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An F.K.8, A2696, fitted experimentally with a 150 hp Lorraine-Dietrich engine.
F.K.8 with R.A.F 4a engine and B.E.12-type exhausts
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8. Beardmore engine with early type of cowling
Armstrong Whitworth FK8 B3312 preparing for a photographic flight
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8. Late production version with vee undercarriage and small radiators
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8. Beardmore engine in improwed cowling
An observer in an FK8 of an unknown unit
Armstrong Whitworth FK8 machines with the rounded cowling
The prototype Bristol F.2A Fighter (A3303) on the landing ground at the Central Flying School at Upavon during September of 1916
The F.2A prototype (A3303) is prepared for take off at Orfordness
A3303 on the grass at Upavon after it was modified with the round radiator and deeper cowling. At this time the aircraft had no gun mounting in the observer's cockpit
The first F.2A prototype (A3303) at the experimental armament center at Orfordness
The second F.2A prototype at Filton in December of 1916
This F.2B (A7106) was powered by a 190 hp Rolls Roys Falcon I engine and was part of the first production batch
This Falcon I powered F.2B (A7106) was built by the Bristols and is known to have been at No 8 Aircraft Acceptance Park, at Lympne during 1917
At one time this F.2B (A-7107) served with No 48 Squadron in France. It later flew with the Wireless Training School at Biggin Hill, doing pioneer experimental radio work
Another F.2B from the first production batch, A7183 carried navigation lights above the lower wing outboard of the struts and on the rudder trailing edge. The aircraft was at Orfordness in February of 1918
This early production F.2A on the landing ground at Ayr, Scotland during April of 1917 was from the first production batch. It was powered by a 190 hp Falcon I engine
This F.2B (A7238) carries the name TIGER on the fuselage in White. The aircraft has no wheel cover over the starboard wheel. It served at Rendcombe during July of 1918 and was later transferred to No 44 Training Squadron of that same year
Bristol Fighter with Lieutenant CWM Thompson of 22 Squadron standing by it
F.2B B1134 was assigned to No 35 Squadron after having served with No 48 Squadron which had received the type in March of 1917
This F.2B (B1153) was powered by a 220 hp liquid cooled 12 cylinder Rolls-Royce Falcon II engine
To solve the engine shortage problem, an number of F.2Bs were tested during the war with different engines. This F.2B (B1200) at the experimental establishment at Marlesham Beath in September of 1918 was powered by a 200 hp Wolsey Viper liquid cooled engine
The shape of the cowling on this F.2B (B1206) indicates that it was powered by the 230 hp Siddeley Puma liquid cooled engine
It is uncertain whether the White marking just forward of the fuselage roundel on this F.2B (B1208) is the recognition marking of No 20 Squadron or the aircraft's side number (1)
In January 1918 Captain Alan P.Maclean and Lieutenant Frederick H. Cantlon, MC, on No.11 Squadron, RFC, posed in Bristol F.2B C.4844, which they had named 'Rickadamdoo'. They were flying this aircraft when they shot down by Jagdgeschwader I aircraft on 18 March 1918
While a ground crewmen holds its tail down, the pilot of this F.2B (D2222) runs up the engine. The aircraft was fitted with a 200 hp Sunbeam Arab engine and it was one of a batch of F.2Bs built by the National Aircraft Factory at Alntree, Liverpool
The small hole in the top of the radiator is the gun port for the pilot's .303 Vickers machine gun. The White stripes around the rear fuselage were recognition markings used by No 139 Squadron in Italy during late 1918
This F.2B (D7966) was issued to No 139 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps on 16 August 1918. The aircraft was lost in combat with Austrian forces some seven days later and the crew, Lts C.E.G.Gill and T.Newey were taken prisoners of war
Bristol Fighter of 48 Squadron, brought down 20 September, the crew being captured
Major B.E.Baker, DSO, MC, AFC, a very successful Bristol Fighter pilot who served with 48 Squadron in 1917. He is seen here the following year in England whilst serving with 141 (Home Defence) Squadron. He later became Air Marshal Sir Brian Baker
BURGATE was flown in France by "L" Flight on long distance artillery spotting duties
This Bristol F.2B (F4844) is a factory-fresh machine from a production batch of seven hundred produced by Bristol
This F.2B (H6058) was fitted with a 240 hp Siddeley Puma engine and was, along with F.2B (H6055) were the only F.2Bs known to have been built by the Austin Motor Company, although a batch of six hundred were ordered on 25 September 1918
This F.2b was on the landing ground at Malincourt on the day that the First World War ended, 11 November 1918. The aircraft was powered by a Sunbeam Arab liquid cooled engine and was assigned to "B" Flight on No 8 Squadron
This F.2B of No 98 Squadron's Long Range Reconnaissance flight nosed over after loosing a wheel on landing. The hole in the underside is the opening for the vertical camera which was controlled by the observer/gunner
This F.2B of No 111 Squadron had the fabric on the rear fuselage pulled lose. The squadron operated a detachment of Bristol F.2Bs from Sarona, Palestine during late 1917
This Bristol Fighter was reportedly assigned to No 141 (Home Defence) Squadron. It is unclear why the aircraft had the fuselage and fin covered in what appears to be German printed Lozenge camouflage fabric
The 230 hp Sunbeam Arab engine differed from the Falcon in a number of ways including the use of front side mounted radiator shutters and a revised exhaust system with a long down sloping exhaust stack
A group of officers inspect a Bristol F.2B of No 39 (Home Defence) Squadron at North Weald, Essex. The squadron was based here to intercept German Gotha bombers. The officer looking into the observer's cockpit is GEN T.C.R.Biggins, General Officer Commanding (GOC) of No 6 Brigade
This F.2B has twin .303 inch Lewis machine guns mounted above the upper wing center section and a twin Lewis mount in the observer's cockpit. It is believed that this F.2B was a night fighter assigned to No 39 (Home Defence) Squadron
Australian CAPT Ross Smith, who later became a long distance flyer, mans the forward cockpit of an F.2B of No 1 (Australian) Squadron, while his gunner LT E A Mustard, mans the twin .303 Lewis machine gins in the rear cockpit
This Royal Flying Corps gunner demonstrates the use of a .303 inch Lewis machine gun in the rear cockpit of an F.2B. The gun is mounted on a Scraff ring mount and is equipped with a Norman sight. The gunner carried seven ninty-seven round drum magazines in the rear cockpit
D.H.2 Prototype in original scheme
D.H.2 Prototype in later scheme
Невооруженный прототип DH2. Планер покрыт бесцветным лаком, хорошо виден силовой набор крыльев
The prototype Airco D.H.2, No 4732, powered by a 100hp Gnome monosoupape engine driving a two-blade propeller; the fuel tank was located immediately behind the pilot in the fuselage
D.H.2 in early standard scheme
DH2 5925 enjoyed a comparatively long service career: it joined No.24 Squadron in France in February 1916 and was flown back to the UK on 22 May the following year
Airco D.H.2
D.H.2 of second production batch in standard scheme
The DH2 shown is 7850, at No.1 Aircraft Depot, Candas
Wooden hangars, with curtain fronts, a DH2 on push-back and two others waiting action - a scene that would be typical of 1915-16 when the pusher fighter was a fortunate answer to the Fokker menace
DE HAVILLAND D.H.2 (No.6011) of No.24 Squadron. Brought down and captured slightly damaged in July 1916. Piloted by Lt. R.H.B.Ker
D.H.2, No.24 Squadron, R.F.C., serial unknown
The D.H. 2. - A small single-seater pusher scout, with 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape engine. This machine has a strong family resemblance to the D.H. 1.
'British Airmen in France', a 1916 postcard, depicts a DH2 biplane
D.H.2 with non-standard rudder stripes, Fourth Army aircraft park, Beauval, France, 1916
Производились самолеты с упрощенным фюзеляжем, имевшим четырехгранное сечение. Данный D.H.5, использовавшийся в летной школе, не имел синхронизатора и пулемет был выставлен под углом к горизонту (Prototype D.H.5 fitted with Vickers gun mounted at an upward angle. The modified vertical tail surfaces incorporate a rudder which, although of the same shape as that of the production D.H.5, is horn-balanced)
Production D.H.5, A.9513
Built by the Vilcan Motor & Engineering Company, and carryinhg the company logo on the interplane struts, B9395 of No 49 Squadron RAF was "The Mackenzie Toolocmbah, Presented"
C1230 made a force landing due to engine failure at the School for Aerial Fighting
This aircraft, serial C2161, was one of eighty D.H.9s built by the sub-contractor Berwick & Company of Park Royal, North West London. The aircraft was used at a gunnery school, possibly at Marske
The first D.H.9 produced by Airco, C6051, during its test period in November 1917
D.H.9, C.6078, with prototype Napier Lion engine
D.H.9, C.6078, with the first production Napier Lion engine
C6078 was the first D.H.9 to be fitted with a 430 hp Napier Lion engine
C6109 was among the first production D.H.9s to go to France. It was one of the five sent abroad in late February of 1918. It was operated by No 27 Squadron RAF at Ruisseaville during 1918. On 16 June it was lost in action, with its crew, 2nd Lieutenant H.Wild and Sergeant E.Scott being killed
A standard production D.H. 9, C6277, powered by a Siddeley Puma engine with exhaust pipe extending upwards to discharge over the top wing; this aircraft, possibly of No 99 Squadron, shows the radiator extended beneath the nose.
C6277 is believed to have served at one time at the Biggin Hill Wireless Experimental Establishment as a flying test bed
"Britons in Chili No 1" was serialed D1177 and carried the name on the fuselage side in White from 28 December 1918 on. It was assigned to No 120 Squadron RAF after being previously on strength with No 98 Squadron during March of 1918. The D.H.9 was used as a mail-carrier and survived at least until 18 January 1919
Standard production D.H.9 built by Mann, Egerton & Co.
A standard Puma engined D.H.9 of No 211 Squadron, RAF during 1918
Although claimed by some sources to show Lieutenants Gregson and Gaylord with D2803, this is unconfirmed
This D.H.9 served with No 221 Squadron, RAF in Russia during late 1918. Later served with the White Russian Forces in August of 1919
D.H.9.
This is Airco-built D.H.9 (serial D2904), but the reason for the United States star insignia on the cowling is unknown. Certainly it was never flown by the U.S.Army. From a comparision of tonal values it is believed that the fin, balance area of the rudder and wheels were Red, with a White outline. The lower longerons and parts of the decking and nose are clear dope
Subscribed for as "Rigger Parish No 4" according to the nose inscription, D3259 was an Airco-built D.H.9 from a batch which included a number of aircraft that were delivered to overseas air forces
The nose of this D.H.9 was marked with the presentation legend, "Royal Marines Plymouth" in White on the nose. It appears to have its serial marked mounted on a strip of fabric (which is a slightly different color than the background) and is unusual in that it has a dot after the prefix. It is believed that D.5656 is probably not its true identity
D.H.9 (serial D5816) carried the presentation legend "Faridkot No 3". This Indian presentation aircraft was constructed by Waring & Gillow and served with No 206 Squadron, RAF. 2nd Lieutenants T.Percival and Lowthian were both injured when it crashed on 7 August 1918
"The Scarborough Volunteer" was marked with the fake serial F1203. The aircraft is believed to actually be a Waring & Gillow built D.H.9 (serial D5838)
D.H.9 (F1255), probably on the tarmac at Bickendor
Handley Page O/100. Prototype O/100 with modified elevator balancers. The small biplane is a Bristol Scout C
Handley Page O/100 1459 showing its mottled camouflage
The 0/100 No.3117 with four Hispano-Suiza engines of 200 h.p. each
Handley Page O/100. The first prototype, No. 1455, modified to production standard
Handley Page 0/400 of 214 Squadron, RAF, at Dunkirk airfield, after a night sortie in which it suffered flack damage
Handley Page 0/400
Handley Page O/400 bomber about to land
American-built O/400 with Liberty 12 engines
No.4873 had a double-yoked pair of Lewis guns
5203 was the third production FE2b built by Boulton & Paul, Ltd., and was a typical early FE2b with the 120-hp Beardmore
5648
No.6338 was a presentation aircraft, but bore its inscription - Ceylon No.3, A Nightjar from Ceylon - only on the port side of nacelle. On February 29 1916, while being flown by 2/Lts. L A Newbold and Chapman it was shot down by Wass of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 3, and is here seen shortly after capture
An early-production FE2b that fell into German hands was 6341, Zanzibar No.1
There was, quite literally, another side to 6341. Although marked Zanzibar No.1 on its port side it bore the more personal name The Scotch Express on the starboard
No.6937 was built by Boulton & Paul, and was marked as a presentation aircraft, Punjab No.29, Rawalpindi
A800 at Marske, the base of several training units that gave instruction in air combar and aerial gunnery
A5449
A "presentation" aircraft from the Gold Coast, this F.E.2b served with No 25 Sqn, RFC.
Meanwhile, the FE2b soldiered on although with the increasing numbers of better aircraft available from early 1917 it was soon 'relegated' to the night bomber role - as here with A5478 of 100 Squadron, this unit having formed in February 1917 for this specific role with the FE2b. This picture shows the vulnerable position of the observer in combat.
FE2b A5548 of No.64 Training Squadron at Sedgeford 1917
RAF FE2b A5794 of 192NTS, for the training of observers and pilots in night flying
A6536
Британский флот также применял FE2. На этом F.E.2D, оборудованном специальным шасси со сбрасываемыми колесами и надувными баллонетами, испытывались возможности безопасной посадки сухопутного самолета на воду. (A6536, here seen at Grain on May 30 1918 with its modified under-carriage, wing-tip floats, and stowed air bags)
A6536 with its airbags inflated
A6562, seen here with all the external fittings and finish of a night-bombing FE2b
B401
B419 of No.38 Squadron
B1877, a presentation aircraft, St Andrews No.1
C9795
The only FE2b to receive a British civil registration was D3832
D9134
An unidentified FE2b of No.18 Squadron, with a camera mounted on the starboard side of the nacelle
A blood-less face-off between two deadly rivals: a Fokker E.III beside a captured F.E.2b
A British FE2b in flight
An overhead view of an FE2b nacelle
Remains of a British FE2b after being shot down by a German aircraft. The body of the British pilot lies in foreground
S.E.5. The first prototype with modified exhausts and modified windscreen
S.E.5. The second prototype with 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine
S.E.5 (A'4852) of No 56 Squadron at London Colney prior to the aircraft being modified and prior to the unit being transferred to France. This aircraft was flown by Lt W B Melville
Production S.E.5 with modified wing-tips, semi-enclosed cockpit and external gravity tank
S.E.5 (A'8936) of No 60 Squadron flown by Capt William A Bishop. Such garish markings quickly disappeared since they were officially discouraged
S.E.5a two-seater conversion
Early production S.E.5a, showing installation of 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. This photograph shows B.507 in German hands with broken or disconnected aileron balance cables
S.E.5a (B595) of No 56 Squadron at Elstree Blanche, France in June of 1917. This aircraft was flown by Lt M E Mealing, MC
Farnborough-built S.E.5a B4897, with the strengthened all-wood undercarriage introduced on later machines.
S.E.5a (C1904) of No 85 Squadron at St Omer during June of 1918. This aircraft was flown by Billie Bishop
S.E.5a (C5303) of No 56 Squadron at Elstree Blanche, France in June of 1917
