of which are being thoroughly tested before the start. The system of directional wireless will be used and the pilot and navigator will receive messages from the Air Ministry every half-hour.
  The U.S. Naval authorities have decided that they cannot compete for a prize given by private enterprise. Nevertheless, the arrangements are being pushed forward for a flight by naval machines - probably three flying boats of the N.C.1 type.
  According to t he Aero Club of America, a cablegram states that the Air Ministry is considering the Club's invitation to fly one of its airships across the Atlantic to the Pan-American Exposition at Atlantic City in May.
  A message from New York states that the British officials in charge of the projected flight from Newfoundland to England say that they may carry several letters from that country, but the cost will be L100 each. The letters must not exceed one ounce in weight each, and the number is limited to 12. Inquiry has not thus far revealed that many Americans are anxious to spend L100 to send a letter to Europe by aerial mail.
Captain Sundstedt's seaplane as seen from behind, upon which he contemplates making a try for the Trans-Atlantic #10,000 flight prize of the Daily Mail. The wings of the 'plane measure 100 ft. It is equipped with two 400 h.p. Liberty motors, and is capable of a speed of 80 miles an hour. The cabin, which is completely enclosed, will hold four passengers. The two tons of petrol needed for the flight will be carried in the tank in the huge tail of the machine. The 'plane, without its passengers or fuel, weighs 10,000 lbs. Captain Sundstedt will fly from Bayonne (N-J.) to St. John's, Newfoundland, and from there attempt the flight across the Atlantic. He hopes to make the journey in 22 hours. The distance between Newfoundland and Ireland is about 1,800 miles.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Pierre Levasseur. - In addition to a number of propellers, including a huge one of about 40 ft. diameter, is showing a large single-engine tractor biplane, the chief feature of which appears to be a profuse use of aluminium for cowling, spinner, etc.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Bleriot and Spad

  The Bleriot exhibit consists of one of the new four-engined passenger machines, with four Hispano-Suiza engines. As will be seen from our photograph, the engines are placed far apart, and one does not quite trust to the trim being maintained in case of an engine cutting out. Otherwise the machine is of very nice design, and its cabin will, no doubt, be greatly admired by visitors to the exhibition.
<...>
THE LATEST PRODUCTION FROM THE PIONEER HOUSE OF BLERIOT: The four-engined 28-passenger "Aerobus," which has recently passed its first tests. It has a total horse-power of 1,000, and a speed of 90 m.p.h.
Three quarter rear view of the new Bleriot four-engined 28-passenger "Aerobus," showing the biplane tail with its triple rudders.
The new Bleriot 28-passenger machine with four Hispano-Suiza engines.
THE SPAD-HERBEMONT TWO-SEATER MONOCOQUE: A Military biplane, 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, on which the French pilot, Sadi Lecointe, made a record altitude (solo) flight of 89,200 ft. He also beat the speed record (with passenger) with a speed of 142.8 m.p.h.
The photo is of a 300 h.p. Spad, flown by Sadi Lecointe.
SCHNEIDER CUP: The Spad at anchor. This machine looks very business-like, and should have put up a good performance but for a leaky float. The top plane is swept back, and is of shorter span than the bottom one.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Bleriot and Spad

<...>
  Three very interesting Spad machines are exhibited, interesting because, while retaining the characteristics of the Spads built during the War, they are, as regards two of them, designed for sporting purposes, having low-powered engines and consequently reasonable cost and upkeep. The third machine is a three-seater, with the two passengers seated inside an enclosed cabin.
<...>
  The third Spad - the three-seater limousine - is a development of the military type S 20, and carries the series number S 27. Like the other two machines shown, it has the general Spad characteristics, although the enclosed body alters its appearance somewhat. The pilot is placed in front, while the two passengers are seated side by side inside the cabin, looking out on the country over which the machine is flying through windows in the "sides of the fuselage. The engine fitted is a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, which gives the machine a maximum speed of 143 m.p.h. The landing speed is about 65 m.p.h. The machine has an overall length of 24 ft., and a span of 32 ft. The weight of the Type S 27 is 1,870 lbs. empty and 2,770 lbs. fully loaded (pilot, two passengers and three hours' fuel).
THE SPAD-HERBEMONT, TYPE S. 27, THREE-SEATER MONOCOQUE LIMOUSINE: It is fitted with a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, and has a span of 32 ft., an overall length of 24 ft., and weighs, fully loaded, 2,772 lbs. It has a speed range of 65-143 m.p.h.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Bleriot and Spad