S.E.5a (D3511) of No 40 Squadron was flown by Major Roderic Stanley Dallas, the leading Australian Ace with fifty-one victories
S.E.5a (D5995) of No 143 Squadron while on Home Defense duty at Throwly in 1918. The White on the rudder and roundels have been toned down and a flame damper has been added to the exhaust for night fighting
Late production S.E.5a with Wolseley Viper engine. The aircraft is E.5987
S.E.5a (F5481) a presentation aircraft paid for by the 16th Battalion York and Lancaster Regiment
S.E.5a (F8040) of the 25th Aero Squadron, United States Air Service, Toul, France in November of 1918. Pilot was Lt Raymond C Watts
A modified S.E.5a with a blunt nose and an underslung radiator. It showed no definite improvement over the standard model.
The prototype Sopwith Tabloid was demonstrated in Australia by Harry Hawker during 1914. The aircraft was a side-by-side two-seater with no vertical fin, and skids attached to the undercarriage
Rear view of the first Tabloid. Note, among other features, the absence of a trailing-edge cut-out
Harry Hawker himself demonstrates, on a single-seat Tabloid, how the trailing-edge cut-out could prove serviceable to a photographer as well as to pilot
This Sopwith Tabloid (1205) of No 2 Wing RNAS is armed with a .303 Lewis machine gunmounted above the upper wing center section. Mounting the gun in this manner kept it free of the propeller arc
Ground crew hold down Sopwith Tabloid 1205 as it runs up its engine. The aircraft was attached to No 2 Wing of the Royal Naval Air Service and carried early Naval markings which consisted of a Red ring on a White circle carried above the upper wing and below the lower wing
Sopwith Tabloid 1208 was assigned to RNAS Great Yarmouth during 1915. The aircraft had a V-strut undercarriage and ailerons on the upper and lower wings which were connected by light struts
Sopwith workers construct Tabloids in the Sopwith factory at Kingston-on-Thames. The aircraft hull at the right is a Sopwith Bat Boat being built for the Royal Naval Air Service
A Sopwith Tabloid staked and tied down at Royal Naval Air Service air field. This is late production Tabloid with strut connected ailerons on the upper and lower wing. The aircraft appears to be unarmed
Sopwith Gun Bus photographed at Hendon
The square dark object above the cockpit of Gun Bus number 3833 is the radiator for the liquid-cooled Sunbeam engine. Despite the flag rudder marking, Naval roundels appear to have been carried under the wing tips
Sunbeam-powered Gun Bus 3833 carries early markings consisting of a Union Jack flag on the rudder above the aircraft serial number. The flag marking was also carried under the wings. These flags were supposed to measure 7 feet by 5 feet; however, this rule was not always followed
Gun Bus 3838 sits on a snow cover field with its engine protected by a canvas cover
Later in its career, Schneider 3788 was redoped in a Khaki Green camouflage and full British roundels and rudder stripes. For movement ashore, the Schneider and Baby had mounting points for a wheeled undercarriage on their main floats
A Sopwith Schneider float plane (number 3788) is hoisted aboard a Royal Navy seaplane carrier. The aircraft was powered by a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine and was attached to No 2 Wing of the RNAS stationed in the Mediterranean Sea
This Schneider is a late production aircraft with ailerons on both upper and lower wings. The aircraft was assigned to the RNAS at Grain during March of 1917
Three Sopwith Schneiders and a Sopwith Baby of the Royal Naval Air Service War Flight are parked in front of their hangars on the Isle of Grain on 13 March 1917. The third Schneider with the dark finish is number 8118
This RNAS Schneider, parked outside the Albany Boat House, Kingston-on-Thames, was experimentally fitted with Hope Linton floats
Sopwith Baby
A Sopwith Baby of an unidentified Royal Naval Air Service unit. The aircraft is armed with a .303 Lewis machine gun mounted on the upper wing center section. The Baby was a follow-on design based on the Schneider
Sopwith 2-seater 7762 on the racecourse that served as an AAP
Though bearing no maker's caption, this splendid study of an early 1,5 Strutter, 9382, was nevertheless clearly taken on Sopwith's behalf, and though no guns are mounted (some early 1,5 Strutters were apprently delivered without the Vickers gun, and mountings for the Lewis gun varied) all salient features of the airframe are admirably shown. In the background is an early Martinsyde G.100 - apparently 7263 or 7283 - with its top-wing gun mounting sticking up like the proverbial sore thumb.
Fitted with an "Eteve" machine gun mount in the rear cockpit, Sopwith 1,5 Strutter 7777 was built under license by Ruston Proctor. The 1,5 Strutter was built a number of subcontractors
Sopwith 2-seater 9723 was crashed on take-off at Thermi on 10 July 1917 by Buckley, with AM O'Brien as observer
A377 with Strange mounting (inconspicious as always)
German officers examine a "Strutter" (A993) of No 43 Squadron which was forced down intact on 28 April 1917. It is believed the serial on the fin was Black with a thin White outline
This 1,5 Strutter (A5252) was assigned to "A" Flight of the Wireless School, at Biggin, Kent. The aircraft was built by Wells and has the lower segment of the cowling removed
A Sopwith 1,5 Strutter of No 3 Wing, Royal Naval Air Service during early 1917
N5220 was built by the sub-contractor, Mann, Egerton & Co. of Norwich and carried the company name and address under the tail in White. The aircraft has three lift points on the fuselage, identified by the stenciling "Lift here" and an arrow in White
'No fighting aeroplane ever introduced as many novel armament features as this Sopwith two-seater': the 1 1/2 Strutter, showing synchronised Vickers gun with Sopwith padded screen and Scarff No.2 ring-mounting.
Clear-view top-wing panels are seen here, with the gun-carrying bow of the Scarff No.2 ring-mounting depressed on another specimen of the 1 1/2 Strutter
In the flying view both the Lewis gun and the Vickers gun are conspicuous.
This Sopwith 1,5 Strutter was flown by the French. It carried a 2 in the rudder in Black and had an "Eteve" gun mount in the rear cockpit for the observer's .303 Lewis machine gun
Both single and two seat 1,5 Strutter share the hangar of No 5 Wing, Royal Naval Air Service. The aircraft in the foreground (A2) carried the serial 9395 under the tail in White
This single-seat 1,5 Strutter reveals the two transparent panels in the upper wing center section and the single Vickers .303 machine gun mounted on the aircraft centerline ahead of the cockpit
Single-seat bomber version of the 1,5 Strutter, with bomb doors closed and showing clear-view top-wing panels. The Vickers gun is present and was indeed standard
Одноместный бомбардировщик 1В.1 (This "Strutter" has had the rear cockpit faired over and was being flown as a single-seater. The 1,5 Strutter was built to fill a variety of roles including, a single seat bomber, two seat fighter, two seat reconnaissance aircraft and two seater bomber)
An unfamiliar version of the 1,5 Strutter - on skis in Russia after the Armistice
A 1,5 Strutter fitted with hydrovanes and air bags (deflated along the fuselage) for experimental ditching trials
Official drawing of the 1 1/2 Strutter.
Only Naval Squadrons had the 150-hp Bentley BR1 Camels for at least some of the time
F.1 Camel first prototype
The prototype Sopwith F.1
F.1 Camel first prototype
A subsequent prototype
Prototype F.1/3 at Martlesham Heath Experimental Station
Prototype F.1/3 at Martlesham Heath Experimental Station
Prototype F.1/3
Prototype crashed by Sous-Leitenant Canivet, in France
This Sopwith Camel once belonged to Hollywood film maker and aerobatic pilot, Frank Tallman. The aircraft carried the serial N6524 and was used in a large number of Hollywood aviation motion pictures including the Warner Brothers film, "Hell Bent for Glory"
N6332, one of the initial production batch
US Navy F.1 A5721, March 1920 at Guantanamo, Cuba
Jacobsen standing in front of one of his victims, a Camel of 70 Squadron, B2307. 19 August 1917
B2428
Lt. E G Forder, was taken prisoner by Austro-Hungary in B2455 on May 11 1918
B3881 of 'A' Flight, No.9 (Naval) Squadron
Lt. O C Le Boutillier of No.9 (Naval) Squadron with B3883 on August 4 1917
No.8 (Naval) Squadron at Mont-St-Eloi early in 1918
B3922 of Naval Eight at Manstone in Autumn 1918
This Camel (B3926) of the Royal Naval Air Service was named Happy Hawkins and based at RNAS Sandown on the Isle of Wright during 1918. It was flown by D.M.B.Galbraith (DSC and Bar) an ace with fourteen victories to his credit while attached to No 8 Naval Squadron. He later served with No 204 Training Depot Station at Eastchurch
B3950 running its Clerget engine
This Camel Tsing Tau carried an undersize serial number (B5243) on the rear fuselage in White and the Eagle insignia of the Royal Naval Air Service
2/Lt. G A O Manley was captured in B5417
B6234 on No.3 Squadron with a Clerget engine
B6339 with No.6 Wing, Otranto
B6339 with No.6 Wing, Otranto
Captain M B Frew logged at least ten combat in B6372
Lieutenant C J Kent's 130hp Clerget 9B Camel, B6385 No.3 Squadron, RFC, after capture in November
B6398 at No.10 Training Depot Station, Harling Road
Camels of No.3 (Naval) Squadron, Dunkerque, February 1918
B6422
B7320 damaged by anti-aircraft
The upper wing of thi Camel F.1 (B7380) was painted to represent the Egyptian god Behudet. The aircraft was the 1,000th aircraft off the Ruston Proctor production line, being delivered on 4 January 1918. The Camel carried the name Ruston Proctor on the cowl
2/Lt. W H Maxted of No.3 Squadron 'C' Flight with Le Rhone engined B7905
Australian Camel C121
C1659 of No.46 Squadron
Sopwith Camel, 73 Squadron, shot down 1 September, probably by Oblt Robert Greim, Jasta 34b
D8101 with No.66 Squadron
Captain C M McEwen, MC, DFC, of No.28 Squadron, RAF, with D8239, post-Armistice
D9443 of No.3 Squadron in German hands
This Sopwith Camel F1 was named DIMPS III and carried highly colorful markings
E9968 was a dual-control two-seater of the South Eastern Area Flying Instructors' School at Shoreham
F2010 of No.70 Squadron, RAF
Major H V Champion de Crespigny, MC, DFC, with Lt. A G Jones-Williams, MC and Camel F3991, aircraft 'V' of No.65 Squadron, RAF
F4017 while at No.204 TDS, Eastchurch
F6037
F6037
This F.1 Camel (F6302) survived the war and was entered on the British Civil Register on 9 August 1922 as G-EBER. The aircraft crashed some three month later on 4 November and was totally destroyed
H7009 of No.209 Squadron, RAF
H7386 was a late-production Camel built by Hooper & Co.
A Sopwith Camel undergoing engine maintenance
Remarkable though the fact may seem, this head-on aspect (with the camera serving as an aiming-point for the Vickers gun, or vice versa) shows practically every basic feature of the Pup. The Sopwith caption reads: 'S.80 - Sopwith "Pup". 80 hp Le Rhone - 1916'
Of such clarity is this study of a Sopwith-built Pup that the gunfiring level (which, as Oliver Stewart recalled, 'projected back from under the rear part of the gun') is clearly seen. This might not have been so were the Sopwith padded screen installed, though fittings for this are present on the gun (a Vickers)
Pup A674 is seen here with 66 Squadron, this unit having re-equipped in March 1917 and moved to France as one of the new fighter units.
This Pup (A674) of No 66 Squadron at Filton, Bristol during early March of 1917 was built by the Standard Motor Company. The aircraft carried the company's badge painted on the interplane struts
A Whitehead example, with its A6158 more readable, and with port ailerons up.
This Pup (A6228) was assigned to No 40 Training Squadron at Waddon (Croydon), Surrey during mid-1917. After they were withdrawn from the Western Front, large numbers of Pups were used by training units
This Pup has the modified cowling indicating it is powered by a 100 hp Monosoupape engine. This aircraft was based at London Colney Airfield during 1917. The aircraft in the background is another Pup (A6235) which carries a White fuselage band
Modifications to Service (as distinct from experimental) Pups were relatively few, one of the best-known being the increase in tailplane incidence from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 degrees when the Gnome Monosoupape engine was fitted; but the tail surfaces of the one in distress here - and not, apprently, by reason of the sad event depicted, involving the inexpertly numbered 7313 (presumably the Standard-built A7313) - were non-standard
This Sopwith Pup of No 46 Squadron carried a White Skull and Crossbones on the wheel covers
A Standard-built specimen, darkly numbered B1704 hugely on the fin, and with port ailerons down.
Capt Foote flew this Sopwith Pup while assigned ti the Gosport School of Special Flying
With the 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine, the Pup had a distinctive cowling, open-bottomed (or 'horseshoe') and with four auxillary 'lips' round the upper-starboard segment of the nose-ring, as shown
The overall clear doped Linen Whitehead-built Pup is believed to have been assigned to a training unit. The aircraft is unarmed and the vertical fin is in White
This Whitehead-built Pup (B7525) is believed to have been powered by a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine and it appears to be carrying an early type of gun camera in place of the standard Vickers machine gun
Sopwith Pup (B7575) in the first stages of being repainted with a new high visibility checker board scheme at Edzell near Montrose during 1918
When finished, B7575 sported a Black and White checkerboard design with a Blue fin and natural metal cowling. The serial on the fin was in Black
Pup (C215) was painted Blue with White stripes and carried a small Kiwi marking under the cockpit in White. The serial was Black with a White outline
C215 also carried Black and White striped undersurfaces. The aircraft was assigned to the training role at Gosport during 1918
Sopwith Pup (D4031) served with No 3 TDS at Gullance, near Edinburg, Scotland. The fuselage band is believed to be Blue and White
Maurice Buckley flying escort to a Sopwith 2-seater in Pup N6433. He was attached to D Sqn, 2 Wing RNAS at Stavros, on the Balkan Front
Pup N6453 (which was also tested aboard HMS Furious) departs from the aft ('Y') turret of HMS Repulse - a battle cruiser having two such twin-gun turrets forward and one aft. Note that the departure in this instance is made over the rear of the turret, and not over the guns.
Airborne over the 15 in guns of a battle cruiser, with the broad bows stretching out ahead, the Pup was given a different nautical scale (sailor-caps give further scale and atmosphere at lower port). The flying-off platform seen here was an experimental downward-sloping one, mounted on 'B" turret of HMS Repulse; the pilot Sqn Cdr Rutland; the date 7 October, 1917.
The historic 'Dunning/Pup/Furious', or 'crabbing and grabbing', pictures have received different ascriptions from various authorities, though it showing no Lewis gun on the tripod mounting seemingly records the true 'first', on 2 August, 1917.
Le Prieur Rocket Installation
Sopwith Pup
As remarked in the text, there was wide agreement among pilots that the '80 Le Rhone' was the perfect partner for the Pup, and aspects of this delightful French rotary are here presented: left, 3/4 front; right, 3/4 rear.
One of the finest sets of official drawings ever prepared, showing not only salient features of the Pup, but details of armament (even the winding-off drum for the ammunition belt) - not to mention the buttons on the seat-cushion!
Prototype photographed at Chingford with Vickers gun installed
Prototype at St-Pol, Dunkerque, shortly after its arrival there in June 1916
By July 24 1916 the Triplane prototype had been painted overall with PC10 (or PC12), a finish that evidently inspired the name Brown Bread seen in this photograph. Its serial number N500 was applied discreetly in hollow characters
This was not the only occasion on which N500 ended up on it nose. This event probably occured in 1916
The second prototype, N504, was at Brooklands on August 29 1916
N5420's stay at the Clayton & Shuttleworth works was brief, for it was at Furnes by November 16 1916, and seven days later was recorded on the strength of No.1 Flight of 'A' Squadron RNAS
Collishaw's second Black Maria was N533, one of the six twin-gun Triplanes built by Clayton & Shuttleworth. He flew it on seven patrols between July 23 and 27 1917; on the latter date he destroyed one Albatros D.V and sent another down out of control
N5350, the first Triplane to be completed by Clayton & Shuttleworth. Delivered Dec 2 1916
N5350
N5364 went to No.10 (Naval) Squadron, and was lost on July 24 1917, when FSL T C May was shot down and killed by Leutnant Dilthey of Jasta 27
N5366 in a training unit, March 30 1918
N5377 of No.1 (Naval) Squadron after coming down in enemy territory on October 3 1917; its pilot, FSL M J Watson, was made PoW
N5378 at Chingford
This may have been N5382, which was at Manstone in mid-June 1917
N5386 was one of four RNAS Triplanes that were transferred to the French government, but it was later returned with its original serial number
The first Sopwith-built production Triplane, N5420, was sent as a sample to Clayton & Shuttleworth, who were also contractors for the type
Flight Lieutenant FHM Maynard of No.1 (Naval) in a presentation aircraft, Philippine Island Britons No.1
N5429, of No.1 (Naval) was flown by German pilots after capture
Triplane N5429 was attached to No 1 Naval Squadron and was brought down by the Germans on 13 September 1917 while being flown by Flight Sublieutenan Wilford and captured. The aircraft was repainted in German markings and test flown
Before N5430 suffered its accident on March 12 1918 its serial number had been repainted as A 5430. It is not known why this was done
N5430 was the only Triplane delivered to the Royal Flying Corps. The aircraft was used to intercept raiders while at Orfordness and was modified with an Aldis gun sight mounted above Vickers gun
The only Triplane to see service in the Aegean area was N5431, seen here at Mudros, probably in March 1917
N5431 after repair at Mudros following a landing accident on March 26 1917. Its fin, probably of local manufacture, now has a straight upper/leading edge
The rebuilt N5431 with a Lewis gun mounted to fire over the propeller arc
FSL Melling's Sopwith Triplane N5431 at either Mudros or Mitylene
N5445 had twin Vickers guns installed much as on the F.1 Camel
This side view of N5445 cleraly shows how much larger than standard this Triplane's rudder was, and the deeper top decking and cockpit contours can be seen
15 Sopwith Triplanes of No.1 (Naval) Squadron at Bailleul in July 1917
N5454 flown by FSL CHB Jenner-Parson of Naval Eight
N5459 on March 24 1917
Hilda was a Sopwith Triplane assigned to No 8 Naval Air Squadron during early 1917
This Sopwith Triplane was one of several aircraft supplied to the French government. The aircraft carries a White 3 on the fuselage side
Triplanes of the French naval escadrille, lined up at Dunkerque
At least 17, probably 18, Sopwith Triplanes were delivered to the French Aviation maritime and equipped a French naval escadrille at Dunkerque
French Triplane having a 110-hp Le Rhone 9J engine in place of the Clerget
This aircraft is a flying replica of a Sopwith Triplane based at Old Warden, Bedford. The aircraft carries the full Sopwith company logo on the fin in Black
On the few production Triplanes that were built with twin Vickers gun the armament was installed fully exposed, as seen here
A group of naval officers watch a Sopwith Triplane on its approach for landing on the grass field at Chingford
This Sopwith Triplane reproduction is displayed by the National Aviation Museum at Rockcliffe Airport, Ontario, Canada
This Sopwith 2F.1 Camel (N6812) was flown by Lt S.D.Culley on 31 July 1918 when he destroyed Zeppelin L53. The Camel was launched from a lighter at sea to perform the interception
A ground crewman pulls though the propeller of this 2F.1 Camel (N7376) of the Royal Canadian Air Force Exhibition Flight. The aircraft was preparing to conduct a demonstration flight at Camp Borden, Toronto, during 1928
In 1920 deck-flying trials were conducted with several types of aircraft on HMS Eagle. One of those involved was this 2F1, without armament
The unmistakable first form of the Dolphin (with frontal radiator and deep fuselage to match). The original aircraft at Brooklands, May 1917
The first Dolphin prototype as it originally appeared with frontal radiator, unbalanced rudder and fabric-covered rear decking almost up to the cockpit.
At right, with an RFC officer, is Tom Sopwith
View of the revised Dolphin, again with emphasis on the radiator.
The second prototype
Three aspects of the Dolphin in its exceptionally interesting second form with radiators let in to the roots of the upper wings, cut-outs in the bottom wings, and with horn-balanced rudder.
The radiators themselves are barely visible, even in a revised, larger, and more forward form (front view), though the 3/4 rear view shows associated fairings having vents projecting from their peaks.
In the front view (Sopwith No. S.132, captioned '2nd Machine') the rear cut-outs in the bottom wings may be transparent, with the horizontal tail surfaces showing dimly through them. Nevertheless, they mark a definite 'kink' in the trailing edge. (In this view also there are vibration-preventers for the inner main bracing wires).
Second prototype at Brooklands
Second prototype at Martlesham Heath
Cockpit of the second prototype
The third prototype at Brooklands
The third prototype at Martlesham
Though not instantly apparent (perhaps because of the distracting Lewis guns) the fourth form of the Dolphin had a shallower fuselage fore and aft of the cockpit. This form set the pattern for production. B6871
B7855 of No.19 Squadron at Bertangles
Lt. H E Snyder of No.79 Squadron in B7927 at Ste-Marie-Cappel
C3778
C3778
RNAS's C3785
RNAS's C3785
C3786
C3797
C3803 of No.141 Sqn.
Unidentified Sopwith Dolphin (possibly C3816) at Beaulieu in early 1918. As an operational type the aircraft replaced Spads in a number of fighter Squadrons; some were armed with two Vickers plus two Lewis guns giving them a formidable armament.
A full-standard Sopwith Dolphin night fighter serving with No 1 Training Squadron, armed with twin front Vickers and twin flexible Lewis machine guns.
C3824
C3828 with a Peugeot-made engine
C3854 of No.2 School of Aerial Fighting and Gunnery, Marske
C3858, February 19 1918
C3862 of No.141 (Home Defence) Squadron
Sopwith 5F.1 Dolphin C3872 'D' of 23 Sqn showing typical markings carried by the squadron
C3900 of No.79 Squadron
C3901 with No.79 Squadron
This Dolphin (C3905) was captured and stripped of its wheel covers and tires. The aircraft was formerly assigned to No 23 Squadron. The Squadron marking was a White individual letter on a Black disc
C3942 of No.141 (Home Defence) Squadron
C4033
Dolphin C4147, "S" of No.23 Squadron
C4168 of No 87 Squadron
C4172 at Gosport
C4191 September 2 1919
C8043 with No.79 Squadron, RAF, at Bickendorf in 1919
The White square on the fuselage of this Dolphin (C8049) identifies it as being assigned to No 79 Squadron at Bickendorf during March 1918. The aircraft carries the individual identification letter Y in White, which is repeated on the upper fuselage cocking
C8043 with No.79 Squadron, RAF, at Bickendorf in 1919
C8154 a home-based aircraft of a training unit
Dolphin III with 'de-geared' 200-hp Hispano-Suiza engine
Assigned to No 79 Squadron this Dolphin (D3584) was built by Hooper, a builder of customized car bodies. The aircraft was flown by F.W.Gilette
D3615, with 300-hp Hispano-Suiza engine
"Дельфин" из 87-го дивизиона RAF, август 1918 г.
The Sopwith Dolphin was designed to give the pilot the best possible field of view - hence the low setting of the upper wing - early trials showed great promise in speed and manoeuvrability (the first Martlesham tests having taken place in mid 1917). It was January 1918 before the first fully equipped unit, 19 Squadron, was operational in France. D3775 is seen here with 73 Squadron.
Supine S marking on No.87 Squadron Dolphin which had two outboard Lewis guns, one on each lower wing
D5261 of No.30 TDS Northold
The Dolphin's normal armament consisted of twin forward firing Vickers .303 machine guns aimed with the aid of an Aldis gunsight
It is believed that this is either an early production Salamander or one of the prototypes, as indicated by the small fin and rudder fitted to early aircraft. The fin and rudder were enlarged on production aircraft
Early production Salamander with an enlarged rudder
This Sopwith Salamander (E5429) trench fighter was sent to France during May of 1918 for an operational evaluation. Pilots reported that the Salamander was heavy on the controls
The cowling of the Bentley B.R.2 engine and the unstaggered Vickers guns show well in this close-up of the first Salamander - E5429. Maker's caption: "S.365 - Sopwith Salamander Trench Fighter T.F.2 - May 1/18'.
A production machine before final assembly (Sopwith Salamander E5429 ??). Especially interesting on the production machine, with its staggered guns, is the large case chute, with small link chute above it and the loading handle for the starboard gun peeping up above the cockpit rim just behind. Attachment points for a bomb-carrier are seen under the cockpit.
Sopwith Salamander. The third prototype Salamander
This production Salamander was sent to America, and is here seen at McCook Field
F6602, was one of 160 TF.2 Salamanders constructed at the Sopwith factory at Ham
This Sopwith Salamander carried an experimental camouflage scheme developed specially for the Salamander
The ultimate production version of the Snipe, with horn-balanced ailerons and the large fin and rudder
This superb Sopwith study has the maker's caption "S.20 - Sopwith Snipe 200 hp - Type 7.F.1 - 1st. Machine'.
The first Snipe prototype with B.R.2 engine, single-bay wings, narrow centre-section, and flat-sided fuselage. The fin and rudder were similar to those of the Camel (This Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe is believed to be the second prototype which differed from production variants in having a slab-sided fuselage. The Snipe was regarded as the ultimate wartime Sopwith fighter)
The first Snipe prototype with B.R.1 engine
The third Sopwith Snipe prototype with experimantal tapered tailplane and elevators. The upper wing has horn-balanced ailerons, and the fin and rudder are of the shape which was standrtised for the later production Snipe
This 'Dragonfly Snipe' - B9967 - was completed as early as April 1918 and was the precursor of the similar aeroplane that was later renamed Dragon.
E6531 was a two-seat Snipe used for training during the early 1920s. The aircraft is overall Aluminium dope. The fuselage band is believed to be Red, while the stripe along the fuselage is Black
This overall Aluminium doped 7F.1 Snipe from No 5 Flying Training School at Sealand during the early 1920s was piloted by Flying Officer the Earl of Bandon
This Sopwith Snipe is believed to have been assigned to No 55 Squadrin during the unit's deployment to Iraq
Snipe E.8068 fitted with hydrovane, Isle of Grain, 1918
E8102 was the Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe flown by MAJ W.G.Barker during the engagement on 27 October 1918 that won him the Victoria Cross. The aircraft was salvaged following the fight and the fuselage is still preserved in Canada
Major Goerge Barker's Sopwith Snipe E 8102
This Snipe (F2336) of 208 Squadron is a late production aircraft which featured horn balanced upper ailerons. The aircraft has a locally produced modification, a small conical shaped propeller spinner
Tied down on the grass at Aulnoy airfield, this Snipe (F2341) has a bomb on the fuselage centerline. The aircraft was used in the ground attack role
This Silver Doped Sopwith Snipe carried an Indian Head marking on the fin
The AEG G.II prototype (GZ 2) was powered by two 150 hp Benz Bz.III engines.
Early model of the AEG C.IV type used by Fl.-Abt.(A) 252w.
AEG G.IV (GZ 4) prototype bomber was powered by two 260 hp Mercedes D.IVa engines.
AEG G.IV (GZ 4) prototype bomber
AEG G.IV 170/16 of the first production batch.
Italian officers inspecting captured AEG G.IV 1110/16 of Kampfgeschwader 4.
The AEG GIV with the 260hp Mercedes DIVa entered service towards the end ol the year and continued in use until mid 1918. This example is a captured aircraft.
Three-quarter Rear View of the A.E.G. G.IV Bomber. 1918 type.
An early-production AEG G.IV armed with a flexible Spandau 08 machine gun
Parachute attached to an AEG G.IV of KG 4. Parachutes were normally issued to German fighters pilots starting in June 1918 so this may have been a test setup.
The business end of an AEG G.IV carrying bombs.
AEG G.IV with a damaged engine nacelle
AEG G-IVb G.192/16
AEG G.IVb-lang G.856/17
AEG G.IVb
AEG G.IVb
AEG G.IV 180/16 of Kampfgeschwader 4 came to grief in November 1917.
AEG G.IV 575/18 of Bogohl 4 in November 1918.
Brand new AEG G.IV 1227/18 rolled into a stream.
The AEG D.1 prototype fighter was unusual in that the airframe was built totally of steel tubing, including the wing spars and ribs. The fact that the wings had a single, steel-tube spar made it possible to reduce the drag-producing interplane bracing to a minimum.
  There is little reason to doubt that Leutnant Walter Hohndorf assisted in the design of the AEG D.I. A licensed pilot and engineer, Hohndorf worked as a designer under chief engineer George Konig at the Union Flugzeugwerke, whose aircraft he piloted in several pre-war flying competitions. After volunteering for the air service in August 1914, Hohndorf was assigned to the Siemens-Schuckert Werke as a test pilot and broke a world record with four passengers in a Kondor biplane (September 4, 1915). When he returned to the Front, Hohndorf became a fighter pilot and, as an eight-victory ace, was awarded the coveted Pour le Merite on July 20, 1916. It was not Unusual for Front-line pilots to maintain communication with their former employers or training units. The private pipeline was, in fact, an important Source of up-to-date combat information. That is how Konig, who had become chief designer at AEG, and Hohndorf cooperated on the design of the AEG D.I.
  The AEG D.1 prototype, powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, made its appearance in May 1917. Flight-testing took place on the AEG airfield in Henningsdorf located on the outskirts of Berlin. Whether Hohndorf participated is not known. During the course of testing at least one of the three prototypes was given a lengthened fuselage (40 cur 15.7 in increase) to improve the longitudinal stability. Ear radiators replaced the nose radiator that blocked forward visibility.
  At the end of June 1917, the D.1 was sent to Adlershof for the customary static-load tests, flight evaluation, climb and performance tests and engineering critique, known as the Typen-Prufung (type-test). The static load tests, performed between June 28 and July 3 1917, showed that the wings were sufficiently strong but the fuselage required strengthening. The reinforced fuselage passed the tests on August 1-4 1917. With the load tests successful. Nothing stood in the way of flight investigation by military pilots. On August 21 1917, the 'highly-skilled' Idflieg test pilot, Leutnant Julius Hendrichs, was killed at Adlershof when the AEG D.1 went into an 'ever steeper dive' from 400 meters (1310 ft) and crashed out of control. In spite of Hendrichs' death, the type-test was completed on August 25 1917. The climb figures were to be established at a later date. Surprisingly for a company with such a long record of building military aircraft, the type-test report listed numerous, minor shortcomings, such as missing identification labels, poorly located instruments, rough control actuation, inaccessible engine parts and the like. Idflieg ordered improvements to be made. After which 20 pre-production D.1 fighters would be sent to the Front for combat evaluation. The D.I. had promise, clocking a top speed of 225 km/h (137 mph) and having a climb equal to the Albatros D.V, then a relatively new type in combat.
  By this time, one of the three AEG D.1 prototypes had reached Jagdstaffel 14, of which Hohndorf was commander. In the course of flying D.1 4400/17, Hohndorf crashed and was killed on September 5 1917. With two deaths blemishing its record, Idflieg cancelled the AEG D.1 program and the pre-production of 20 aircraft.
  