<...>
  Three very interesting Spad machines are exhibited, interesting because, while retaining the characteristics of the Spads built during the War, they are, as regards two of them, designed for sporting purposes, having low-powered engines and consequently reasonable cost and upkeep. The third machine is a three-seater, with the two passengers seated inside an enclosed cabin.
  The Spad monocoque type S 30 is small single-seater, with 45 h.p. Anzani engine. The wings are so arranged as to give the pilot a good view, and, while not very large, they are of sufficient area to ensure a low landing speed. The speed range is also very good, the maximum speed being in the neighbourhood of 87 m.p.h., and the landing speed about 37 m.p.h. The overall length is 19 ft. 6 ins., and the span 23 ft. 6 ins. The weight of the machine empty is 570 lbs., and in flying trim - with pilot and fuel for three hours - the weight is 880 lbs. The 45 h.p. Anzani engine is provided with a silencer which adds greatly to the comfort of the pilot. Strength has been especially studied, the machine having a factor of safety of 15.
  The Spad monocoque type S 29 is a small two-seater, fitted with an 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine. The occupants are placed tandem fashion in the monocoque fuselage. The maximum speed is 102 m.p.h., and the landing speed just under 50 m.p.h. The length of the machine is 19 ft. 7 ins., and the span 25 ft. 5 ins. Empty the machine weighs 790 lbs., and fully loaded - with pilot and passenger and three hours' fuel - 1,230 lbs.
<...>
A Breguet pusher biplane flown, during the War by the Russians on the Roumanian front.
Flight, October 2, 1919.

THE "ARRIVAL" OF THE REGULAR AIR SERVICE

The Breguet Biplane
  As already mentioned, the service has now been extended by the addition of a batch of French Breguet biplanes, which alternate with the Handley Pages on the London-Paris route. The Breguet biplanes used are of the single-engine tractor type, with Renault water-cooled engines. As distinct from the Airco machines, the pilot is placed far back in the fuselage, behind the passengers' cabin. This is entered through a door in the starboard side, and comfortable seats are provided inside. Although possibly not quite so good as that obtainable in the Aircos, the view from the cabin of the Breguet is by no means bad, in spite of the placing of the cabin farther forward in relation to the wings. Generally speaking, the Breguet may be said to be similar to the machines which did such good work in the French Air Service during the War.

  
  
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Societe Louis Breguet

  THIS firm is showing three complete machines and one very interesting power unit. One machine is a military two-seater fighter of the famous C 2 XVII type. A seaplane of the A 2 XIV type is also shown, as well as a transport machine of the "Berline" type, XVIII T. This machine, which is a development of the Breguet night bomber, carries six passengers, in addition to the pilot. The engine is a 450 h.p. Renault, with which the machine is capable of a speed, at low altitudes, of 160 kilometres per hour (99 m.p.h.), and a climb of 10,000 ft. in 40 mins. The range is four hours at full throttle, or about 400 miles.
  The power unit to which reference has already been made, consists of a novel transmission gear, by means of which the power of four engines of 200 h.p. each is transmitted to a single shaft on which is mounted the airscrew.
An impression of the Breguet tractor biplane in flight.
A Breguet tractor biplane about to land
LONDON-PARIS AND LONDON-BRUSSELS: The Handley Page firm are now running two continental air services, one to Paris and one to Brussels. In connection with the Paris service Breguet biplanes now alternate with the Handley Pages, the British machines leaving London on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, the French machines on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The Paris-London service is in the reverse order. Our photographs show : (5) M. Patin, the pilot of one of the Breguet biplanes. (6) One of the Breguet biplanes alternating with the Handley Pages on the London-Paris service.
The Breguet seaplane
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