Colors and markings
  
  Little information is available regarding the colors of the AEG D.1 fighters but photographs suggest a very pale blue dope was applied overall with white outlines to the national insignia. On photographs of D5002/17, there is evidence of narrow black outlines to the wing leading edges. Serial numbers applied to the fin were also black.
  
  
Armament: 2 synchronised 7,92-mm (0-312-in) Spandau machine guns.
Max speed: 137 mph (220 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m): 2-5 min.
Empty weight: 1,510 lb (685 kg).
Loaded weight: 2,072 lb (940 kg).
Span: 27 ft 10 5/8 in (8,50 m).
Length: 20 ft 0 1/8 in (6,10 m).
AEG D.I 4400/17 prototype at Jagdstaffel 14 in late August - early September 1917. The nose radiator had been replaced by ear radiators to improve the forward visibility.
AEG D.I 4401/17 (foreground) and 4402/17 (rear) on the Henningsdorf airfield. In this photograph the fuselage of D.I 4402/17 does appear to be longer than the D.I 4401/17 on the left. The thin and highly-finished wing surfaces show up well in this view.
Exactly where the AEG D.I 5002/17, from the pre-production batch 5000/17, fits into the scheme of things is difficult to ascertain. If it was the type-test flight evaluation example, then it could be the machine that Leutnant Hendrichs crashed in August 1917. The location is Adlershof.
AEG G-IVk 500/18 prototype.
AEG G.IVk 503/18.
Tightly squeezed into an experimental turret, the gunner demonstrates the operation of a 2 cm Becker cannon mounted in the AEG G.IV 1096/16 bomber. Effective firing trials against ground targets were performed in October-November 1917. The turret was capable of rotation. The curious, heart-shaped machine gun support on the upper turret is likewise an experimental installation.
Albatros C.III powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine ready to leave the Albatros Werke factory at Johannisthal for flight acceptance.
Albatros C.III 4189/15 is unusual in that it is fitted with side radiators
Albatros C.III 155/16 being readied for flight
Albatros C.III 722/16 of Kampfgeschwader IV, Staffel 20
Albatros C.III 722/16 of Kampfgeschwader IV, Staffel 20
Albatros C.III 736/16 with unit markings.
Albatros C.III 1376/16
C.III 1388/16
The synchronization mechanism has been temporarily removed on the Albatros C.III.
Albatros C.III(Hansa) 4003/17 showing cowling details.
Albatros C.III(Hansa) 4090/17
Albatros C.III(Li) 5403/17 fitted with an experimental radiator for the Mercedes D.III engine.
Albatros C.III(Bay) or later (BFW) 7387/17
Albatros C.III '6' of Kasta 22 in dark camouflage.
Albatros C.III(SSW) at Adlershof during type testing in late 1917.
View from above of a C III type Albatros biplane
The control wheel and instrument board of a C III type Albatros, showing radiator in upper plane and compass upside down just below it.
Albatros C.III(LVG) 5023/17
Albatros C.III of Flieger Abteilung (A)224
C.VII prototype
Albatros C.VII 1283/16
Albatros C.VII 1302/16 armed with a Parabellum LMG 14.
Albatros C.VII 1330/16 of Flieger Abteilung 7
Albatros C.VII 2187/16 of the first production series ordered in June 1916.
Albatros C.VII 2197/16
Crew members posing in Albatros C.VII 2204/16
Albatros C.VII 2211/16 of the first production batch
Albatros C.VII(Bay) 3033/16 attached to a naval unit
Albatros C.VII 3510/16
Albatros C.VII 3537 was badly damaged in the bombing raid of 22 March 1917
Albatros C.VII(Bay) 7720/16 shows there's no accounting for human error. The serial number on the tail, C.7720/17, has been incorrectly applied!
Albatros C.VII of Flieger Abteilung 21
This aircraft flown by a Fliegertruppe unit stationed at Gross Auz (near Alt Auz, now Vec Auce, Latvia) in the winter of 1916-1917
Hptm. Schlegel finds an interesting place on the exhaust of his C.VII to pose for a photograph; one imagines the engine must not have been run for some time. Below the fuselage is the antenna weight for the wireless, and the ear radiator is partially blocked for cold weather operation. Meanwhile the observer practices with his binoculars.
Экипировка экипажа этого "альбатроса" значительно отличается. Летчик облачен в кожаную куртку и шлем; стрелок одет в мундир, и от ветра его предохраняет шарф и шлем с маской
Ltn. Frankel (left) and Offstv. Gunther seated in an Albatros C.VII of Fl. Abt. A 299 in 1917
Factory photograph of an Albatros C.VII with rounded wing tips
Albatros C.VII 1350/16
Albatros C.VII 3537/16 built by OAW and flown by Flieger Abteilung 46b
Albatros C.VII of Flieger Abteilung (A) 254 photographed on 14 January 1917
The pilot of Albatros C.VII(Bay) 3776/16 has destroyed one of the engine test stands
Albatros D.II 491/16. Most historians believe victories 4 - 16 were obtained in this machine.Richthofen was awarded the Pour le Merite, or Blue Max for victory no.16. Victories 1 - 4 were obtained in the similar Alb. D.I.
Albatros D.II D.1072/16 flown by Ltn Josef Jacobs, Jasta 22, spring 1917
Прототип истребителя "Альбатрос" D.I
The Albatros DI prototype with vertical exhaust pipe and unbalanced elevator.
The Albatros Dl was introduced to counter the DH2 and early Nieuports that had proven superior to the Fokker Eindeckers. Along with the DII they became standard equipment lor the new fighter units - the Jastas.
Захваченный англичанами на месте вынужденной посадки "Альбатрос" D.I лейтенанта Бюттнера из 2-й истребительной эскадрильи германских ВВС / Side view of Albatros destroyer, type D.I, 1916-17.
The Jastas were highly successful in regaining air superiority at any point on the front to which they were attached; however, the problem was that there were simply not enough of them to cover all areas. This Albatros Dl belonged to Karl Buttner of Jasta 2 in late 1916.
Albatros D.I 473/16 (???) visiting Jasta 5.
Karl Schafer in his Albatros D.II (1724/16) of Kampfstaffel 11. Marking is a white circle, edged black, on fuselage and both elevators; note rearview mirror.
A D II licence-built by LVG. The modestly staggered wing cellule is well shown by this photo.
This head-on view of an Albatros D.II shows off the fine lines of the aircraft, which are marred somewhat by the Windhoff radiators mounted on each side of the fuselage.
That the heavy Becker cannon was installed and tested on the Albatros D.II fighter defies belief. According to Idflieg records firing trials with this fighter were performed in November 1916. This combination may have appeared briefly at the Front for evaluation.
The same D.II of Flt. Abt. 21 had its undercarriage torn off in a rough landing.
Albatros D.III flown by Ltn Lothar von Richthofen, Jasta 11, early 1917.
Albatros D.III Jasta 5. Green & Mauve/Light Blue horizontal surfaces. Black and White fuselage, Green tail unit & Red spinner, wheel cover and tail trim.
Albatros D.III D.774/17 flown by Oblt Otto Hartmann, leader of Jasta 28, 1917.
Albatros D.III 789/17. Richthofen flew three all red D.IIIs and obtained victories 37 - 53 in them/ Machine 789/17 displayed an Albatros logo on its rudder.
Albatros D.III D.2090/17 flown by Vfw Fritz Jacobson, Jasta 31, April 1917.
Albatros D.III D.2385/17 flown by Ltn Paul Strahle, Staffelfuhrer of Jasta 57, spring 1918.
Albatros D.III Jasta 11, Douai, Spring 1917. Green & Brown/Light Blue horizontal surfaces. Red, White & Clear-doped fuselage and rudder.
Albatros D.III flown by Ltn Werner Voss, Jasta 2 Boelcke, mid-1917.
Albatros D.III flown by Ltn Franz Ray, Jasta 49, 1918.
Albatros D.III flown by Kurt Wusthoff, Jasta 4, summer 1917.
Udet stands in front of his Albatros D.III D.1941/16 on a freezing January morning in 1917.The mechanics are warming the engine with pre-warmed oil and hot water. Even so, the coolant could quickly freeze in such cold temperatures. Ironically, the Militaar Nummer, 1941/16, reflects the year Udet would later die.
Albatros D.III D.2125/16 of Jasta 1 marked in black with the initial of its usual pilot, Leutnant Freiherr von Stenglin.
Leutnant Grasshof, commander of Jasta 37, in Albatros D.III D.2135/16
Albatros D.III(OAW) of Jasta 57 in flight in the spring of 1918. This aircraft is possibly Paul Strahle's machine D.2385/17.
Leutnant Max Romer's Albatros had a wash applied over the national markings. It was most probably yellow, the Jasta 10 color. The lightning bolt was Romer's individual insignia. Previously a pilot with Flieger-Abteilung (A) 208, Romer had been with JG I just four weeks when he was killed on 2 October 1917.
Albatros D.III of Jasta 19 in the spring of 1917; the pilot is Lt.d.R. Franz Dotzel. Jasta 19 used personal insignias based on the pilot's last name with the letters in black and white.
Albatros D.III(OAW) flown by Gunther Dobberke in Jasta 45 (or perhaps Jasta 60) in the spring of 1918.
Leutnant Barenfanger of Jasta 28
OAW-built D.III of Leutnant Otto Fuchs with the pilot's personal emblem of the fox (Fuchs) chasing the Gallic cock.
Jasta 27 lineup; a single Roland D.II is at left in a lineup consisting mostly of Albatros D.III and D.V fighters.
Пулеметы "Шпандау" являлись германской копией американского "Максима". Водяное охлаждение ствола было заменено на воздушное
Leutnant Weaver's up-ended D.III emphasize the black and white decor of this Jasta 26 machine.
Albatros C.X(Li) 8305/16 at Adlershof in early August 1917 for performance trials.
Albatros D.V 1033/17 & Albatros D.V 4693/17. Both machines were finished in this scheme. Victories 58 and 59 were obtained in 4693/17, and on July 6, 1917, Richthofen was shot down and seriously wounded in 1033/17.
Albatros D.V D.1148/17 flown by Ltn Hans Adams, Jasta 6, summer 1917.
Albatros D.V 1177/17 Victories 54, 55, 56 and 57 were obtained in this machine.
Albatros D.V (D.1162/17) Jasta 4, 1917.
Albatros D.V D.2030/17, Jasta 22, Lt. Alfred Lenz, Vivaise, August 1917. Green & Mauve/Light Blue horizontal surfaces. Overall Green fuselage.
Albatros D.V 2059/17. Victories 62 and 63 were obtained in this machine.
Albatros D.V D.2092/17 flown by Ltn Walter Boning, Staffelfuhrer of Jasta 76b, early 1918
Albatros D.V D.2214/17 flown by Ltn Heinrich Kroll, Jasta 24, summer 1917
Albatros D.V 2236/17 flown by Leutnant Ludwig Weber of Jasta 3
Albatros D.V 2263/17 flown by Otto Kissenberth, Jasta 23b, summer 1917
Albatros flown by Otto Kissenberth, Jasta 16b, mid-1917
Albatros D.V 2284/17 flown by Ltn Hans Waldhausen, Jasta 37, late summer 1917
Albatros D.V 2299/17 flown by Oblt Bruno Loerzer, leader of Jasta 26, autumn 1917
Albatros D.V 2359/17 flown by Lt d Res Otto Hohmuth. Captured March 6, 1918.
Albatros D.V (D.4594/17) Jasta 18, 1918.
Albatros D.V 5284/17 flown by Vfw Josef Mai, Jasta 5, late 1917
Albatros D.V D.5815/17 flown by Gerhard Hubrich, Seefrosta 1, summer 1918
Albatros D.Va(OAW) (D.6633/17) Jasta 78b, 1918
Albatros D.V flown by Uffz Paul Baumer, Jasta 5, summer 1917.
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn Josef Jacobs, Jasta 7, 1917.
Albatros D.V flown by Lt. Heinrich Gontermann of Jasta 15
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn Aloys Heldmann, Jasta 10, late 1917
Albatros D.V flown by Vfw Otto Konnecke, Jasta 5, 1917
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn Kurt Monnington, Jasta 15, 1917
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn Ulrich Neckel, Jasta 12, 1917
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn Friedrich Ritter von Roth, Jasta 23b, early 1918
Albatros D.V flown by Vfw Fritz Rumey, Jasta 5, 1917
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn Theodor Rumpel, Jasta 16b, 1917
Jasta 11 Albatros D.V, serial unk., Ltn. Carl August von Schoenebeck.
Albatros D.V flown by Ltn. Carl-August von Schoenebeck, Jasta 11, 1917
Albatros D.Va, Bogohl 6, Staffel 19, Lt. Brauer. Green & Mauve/Light Blue horizontal surfaces. Overall Clear-doped fuselage with Yellow nose & tail
Albatros D.Va, Jasta 84, Lt. Weber. 5-Color Lozenge horizontal surfaces. Clear-doped fuselage. Black & White tail.
Albatros D.Va, Jasta 62, Lt. Max Nather, Balatre. April-May 1918. Green & Mauve/Light Blue horizontal surfaces. Overall Black fuselage with Red spinner.
Albatros D.Va flown by Eduard Ritter von Schleich, JGr 8, spring 1918.
Albatros D.Va Ltn Ernst Udet JAFU, Jasta 37, Wynghene Aerodrome. Early 1918
Albatros D.Va flown by Ltn Ernst Udet, leader of Jasta 37, late 1917
Albatros D.Va
Thom's distinctive Albatros D.Va in 1917.
Hans Waldhausen and groundcrew stand in front of his Albatros D.V D.2284/17. This was the machine in which he was captured on 27 September 1917
Gerhard Hubrich's Albatros D.Va D.5815/17 of Marine Feld Jasta IV in late 1918
This Albatros D.Va was flown by Walter Boning during his time with Jasta 76b. The machine was photographed whilst up on a trestle having its guns fired into the distant butts
Hasso von Wedel's Albatros D.Va in 1918 with his 'Richtrag' marking on the fuselage, repeated on the top of the fuselage
Albatros D.V scouts of Jasta 23b at Favreul, March 1918
Jasta 27 lineup; a single Roland D.II is at left in a lineup consisting mostly of Albatros D.III and D.V fighters.
Franz Schleiff, Staffelfuhrer of Jasta 56 in 1918, poses with his Albatros D.Va
Albatros D.Va, D.2343/17, Jasta 61, Vzfw. Jautsch. Green & Mauve.Light Blue horizontal surfaces. Overall Clear-doped fuselage with Green nose & White rudder
DFW C.V
Fokker E.I
The longer "bathtub" cockpit of the M.5K/MG (E.1) is quite evident. This aircraft was serialed 46/15.
Fokker E.II
Fokker E.III
Носовая часть "Фоккера" Е.III без обшивки. Хорошо виден ротативный мотор "Оберурсель", топливный бак, ручной бензонасос и синхронный пулемет LMG 08 с коробом для патронной ленты.
Fokker E.IV
The E IV was more powerful and more heavily armed than preceding fighting scouts, but its success at the Front was limited.
"Фоккер" Е.IV из "полевого авиаотряда" FildFliegerAbteilung 19, 1916 год.
Раскапотированная носовая часть фюзеляжа "Фоккера" E.IV с двухрядным 14-цилиндровым ротативным двигателем "Оберурсель" U.III и максимальным набором вооружения - тремя синхронными пулеметами LMG 08.
Fokker M16E of 1915. To be historically accurate it is the Fokker M16 Karausche. The E (= Einsteilig) is a spurious designation added after WW1. You know it, there was also a two-bay Fokker M16, which got the spurious designation M16Z.
Прототипом D I был опытный самолет М18. Его конструктивной "изюминкой" было установленное на фюзеляже верхнее крыло. На фотографии - Э. Фоккер, обычно выполнявший первый полет при испытаниях нового самолета.
An early production D I
Fokker D.IV
Fokker D.II
Серийный "Фоккер" D.II с синхронным пулеметом LMG 08/15.
Опытный экземпляр "Фоккера" с уменьшенным размахом крыльев и одностоечной бипланной коробкой.
Fokker D.III
The D III in its definitive production form in which ailerons replaced wing warping for lateral control.
"Фоккер" D.V без вооружения на немецком полевом аэродроме. Эта машина использовалась в 1917-18 гг. для тренировки летного состава.
"Фоккер" D.V без вооружения на немецком полевом аэродроме. Эта машина использовалась в 1917-18 гг. для тренировки летного состава.
Лейтенанты Баумер и фон Хиппель возле "Фоккера" D.V, принадлежавшего 5-й истребительной эскадрилье (Jasta 5) германских ВВС.
Один из первых экземпляров "Фоккера" Dr.I с заводским номером 115/17, западный фронт, сентябрь 1917 г.
The Fokker Dr1 was, despite its obvious failings, well liked by many of the pilots, a number of whom were reluctant to trade in their mounts even when technically superior fighters became available. It was one of those aircraft that acquired a mystique, a mystique that still survives today!
Richthofen's red-painted 425/17 seen in its final state of decoration shortly before he was brought down and killed in this triplane.
"Фоккер" D.VII №461/18 на испытаниях в Адлерсхофе.
"Фоккер" E.V оберлейтенанта Эриха Ловенхардта, август 1918г.
The Fokker V.26, which became the E.V, won the Second Fighter Competition despite using a low-powered 110 hp Oberursel. This spectacular example was flown by Jasta 6 in August 1918 until a series of fatal accidents were attributed to poor assembly and quality control at the factory. The E.V had to be withdrawn for wing replacement. By the time the planes returned in October, Idflieg had decided that all fighters would be in the 'D' category and the E.V became the Fokker D.VIII.
This side view of the Gotha G.II prototype gives a better view of the inadequate vertical tail surfaces. The control cables were let outside the rear fuselage, adding drag to the airframe.
The Gotha G.II prototype was a completely different aircraft than the G.I. Distinguishing characteristics include the 2-bay wing, 4-wheel undercarriage under each engine, and the too-small rudder with no fin.
Ingenieur Hans Burkhard (bow tie) and Gotha test pilot Schleiffer (in leather jacket) with the Gotha G.II production prototype.
Gotha G.III 376/16
Gotha G.III 384/16 with the tailskid raised on a wagon.
Gotha G.III 387/16
Kagohl 2 personnel inspecting the crash of Gotha G.III 388/16.
Gotha G.III 397/16 being inspected by squadron personnel in May 1917.
Gotha G.III 397/16
Gotha G.III of Kagohl 2
Gotha G.III of Kagohl 2
Gotha G.IV prototype
Gotha G.IV prototype
Gotha G.IV 405/16 of Kagohl 3
Gotha G.IV 409/16 of Kagohl 3
An early Gotha G.IV, possibly G.410/16
Gotha G.IV 606/16 of Kagohl 3, June 5, 1917
A factory photograph of Gotha G.IV 607/16 carrying six 50-kg PuW bombs beneath the fuselage. The far-forward carriage of the bombs under the nose illustrate the tail-heaviness of the basic design. The bombardier/forward gunner normally carried a number of 12.5 kg bombs in bomb racks inside his cockpit, which partially compensated for the center of gravity problems, at least until they were dropped.
Gotha G.IV(SSW) 1055/16 landed intact on Dutch soil, August 18, 1917.
Gotha G.IV(LVG) 121/17 crash-landed Geschwaderschule Paderborn.
Gotha G.IV(SSW) 213/17 of the post-war Polish air service.
Gotha G.IV(SSW) 213/17 of the post-war Polish air service.
Gotha G.IV
Gotha G.IV bombers at the Kagohl 3 airfield at Nieuwmunster on the Flanders coast.
Gotha G.IV(SSW)
Gotha G.V 901/16
Leutnant Claus Petersen, Unteroffizier Renner and mechanic Unteroffizier van Treek with Gotha G.V 904/16
Pushing Gotha G.V 904/16 into the hangar.
Gotha G.V 904/16 seen post-March 1918 with Balkenkreuz insignia.
Gotha G.V 904/16 'Erika' and ground personnel holding 12,5kg, 100kg and 50kg PuW bombs.
Gotha G.V of Staffel 18 in May 1918
The Gotha G.Va prototype with the final configuration of the box tail used in production.
Gotha G V with twin-wheel nose undercarriage. This is probably the example that was evaluated in the field by Bogohl III. Based on the Friedrichshafen type nose undercarriage and using rubber-in-compression as a shock-absorber, it was not adopted; but Gotha fitted their own 'stossfahrgestell' to the G V's undercarriage assemblies with success and all late production Gotha G Va and G Vb machines had this refinement which greatly enhanced the safety of night operations. The gunner is demonstrating how he could fire via the tunnel aperture into the machine's 'blind spot'. The protective screens on either side of the cockpit are clearly shown, as are the external control cables to the tail and the over-wing fuel tank.
Gotha G.Vb 917/18 Hessen-Nassau. Gotha build eighty G.Vb bombers.
Gotha G.Vb
The cockpit and flight controls of Gotha G.V 904/16 are typical for Gotha G.IV bombers as well. The cellon window above the instruments provided illumination during the day.
Первый прототип "Хальберштадта". Январь 1916 года
Derived from the D I, the D II was built in small numbers by three companies in 1916.
Halberstadt D.II
Техник демонстрирует легкость фюзеляжа "Хальберштадта" D.II.
Halberstadt D.III
Хальберштадт D.II. Западный фронт, 1916 год
The two-seat CL II became the maintstay of the Schutzstaffeln for escort duties in 1917.
Halberstadt CL.IV
Roland C.II prototype on the occasion of roll-out on October 24, 1915.
The Roland C.II prototype on October 24, 1915.
Roland C.II prototype with the 160hp Mercedes D.III engine.
The first Roland C.II series machine (4413/15) on February 4, 1916.
Roland C.II (4437/15)
Roland C.II of Staffel 6 at Mont airdrome
Roland C.II of Staffel 6 at Mont airdrome
C.II early production model.
Roland C.II on March 10, 1916.
Groschler and Patheiger of Feldflieger-Abteilung (A) 213
Hptm. Eduard Ritter von Schleich in his Roland C.II.
Hptm. Eduard Ritter von Schleich in his Roland C.II.
Roland C.II 1615/16
Roland C.II 1615/16
Roland C.II of Flieger-Abteilung 7.
Roland C.IIa(Li) 1859/16 crashed at the Bayerische Flieger Schule 5.
Roland C.IIa(Li) 1859/16 crashed at the Bayerische Flieger Schule 5.
Leutnant Hans Joachim von Hippel's Roland C.IIa(Li) 3645/16 trainer.
Leutnant Hans Joachim von Hippel's Roland C.IIa(Li) 3645/16 trainer.
Roland C.IIa(Li) 3654/16.
Linke-Hoffmann built Roland C.IIa(Li)
Later production aircraft had the two-color factory camouflage scheme like the C.IIa shown here.
Roland C.IIa Staffel.
Курсовой пулемет был установлен между трубами предохранительной пирамиды, возвышаясь над фюзеляжем, а на ее верхушке крепилось зеркало заднего вида.
This closeup of a camouflaged, mid-production C.II 2731/16 shows the crew and armament. The observer has signal flares mounted in a rack aft of his window and the pilot has a rear-view mirror mounted on the turnover pylon.
Roland C.IIa 2828/16
Roland C.II of Feldflieger Abteilung (A) 292b
Roland C.II of Feldflieger Abteilung (A) 292b
The second prototype of the Roland D.I in front of the Roland factory at Adlershof.
The second Roland D.I prototype
Developed from the earlier Roland C.II two-seater, the Roland D.I fighter had two guns and the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine. It was fast but the pilots' forward view was poor, and the design was quickly revised as the Roland D.II to fix that limitation, particularly problematic for a fighter.
An early production example of the Roland D.I Haifisch (Shark) at Adlershof.
Test pilot Eugen Wiencziers posing with Roland D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
Roland D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
Roland D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
Roland D.I attached to Jasta 5 in Winter 1916-1917.
Roland D.I '10' of Jasta 5
A crashed Roland D.I '11' probably of Jasta 5
Roland D.I in early markings
Roland D.I
Front view of the same Roland D.I
Roland D.I with pilot aboard.
FEA 9 personnel posing with a 50kg PuW bomb.
The prototype Roland D.II on Oct. 22, 1916 in front of the LFG flight test hangar. An anemometer airspeed indicator is mounted on the upper left wing.
Roland D.II(Pfal) 2872/16, before the application of camouflage paint, March 1917.
Roland D.II
Roland D.II with Lt. Anslinger.
Jasta 27 lineup; a single Roland D.II is at left in a lineup consisting mostly of Albatros D.III and D.V fighters.
Leutnant Wolker of Jasta 31 with a Roland D.II
Roland D.II
Roland D.II(Pfal) on the Eastern Front
Taken apart for transport is the Roland D.IIa(Pfal) 359/17.
Roland D IIa 478/17 at the Kaiserdamm factory 7 February 1917.
This Roland D.IIa, completed the morning of 7 Feb. 1917, was the 500th Roland airplane built during the war.
The LFG-built D.IIa flown by Vizefeldwebel Harling of Jasta 31.
19-victory ace Vzfw. Gerhard Fieseler in the cockpit of Lt. Ahelfeld's Roland D.IIa of Jasta 25 in Macedonia. Jasta 25 Roland fighters were normally identified by the initial of the pilot's last name; here, 'A' for Ahelfeld. Fieseler's aircraft would most likely have had an 'F' for identification. After the war Fieseler started his own aircraft company; his most famous product was the Fi-156 Fieseler Storch (Stork) known for its exceptional low speed flying qualities and ability to make very short landings and take-offs.
The Argus As.III engine was neatly encapsulated in the Roland D.IIa.
LFG-built Roland D.IIa.
Roland D.IIa, at Adlershof during Winter 1916-1917
Dramatic view of a Roland D.IIa in Bulgarian service in 1918 as indicated by the late-style insignia.
Ltn. Wieland is on the far right of this shot of a pranged Pfalz-built machine which may have been a Jasta 27 aircraft.
The Roland W was a twin-float seaplane adaptation of the D I, remaining a prototype.
Roland Type W (marine number 750)
Roland Type W (marine number 750)
Кабина экипажа самолета CV. В кабине летчика только два прибора и ручка управления в виде трезубца. Пулемет "Парабеллум" установлен на оригинальной турели, напоминающей турель Скарфа, но со своеобразной системой фиксации дуги.
The crew of a Rumpler (???) reconnaissance aircraft lie dead beside their aircraft after being brought down.
Pfalz E.I 213/15 was used as a trainer.
Pfalz E.I 213/15 was used as a trainer. The designation and serial number are just above the rudder cross.
Pfalz E.I 216/15
Pfalz E.I 473/15 in new condition on the Speyer field.
Pfalz E.I 473/15 in new condition on the Speyer field.
Pfalz E.I 473/15 on the Speyer field.
Pfalz E.I of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 7.
Leutnant Fischinger of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 21 with his Pfalz E.I.
Unteroffizier Max Holtzem, who for a while performed military acceptance flights.
Holtzem's crash on February 23, 1916 at Schleissheim in a Pfalz E-type.
Lt. Otto Kissenberth with a Pfalz E.I at KEK (Kampfeinsitzer Kommando) Ensisheim. The E.I shows the iron crosses beneath the wings and tailplane. The wing structure shows through the fabric, and the Pfalz logo is on the center of the engine cowling. Kissenberth first became a fighter pilot at KEK Ensisheim and went on to score 20 confirmed victories and win the Pour le Merits before crashing a captured Sopwith Camel. His last victory was in the captured Camel. His injuries kept him out of further combat. Kissenberth was one of a number of aces who wore glasses.
The Pfalz E I was broadly based on the Morane-Saulnier Type H and began to arrive at the Front from late October 1915.
Pfalz E.I shares the hangar with Fokker B.I 1045/15 in the background.
Rear view of a Pfalz E-type.
Pfalz E.I.
The end of Pfalz E.II 454/15.
Pfalz E.II
Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
Pfalz E.IV 647/15, an aircraft of the first production batch.
Oblt. Rudolf Berthold crashed in Pfalz E.IV 803/15 at Chateau Vaux aerodrome on 25 April (22 May ???), 1916. The serious injuries Berthold experienced in this crash were the first of many wounds and injuries that finally forced his removal from the front, but not before scoring 44 confirmed victories and being awarded the Pour le Merite.
Leutnant Ernst Udet crashed a Pfalz E.IV when he was attached to the Kampf-Einsitzer-Kommando Habsheim.
Pfalz E.IV
Pfalz D.III 1370/17. Capture number G.110
Pfalz D.III 1382/17
Pfalz D.III 4006/17
Fluglehrer Riensberg killed in the crash of Pfalz D.III 4049/17, Jan 13, 1917.
Pfalz D.III 4058/17
Pfalz D.III 4156/17
Cockpit of Pfalz D.III 4184/17 of Jasta 15 captured on February 26, 1918 and assigned the British captured aircraft number G.141
Pfalz D.III 4185/17 photographed at the Jasta 5 aerodrome at Boistrancourt in 1917. Overall silbergrau finish is relieved by encircling red and white bands which have obliterated all traces of the fuselage serial number. Note windscreen style and safety harness Strap hanging from cockpit.
Pfalz D.IIIa 5947/17 of Jasta 30 with ground crew.
Looking rather bland, Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 in French markings at Villacoublay.
Ltn.d.R. Rudolf Stark standing in front of Pfalz D.IIIa 8178/17.
The best-known of German triplanes after the Fokker Dr.I emerged from the Pfalz factory at Speyer on the Rhine. The design was of typical Pfalz construction; the Wickelrumpf or wrapped-skin fuselage structure was built up on a light framework of stringers by a series of thin three-ply strips and cloth tape. The result, as evidenced in the D.III, was strength but increased weight. The Dr.I was based on the Pfalz D.VII, a relatively unsuccessful product, and was compact and well-proportioned. Powered by a 160 hp Siemens Sh III engine, it began flight tests in August 1917 and recorded the best rate of climb of any German aircraft up to that time, superior to the Fokker Dr.I. Probably three prototypes were built, 3050 and 3051/17 with 3052/17 as a static test.
  On 12 December 1917 Manfred von Richthofen left his Geschwader to visit the Pfalz works, accompanied by his technical officer Lt Krefft. Such well-known pilots as Hpt Willy Meyer, von Tutschek and Ernst Schlegel also arrived to evaluate the new types. Von Richthofen was very impressed with the capabilities of the Dr I, and it is probable that as a result of his recommendations the Pfalz was ordered into small-scale production for front-line evaluation. It was further planned to build 100 Dr.I's, and to expose them all along the front simultaneously in January 1918, presumably with the purpose of demoralizing the enemy. This scheme was evidently dropped, for only ten were constructed. Nine went to the front, so presumably one Dr.I was retained at Speyer. Photographs exist of 221 and 222/17, but beyond that there is no record of other production examples or any service details of the nine that reached the front.
  The Pfalz Dr.I arrived too late to compete seriously with the Fokker Dr.I and its quicker production techniques. The official reason for its rejection was its slow speed, and indeed this would seem to have been its main disadvantage.
  