The French Section

  At the time of writing, the aircraft industry of our gallant ally France is represented by two machines only, a very ancient type of Caudron, and a military type Breguet, of the type used so extensively during the War. It is somewhat of a disappointment that French aviation is not more fully represented, and we trust that before the exhibition closes this will be remedied.

THE MESSAGERIES AERIENNES
  which is a combine of the French firms of Bleriot, Breguet, Caudron and Morane, show two machines.
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  The Breguet machine is a two-seater fighter of the XVII C2 type, and is shown as such, with a full complement of machine guns, a very full one, in fact, for it carries, we believe, no less than five machine guns. The engine fitted is a 450 h.p. 12-cylinder Renault water-cooled, with the radiator placed in the nose of the fuselage. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the Breguet is the wing bracing, which is so arranged as to have no inter-plane lift wires in the inner bay, the place of these being taken by wires running from the bottom of the undercarriage to the foot of the inter-plane struts. The landing wires in this bay run from the top of the fuselage to the base of the first pair of inter-plane struts. The lift bracing consists of stranded cables, while the landing wires are of the Rafwire type. The Breguet is credited with the following performance :-

Climb
  2,000 metres in 5 mins. 45 secs.
  4,000 metres in 14 mins.
  6,000 metres in 31 mins.
Ceiling 7,500 metres.
Speed
  At ground level 221 kiloms. per hour
  At 2,000 metres 218
  At 4,000 207
  At 6,000 180

  

Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Societe Louis Breguet

  THIS firm is showing three complete machines and one very interesting power unit. One machine is a military two-seater fighter of the famous C 2 XVII type. A seaplane of the A 2 XIV type is also shown, as well as a transport machine of the "Berline" type, XVIII T. This machine, which is a development of the Breguet night bomber, carries six passengers, in addition to the pilot. The engine is a 450 h.p. Renault, with which the machine is capable of a speed, at low altitudes, of 160 kilometres per hour (99 m.p.h.), and a climb of 10,000 ft. in 40 mins. The range is four hours at full throttle, or about 400 miles.
  The power unit to which reference has already been made, consists of a novel transmission gear, by means of which the power of four engines of 200 h.p. each is transmitted to a single shaft on which is mounted the airscrew.
The Breguet C 2, type XVII 450 h.p. Renault engine
A FRENCH REPRESENTATIVE: The Breguet biplane, which arrived at Amsterdam by air. The machine, which has a 450 h.p. Renault engine, was piloted by the well-known pilot Roget, who had with him as passengers Lieut. Labouchere and a mechanic
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Societe Louis Breguet

  THIS firm is showing three complete machines and one very interesting power unit. One machine is a military two-seater fighter of the famous C 2 XVII type. A seaplane of the A 2 XIV type is also shown, as well as a transport machine of the "Berline" type, XVIII T. This machine, which is a development of the Breguet night bomber, carries six passengers, in addition to the pilot. The engine is a 450 h.p. Renault, with which the machine is capable of a speed, at low altitudes, of 160 kilometres per hour (99 m.p.h.), and a climb of 10,000 ft. in 40 mins. The range is four hours at full throttle, or about 400 miles.
  The power unit to which reference has already been made, consists of a novel transmission gear, by means of which the power of four engines of 200 h.p. each is transmitted to a single shaft on which is mounted the airscrew.
The cabin of the Breguet limousine
Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

The French Section

  At the time of writing, the aircraft industry of our gallant ally France is represented by two machines only, a very ancient type of Caudron, and a military type Breguet, of the type used so extensively during the War. It is somewhat of a disappointment that French aviation is not more fully represented, and we trust that before the exhibition closes this will be remedied.