  
Description: Single seat fighter
Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, G.m.b.H. Speyer am Rhein (Pfal.)
Engine: 160 hp Siemens-Halske Sh. III
Dimensions:
   Span 8.6 m (28 ft. 1 in.)
   Length 5.6 m. (18 ft. 1 in.)
   Height 2.9 m. (9 ft. 1 in.)
   Area 17.2 sq m. (186 sq. ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 498 kg (1,122 lbs)
   Loaded 704 kg (1,551 lbs)
Performance:
   Climb to
   1,000 m 1 min 12 secs
   2,000 m 3 mins 12 secs
   3,000 m 5 mins 24 secs
   4,000 m 7 mins 48 secs
   5,000 m 10 mins 48 secs
   6,000 m 14 mins
   Ceiling 6,500 m ( 21,325 ft)
   Endurance 1 1/2 hrs
Armament: Twin Spandau machine-guns
Serials Prototypes: Dr 13050/17, 3051/17
Production: Dr 1221/17, 222/17. Five more examples built
Pfalz Dr.I (3050/17), was flight tested by von Richthofen and Tutschek at the Pfalz factory in Speyer during October of 1917.
Pfalz D.XII prototype or early production fighter.
Pfalz D.XII 1460/18 in Allied hands after the war, 6 January 1919. Black and white stripes painted in spanwise manner on the tailplane and rear fuselage (not visible in this view) provide evidence that this Pfalz once served in Jasta 23b. In the background are piles of Albatros fighter fuselages turned over in accordance with the Armistice specifications
Pfalz D.XII 1481/18
"Пфальц" D.XII с заводским номером 1491/18.
Pfalz D.XII 2454/18 with the Pfalz factory in the background.
A factory photo of Pfalz D.XII 2624/18.
A factory photo of Pfalz D.XII 2624/18.
A factory photo of Pfalz D.XII 2624/18.
Pfalz D.XII 2666/18 at the Daimler aircraft factory.
Pfalz D.XII 2666/18 at the Daimler aircraft factory.
D.XII 2670/18 taken as war booty
Один из последних "пфальцев" D.XII, собранных в конце войны. Эта машина не успела попасть на фронт и в числе других была выдана французам по условиям компьеньского мирного соглашения.
A photo of Pfalz D.XII 2695/18 turned over to the American Air Service in Trier.
A photo of Pfalz D.XII 2695/18 turned over to the American Air Service in Trier.
A photo of Pfalz D.XII 2695/18 turned over to the American Air Service in Trier.
Rumpler C.I C.2642/15
Rumpler C.I in Allied hands after capture.
Front view of the 2-Seater Rumpler.
Fig. 3. - The Rumpler biplane - C 4 type.
Под верхним крылом самолета устанавливался радиатор в полукруглом туннеле с регулирующей заслонкой впереди.
SSW D.III 7552/17 was crashed by Oblt. Bruno Loerzer during the First Fighter Competition
Второй серийный экземпляр SSW D.III на заводском аэродроме.
The D III, the photo depicting a first series aircraft in February 1918.
The third production machine, SSW D.III 8342/17
SSW D.III из эскадрильи Kest 5, август 1918 г.
SSW D.III 1620/18 at Siemensstadt, showing final form of cowling, spinner, ailerons, and rudder. Wing and rudder crosses have been over-painted in 6:5 proportions.
SSW D.III 3025/18 after the Armistice
Carl Dunkel of Kest 4b with his SSW D.III
SSW D.III of Lt.d.R. Alfred Greven of Jasta 12. The cowling is not standard and there is no spinner. The white lightning bolt was Greven's personal marking. Greven scored two confirmed victories in September 1918 and two more in October for a total of four.
Ltn. Vallendor's SSW D.III, Jasta 15.
SSW D.III probably serving with a Kest. It was a first series D.III, which means it could have been assigned to Kest 4b (Freiburg), Kest 5 (Lahr), Kest 6 (Bonn), or Kest 8 (Bitsch), but the Kest 4b lineup photo does not show it.
Ltn. Vallendor's SSW D.III, Jasta 15.
SSW D.III probably serving with a Kest. It was a first series D.III, which means it could have been assigned to Kest 4b (Freiburg), Kest 5 (Lahr), Kest 6 (Bonn), or Kest 8 (Bitsch), but the Kest 4b lineup photo does not show it.
A D III of the first production series, flown in service by Lt V Ziegesar.
SSW D.IV 7553/17, Jasta 12, July 1918.
Six Jasta 12 SSW D.III fighters, SSW D.IV 7553/17 is third from the left
SSW D.IV 3028/18, the second production machine
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Side view.
The D IV attained operational service in small quantities from August 1918.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Front view.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Rear view.
Ltn. Bruno Rodschinka with SSW D.IV 6173/18
D.IV without tires, probably photographed postwar.
The cockpit of SSW D.III D.8341/17 in its original form. The SSW-designed control column was used only on first series machines. It was replaced on later and rebuilt D.IIIs with SSW's version of the Fokker Steuerangriff dictated by Idflieg.
Пилотская кабина R VI. Широкие окна предоставляли хороший обзор. Впереди виден лаз в носовую открытую площадку, на которой размещалась пулеметная установка.
The Fiat R-2 designed by the topdesigner of Fiat Rosatelli. The machine was a (safer) development of the S.I.A 7 B2.
  For sure the engine is the excellent 300 hp Fiat A.12 with a car-type radiator.