THE MESSAGERIES AERIENNES
  which is a combine of the French firms of Bleriot, Breguet, Caudron and Morane, show two machines. One of these is a type G 3 Caudron which will be well known to all our readers. It has a le Rhone engine of 80 h.p., and is characterised by the usual short nacelle and open tail booms associated with the Caudron machines. It might be pointed out that it was on a similar machine that Poulet established a duration record of 16 hrs. 28 mins. in May, 1914. It has also been used very extensively for training purposes, and many of the French "Aces" have got their ticket on machines of this type. Incidentally this type of machine was, we believe, the first biplane to loop the loop, which it first did piloted by Chanteloup on September 17, 1913. The type, although many may be inclined to smile at it in these days, has therefore a long and honourable career behind it, and for landing on or starting from difficult ground it is probably unexcelled by any other machine. For instance, it may be recollected that it was on a machine of this type that the late Jules Vedrines landed on the roof of the Galleries Lafayette. Another similar machine is busy carrying passengers from the E.L.T.A. aerodrome.
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Four views of Alloa, where the British Caudron Co. have their factory and aerodrome, taken by Rene Desoutter from a G.3 Caudron (inset).
Vedrines' feat of landing on the roof of the Galeries Lafayette in the Boulevard Hausmann, Paris. The 80 h.p. Caudron as seen from the street.
Vedrines' 80 h.p. Caudron on the roof of the Galeries Lafayette, after it had been secured at the corner of the roof so as to be visible from the street. Note the sandbag protection against Hun bombers.
Flight, July 10, 1919.

Paris-Melbourne

  WE understand that in a few weeks' time Poulet, on a Caudron, may have a try for the Paris-Melbourne flight which the late Jules Vedrines had intended to attempt.


Flight, October 16, 1919.

Poulet's False Start

  ON Sunday last, at 7.30 a.m., Etienne Poulet, accompanied by his mechanic Benoit, on his Caudron, set out from Issy-les-Moulineaux on the first stage of his flight to Australia. The fog was so thick along the Seine valley that, after covering about 30 miles, Poulet deemed it prudent to return. He made a fresh start at 12.30 p.m., but had not proceeded far, however, before magneto trouble obliged him once more to land. He made a fresh start on Tuesday morning.


Flight, October 23, 1919.

Poulet's Flight to Australia

  As briefly recorded in our last issue, Poulet was able to make a start from Paris on the morning of October 14, and he succeeded in reaching Frejus. The next morning he set out for Rome, but was forced down by the bad weather at Pisedom, north of Rome, and had to wait until the following day to complete the stage to Rome. He started off on his Caudron, from the Centocelle aerodrome on October 18 for Salonika, but later in the day he arrived at Naples, where he was compelled to land on account of bad weather conditions prevailing.


Flight, November 6, 1919.

M. Poulet's Progress

  M. POULET is making slow progress in his flight from Paris to Melbourne. He started from Avlona on October 22, but ran into a blizzard and had to go back. A few days later, however, he succeeded in getting on to Salonika, and on October 30 he went on to San Stefano.


Flight, November 13, 1919.

Poulet's Progress

  LAST week Etienne Poulet, on his Caudron, succeeded in covering one or two more stages on his journey from Paris to Australia. On the 5th inst. he made the journey from Constantinople to Konia, and on the 6th he was reported at Baghdad. The following day he reached Bushire, on the Persian Gulf, after a t r ip across the desert. On November 8, he was at Bundar Abbas, and left at 5 a.m. the next day for Karachi.


Flight, November 20, 1919.

M. Poulet's Progress

  ON November 11 M. Poulet, accompanied by M. Benoit, arrived at Karachi on his Caudron biplane at 3.30 p.m. He had left Gwadar at noon and landed on British military territory. The distance between Gwadar and Karachi is about 360 miles. On arrival M. Poulet was handed by M. Beaumont, the French Consul, a gift valued at ?500.
M. Etienne Poulet starting from Paris on October 14 for his attempt to fly to Melbourne. Starting the props, of the twin-engined Caudron
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Caudron. - The Caudron exhibits are referred to elsewhere At the time of writing two machines are erected on the stand; one is the huge three-engined cabin machine, the C 25. This machine has two engines on the wings and a third in the nose of the fuselage. There is a large cabin in the fuselage. The wing bracing is in the form of piano wire, which looks somewhat out of place in a modern machine, especially of such dimensions. Of the school machine there are no signs at present.


SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Aeroplanes Caudron

  Rene Caudron is exhibiting three complete machines. One of these is the well-known type, G 3, on which so many of the French pilots have been trained. It was, it may be remembered, on a similar machine that the late Jules Vedrines landed on the roof of the Lafayette building. The machine is already so well known as to need no detailed description here.
  The second machine is a twin-engine biplane, type C 33. It is fitted with two 80 h.p. Le Rhone engines. In addition to the pilot the machine carries three passengers, of whom two are inside the body. This machine has a length over all of 30 ft. 10 ins. and a span of 51 ft. 2 ins. It carries sufficient fuel for a flight of six hours' duration, and has a maximum speed of 150 kilometres per hour (93 m.p.h.).
  The third machine exhibited by Caudron is also a new design, the C 25. This is a large three-engined biplane designed for passenger-carrying. In addition to two pilots, it has accommodation for 16 passengers in a comfortable cabin. Like the C 33 it has a duration of six hours, and its maximum speed is 102 m.p.h. The overall length is 62 ft. 8 ins., and its span 82 ft. 6 ins. The three engines are 250 h.p. Canton-Unnes.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Louis Clement. - At the time of writing the only thing on this stand at all resembling an aeroplane is a little triplane with a two-wheeled undercarriage and a third wheel in the nose of the fuselage.
  Louis Clement is also showing an extraordinary monoplane, whose wings are of the cantilever type. There is a break in the wings, the roots having a large dihedral and then straightening out. A horizontal cross-tube to the body forms, the bracing. The Vees of the undercarriage can be swung outwards, and the wheels then disappear into the wings. The machine looks a freak, pure and Simple.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Edmond de Marcay has a very striking exhibit, consisting of three very pretty biplanes, all very small. The smallest of them is, perhaps, the smallest biplane ever built, and, as we have already mentioned, looks as if another 20 sq. ft. of wing surface would not do it any harm. The second machine is an extremely neat-looking single-seater with monocoque fuselage and rotary engine with a spinner over the propeller boss. The third machine, although the largest of the three, is also quite small, and is a limousine in as far as the upper third of the passenger occupies a cabin-like superstructure added to the top of the fuselage. The lower two-thirds of the passenger, or his better half, travels en fuselage ordinaire.
The Edmond de Marcay single-seater biplane, which, piloted by Lieut. Lebeau, at Villacoublay, attained speeds of 156 m.p.h. level, 147 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft., and 129 m.p.h. at 20,000 ft. It is fitted with a 300 h.p Hispano-Suiza engine, and has a span of 30 ft. 4 ins., overall length of 21 ft. 4 ins., and a useful load of 745 lbs. Its factor of safety is 14.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Farman Freres

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  The second machine exhibited by Farmans is a school biplane, similar in a general way to the pre-War pusher Farmans. It has a short nacelle, in the stern of which is installed the engine. Dual controls are fitted, as in the majority of school machines, and it is claimed that it is almost impossible to turn the machine over on the ground, since not only is the wheel track very wide, but also the skids are provided with wheels in front, thus assisting materially in preventing a turn-over. One of our photographs shows the nacelle and front wheels.
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The Farman "School" type biplane, which is also suitable as a three-passenger "Tourabout"
The Farman School Machine: View of the nacelle
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Farman Freres