Nation: Italy
Manufacturer: Aviazione
Type: Reconnaissance
Entered Combat: 1918
Engine: A12 bis 6-cyl. liquid-cooled inline, 300hp
Wingspan: 40' 4" (12.30 m)
Length: 28' 10" (8.80 m)
Height: 10' 10" (3.30 m)
Weight (Gross): 3,792 lbs. (1,720 kg)
Speed: 108 mph (175 km/h)
Ceiling: 15,750 ft. (4,800 m)
Range: 340 miles (550 km)
Armament: 2-3 machine guns
Crew: 2
Type B.D.F. is a Burgess Dunne boat.
  
  
  
Model Flying Boat.
Type B.D.F.
Length 25'2''
Span 53'
Useful load, lbs. 560
Motor, h.p. 100 Curtiss Oxx2
Fuel capacity 3 hours
Speed, Max 68
Speed, Min 43
Seating capacity 3
The Breguet 14 became, after the Nieuport and SPAD series of fighters, one of the best known French aircraft of the First World War. It was the most successful bomber developed in France during the war, and when the Breguet 14 entered service it rejuvenated the previously moribund French day bomber force.
  After building a small number of BM 4 and Breguet 5 bombers, the Breguet firm had no further orders for aircraft and therefore turned to producing 100 A.R. Is under license. Further development of the Breguet-Michelin bombers was out of the question as this series had proved to be ineffective in their intended roles as day bombers and long-range fighters. Breguet realized that his next design would have to be capable of surviving the hostile environment of the Western Front.
  His new design was designated the AV (which may have stood for Avant, or tractor layout). It was equipped with a Renault engine and featured a wing with low wing loading. Breguet returned to the tractor layout he had always preferred (the Breguet-Michelin bombers having been designed as pushers at the request of the Aviation Militaire). Another major innovation was the widespread use of duralumin, which had been employed in the construction of German airships. While this metal was valued for its strength and light weight, it was difficult to work with. Breguet's breakthrough was the discovery of a way to use the alloy in an aircraft intended for mass production. Duralumin was employed in the longerons and spacers inside the fuselage. The longerons and spacers were bolted into welded steel end fittings and braced with piano wire. The engine bearers were made of steel and duralumin tubing. Duralumin tubes also formed the main spars of the wings. The outer struts were reinforced with steel sheaths around the spars. The wing ribs were made of wood and the root ribs were made of poplar. The tail surfaces were of welded steel tubing.
  The first prototype was the AV 1, equipped with a 263-hp Renault engine. A second prototype, the AV 2, had a 272-hp Renault, a slightly longer fuselage, and a slightly higher empty weight. Flight tests revealed that the aircraft pulled to the left and this required offsetting the vertical fin to the left. The upper wing was given a slight sweepback; improving stability and giving the rear gunner a better field of fire. After six months of design work and testing, the prototype flew on 21 November 1916. Tests were conducted initially at Villacoublay with Breguet himself at the controls. By January 1917 the initial flight trials had been completed. The tests confirmed that Breguet had produced a bomber that was, for once, more advanced than comparable machines used by the British and Germans. In November 1916 Breguet notified the STAe that the AV prototypes were ready for testing. Static tests were conducted by the STAe on 26 January 1917 and confirmed the sturdiness of Breguet's design; the wings were found to have a coefficient 5.5 times the total weight of the aircraft. The AV 2 was test-flown by Adjudant Piquet (an STAe pilot) and Lieutenant Lemaitre (a pilot from BM 120). The AV 2 was highly praised, and its usefulness in the day bomber role was readily apparent to the STAe.
  In November 1916 the STAe had formulated a requirement for four types of aircraft: a two-seat army cooperation plane (A), a three-seat, long-range reconnaissance plane (A1), a two-seat fighter (C), and a three-seat bomber (D). Breguet submitted variants of the AV intended to meet all four categories. The Type A requirement would be met by the Breguet 14 A2 while the two-seat fighter would eventually be developed into the Breguet 17. The three-seat reconnaissance plane (Class A1) and bomber (Class D) version of the AV design were built and tested, but the STAe decided that aircraft in these categories should have two engines and Breguet's design was not developed further. The two-seat fighter variant with a 300-hp Renault engine was tested, but it could not meet the required speed at 3,000 in (180 km/h). Like its competitor, the SPAD 11, Breguet's design was not selected for production (although the SPAD 11 did enter service in the two-seat reconnaissance role).
  The STAe had requested that the new bomber be powered by a 200-hp Hispano-Suiza engine. Breguet, instead, decided to use the 220-hp Renault 12Fb that had been the power plant for the Breguet-Michelin 5. The engine cowling had a plethora of cooling louvers, one of the distinguishing features of the Breguet 14 bombers. The Breguet 14 was an angular biplane The wings had negative stagger and both were slightly swept back. The upper wing had a greater span than the lower, and ailerons were fitted to the upper wing only. Later machines had horn-balanced ailerons to improve lateral control. The two crew members were seated in tandem. The pilot sat below a cutout in the upper wing and an observer had a separate cockpit just behind him. The observer had a T.O.3 or T.O.4 gun mount with two 0.303 Lewis guns. The pilot had a single, fixed Vickers 0.303 gun mounted on the left side of the fuselage and synchronized to fire through the propeller disc. The undercarriage was strongly braced with the two wheels being separated by a strut with an airfoil cross-section. The early versions of the Breguet 14 B2 had Michelin bomb racks under the lower wings adjacent to the bracing struts of the undercarriage. Thirty-two 11.5 kg bombs could be carried. The A2 reconnaissance versions could carry four bombs, a camera, and a wireless set. There were minor differences between the bomber (designated B2) and reconnaissance (designated A2) versions. The lower wings of the bomber version had a longer span and bungee-sprung flaps were added. These flaps enabled the B2 variants to carry heavier bomb loads; test flights revealed that the aircraft could carry 730 kg of bombs and fuel. Fully loaded, the Breguet 14 B2 could climb to 4,000 in in 26 min and could attain a speed of 165 km/h at that altitude. The observer had an extra set of windows in the fuselage sides; it has been speculated that these were intended to provide enough light to enable him to use the bombsight. There were transparent panels in the underside of the aircraft, which enabled both the pilot and observer to view the ground.
  Breguet received an order for 150 Breguet AV 1s (reconnaissance) on 6 March 1917 and on the same date Michelin received an order for 150 AV 2s (bomber version). In fact, initially the STAe designated the AV I the Breguet 13 and the AV 2 the Breguet 14. Of course, the Breguet 13 designation was soon dropped and both variants received the Breguet 14 designation. An additional order for 100 aircraft was placed on 4 April, followed by 250 in July and 125 in September. The engine used was primarily the 300-hp Renault 12Fcx. Additional aircraft were built under license. These orders were placed with Darracq (330 aircraft), Farman (220), Paul Schmitt (275), Ballanger (300), and Sidam (300). It is believed that production was evenly divided between the bomber and reconnaissance versions. Serial numbers for the production Breguet 14s began at 1101 (1106 was the first aircraft delivered).
  In operational service, the Breguet 14s underwent numerous modifications, including addition of a Lewis gun on the top wing, armored seats, and a gun rigged to fire underneath the fuselage. As mentioned earlier, some Breguet 14s were equipped with horn-balanced ailerons, and on the B2s this change was accompanied by deletion of the lower wing flaps and reduction in the lower wing span and wing tip size.
  