  The Farman brothers are showing three complete machines. One of these, at least, will be known to our readers, as it has been flying for some considerable time and has made several notable flights. This is the Farman "Goliath," or, to give it its proper series number, the F 60. As is, of course, well known, it is a twin-engined machine, with a long enclosed fuselage accommodating the passengers. The machine has already been described in FLIGHT; suffice it therefore to add that the Goliath is listed at 170,000 francs (about L4,250 at the present rate of exchange). The machine claims several records, such as 20,800 ft. in 1 hour 5 mins. with four passengers, 20,500 ft. in 1 hour 5 mins. with 14 passengers, and 16,850 ft. in 1 hour 15 mins. with 25 passengers.
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Three-quarter front view of the Farman "Goliath" aerobus.
A view from in front of the centre of the Farman Paris-England Service Aeroplane, showing the engines and passengers' cabin. There are two engines of 250 h.p. each, giving the machine a speed of 110 m.p.h.
The big Farman Paris-England Service Aeroplane, with enclosed passenger cabin. Side view of the monster showing passengers' cabin in front. The machine has a span of 92 feet, and can lift three tons. The machine can climb 1,500 ft. in 4 mins., 3,000 ft. m 10 mins., and 6,000 ft. in 28 mins.
A "night" view of the Farman "Goliath" aerobus, taken at midnight on August 10th, just before the start for its flight to Dakar.
The Farman Goliath: Side view
The Farman "Goliath" aerobus in flight.
View of the interior of the passengers' cabin of the Farman "Goliath" aerobus.
THE FARMAN GOLIATH: View inside the cabin
THE FARMAN "GOLIATH" AEROBUS: Plan, front and side elevations to scale.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

SOME FRENCH MACHINES AT THE SHOW

Farman Freres

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  Last, but by no means least, there is on view on the Farman stand the little sporting biplane about which so much has been heard of late. This machine - a small biplane - has been designed to provide a two-seater of low initial price and ditto upkeep. The sporting machine is said to be capable of looping with two up, and owing to its very light weight (about 880 lbs. "all up") it lands very easily and slowly (at about 28 miles an hour it is claimed, although this does certainly appear a little optimistic). With its 30 h.p. engine it is said to have quite a good speed, and the makers estimate the running cost a t something like 13 centimes per kilometre.
THE FARMAN SPORTING BIPLANE: Three-quarter front and three-quarter rear views
An Interesting French Parasol Monoplane: Although the Parasol type of monoplane had a comparatively short vogue during the War, the type has many advantages, and it is more than probable that it will be revived for civilian flying. Our photograph shows the French Gourdon-Leseurre, fitted with 180 h.p. Hispano-Sujza engine. It will be noted that the wing bracing is unusual, struts being employed instead of the usual lift wires. This obviates the necessity for anti-lift wires above the wing. The speed of this machine is said to be 260 kilometres per hour (about 135 m.p.h.)
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Latecoere. - On this stand there is one single-engined two-seater biplane which, according to the legend painted on the side of the fuselage, is designed for mail carrying. The machine does not, on casual inspection, appear to offer any features of particular interest.
Flight, December 25, 1919.

The Paris Aero Show 1919

Liore and Olivier. - This firm has a very striking exhibit in the form of a large three-engined flying boat, with the hull forming an enclosed cabin. The wing bracing is in the form of slanting struts forming a triangulated structure in conjunction with the wing spars. The whole machine gives a very businesslike impression. On this stand there is also an armoured fuselage, with rear portion built up of duralumin tubes, much after the fashion of the German Junkers
The "Dashing Rumpity," which is bringing in #3 and #5 per five and ten minutes' "flip" in Victoria, Australia, as referred to by "Kahminyah"