Variants
  
  Breguet 14 with Fiat Engine
   Due to a shortage of Renault engines, some versions of the Breguet 14 were fitted with 300hp Fiat A-12 bis engines. The first example flew in 1917 with a Fiat A-12 engine, and this Breguet 14 could be distinguished by its tapered cowling and under slung radiator. However, these changes reduced the aircraft's performance and, as a result, a modified engine, the Fiat A-12 his, was developed. This developed the same horsepower but it could be fitted to the aircraft without requiring alterations to the cowling. The Fiat engines were used in the A2, B2, and E2 (trainer) versions of the Breguet 14. The type equipped 24 Breguet 14 escadrilles, and examples were supplied to Belgium and the United States. Other examples of the Breguet 14 were fitted with the 260-hp Fiat A- 12 engine, and at least one with a 600 -hp, Fiat A- 14.
  
  Breguet 14 Ap2
   The Ap 2 specification of 1917 called for a high altitude, long-range reconnaissance aircraft. Breguet 14 B2 (serial number 4360) was modified to accept a 400-hp Liberty 12 engine. The aircraft was tested at Villacoubly. Neither it nor its competitor, the Hanriot Dupont 9, was selected by the Aviation Militaire. A similar installation was performed at McCook Field on Breguet 14 B2 AS 94097. As far as can be determined, the installation of the Liberty on the B2 did not affect performance and, had the war continued, it might have proved a useful alternative to the Renault or Fiat engines. On the Breguet 14 A2 the Liberty provided a significant performance edge over the Renault-equipped machines.
  
  Breguet 14 with Lorraine-Dietrich Engine
   A Breguet 14 A2, serial 1021, was fitted with a 285-hp Lorraine-Dietrich 8Bd engine. The installation was successful enough to warrant production; some versions of this aircraft had a blunt cowling and an under slung radiator. These were used by French T.O.E. (colonial) escadrilles and may have been designated Breguet 14TOEs, although this designation has not been confirmed. it has been reported that some were supplied to Spain; however, Spanish sources do not confirm this.
   Other examples of the Breguet 14 were fitted with 370-hp Lorraine-Dietrich 12Da or 390-hp Lorraine -Dietrich 12E engines. It appears these remained one-off conversions.
  
  
  Breguet 14 with Panhard Engine
   A 340-hp Panhard 12D and a 350-hp Panhard 12C were each fitted experimentally to a Breguet 14 airframe. Series production did not ensue.
  
  Breguet 14 A2 with Renault Engine
   A single Breguet 14 A2 was tested with a 400-hp Renault 12k engine in May 1918. This aircraft served as the basis for the Breguet 17 escort fighter.
   Other Renault engines fitted to the Breguet 14 included the 310-hp Renault 12Fcy, 320-hp Renault 12Fe, and 350-hp Renault 12Ff.
  
  Breguet 14 AE
   This aircraft was designed for use in the French colonies. It first flew in 1920 and carried the registration F-AEEZ.
  
  Breguet 14/400
   Version with a 400-hp Lorraine 12Da engine. Seventy were supplied to China and Manchuria during the 1920s.
  
  Breguet 14 C
   Version with 450-hp Renault 12Ja engine. It first flew in 1920 and was used as a postal aircraft in the United States.
  
  Breguet 14 H
   Floatplane version with 320-hp Renault 12Fe engine. it had a large central float beneath the fuselage and two smaller floats under the wings. At least two were produced and saw service with the Escadrille Indo-Chinoise No.2 based in Bien Hoa in 1925.
  
  Breguet 14 with Supercharger
   A number of Breguet 14s were modified to accept Renault 12Fe engines with the Rateau turbo -supercharger. Aircraft with the new engine were found to have a marked improvement in performance. One set a world record in 1923 by climbing to 5,600 m with a payload of 500 kg. Sixteen Breguet 14s with the turbo-supercharged engines were in service with the 34th RAO at Bourget in 1924.
  
  Breguet 14 A2 with 49 sq. m Wing
   This aircraft was developed by Breguet in the hope of meeting the STAe's requirement for a maximum speed of 180 km/h at 3,000 m. This version had a reduced wing area of 49 sq. m without the automatic flaps and a more powerful Renault 12Fcx engine.
   Aircraft 665 was used for official trials. One advantage of the new type was that it could reach an altitude high enough to make it immune to anti-aircraft fire or enemy fighters. In fact, in September 1917 an altitude of 8,000 meters was reached.
  
  Breguet 14 B1
   The B1 designation indicates that this was a single-seat version of the Breguet 14 B2 with a wing area of 52 sq. m and automatic flaps. The front cockpit was fitted with fuel tanks and the pilot was relocated to the observer's position. Test pilot De Bailliencourt later tested the Breguet 14 B I intended for Jules Vedrine's raid on Berlin. While flying the aircraft he found that the Solex carburetor froze at altitude. He attempted to land in order not to risk damage to this specially modified machine, but as he descended, the engine stalled. However, he was able to bring the plane down safely. Unfortunately, the prototype of the Bleriot 71 apparently crash-landed while attempting to avoid the incoming Breguet 14 B 1.
   The Breguet 14 B I could carry a 180-kg bomb load and had a duration of up to seven hours. Two were ordered and were intended to be used on a raid on Berlin. Jules Vedrines performed a test flight of 400 km (flying from Paris to Cancale ) in July 1917 in preparation for this mission. However, the overall reluctance of the French government to bomb German cities (because of the high risk of German retaliation) combined with the Breguet 14 B1's marginal range and vulnerability to enemy fighters, resulted in cancellation of the plan.
  
  Breguet 14 Floatplane
   Another floatplane version of the Breguet 14 was tested in 1924 at the Saint Raphael Center four were manufactured by Blanchard and could be used interchangeably with the regular undercarriage. At least one Breguet 14 B2 landplane was tested with floatation gear.
  
  Breguet 14 S
   The French led the world in the development of ambulance aircraft. An ambulance version of the Breguet 14 was developed to supplement, and later replace, Voisin 10 ambulance planes. These aircraft were designated Breguet 14 S (S = Sanitaire). Initially they were simply modified to carry two stretcher cases in the rear fuselage. Subsequently, a dedicated ambulance version was produced that was a modified version of the Breguet T. In 1918, four Breguet 14 S machines were used over the Aisne front. For postwar use see the section on colonial campaigns.
  
  
United States
  
  The United States entered World War I in the belief that a powerful bombing force could shorten, if not end, the conflict. The Air Service had tremendous enthusiasm but no indigenous aircraft with which to conduct bombing raids. The decision, pending the availability of the Liberty-engined D.H.4, was for the Americans to obtain Breguet 14 bombers. The French initially promised to deliver 1,500 of these aircraft, although only 290 had been delivered by the Armistice.
  The Americans initially ordered 376 of them: 100 Breguet 14 E2 trainers, 229 Breguet 14 A2s, and 47 Breguet 14 B2s. Approximately half of these had Fiat A- 12 or A- l2bis engines.
  The first American unit to fly the aircraft operationally was the 96th Aero Squadron. Training began at the Michelin brothers testing field on 1 December 1917.
  The first operational American day bombardment unit, the 96th Aero Squadron, took ten of its Breguet 14s to Amanty airfield on 18 March 1918. It has been reported that the aircraft were in poor repair and, because French supplies were often unavailable, the unit's mechanics had to make use of modified
  farm machinery parts. The first mission was flown on 12 June 1918. However, the aircraft were in such poor condition that many raids had to be canceled. Because of these equipment difficulties, no American day bomber units were involved in the Chateau-Thierry campaign of July 1918. On 10 July, however, the 96th Aero Squadron had enough serviceable aircraft on strength to attempt a smaller raid. Six Breguet 14s left to bomb the railroad yards at Conflans. Unfortunately, the inexperience of the American pilots resulted in all six aircraft being captured.
  Two days before the Saint Mihiel offensive, the 96th Aero Squadron was assigned to the First Day Bombardment Group. During the offensive, the 96th performed ground attack missions and bombed rail centers. Many Breguet 14s were damaged during crash landings on the muddy airfields, the 96th Aero Squadron losing 16 men and 14 planes in only five days. This was the worst loss rate of any AEF unit. The 96th was reconstituted with new crews and aircraft and was back in action in time for the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Due to bad weather the 96th Aero Squadron was able to fly only two days in November.
  The other units of the First Day Bombardment Group used Liberty-engined D.H.4s; however, it was widely believed that the Breguet 14 was the superior bomber. The Gorrel Report notes that the Breguet 14s were faster at altitude, carried a heavier load, had excellent defensive armament, had a protected upper fuel tank and a droppable lower tank, were equipped with the excellent Michelin bomb racks, and that "no stronger ship has probably ever been subjected to hard active service and given such excellent results."
  While the 96th Aero Squadron saw the main use of the Breguet 14, the 9th Night Reconnaissance Squadron also used the reconnaissance version. These were employed for day observation as well as night reconnaissance and attack missions, the latter with mixed results. The unit operated over the Toul sector from 30 August to I I September and took part in the Saint Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives. The 99th Corps Observation Squadron also had Breguet 14s on strength for a brief time.
  
  
Breguet AV I Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 263-hp Renault
  
  Span 14.36 m
  Length 8.80 m
  Wing area 50.0 sq. m
  Empty weight 1,015 kg
  Loaded weight 1,525 kg
  Max speed
   ground level 179 km/h
  
  
Breguet AV 2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 272-hp Renault
  
  Span 14.36 m
  Length 8.90 m
  Wing area 52.0 sq. m
  Empty weight 1,020 kg
  Loaded weight 1,530 kg.
  Max speed
   ground level 181 km/h
   2000 m 172 km/h
   5,000 m 165 km/h
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 300-hp Renault 12Fcx
  
  Span 14,364 m (without horn balances)
   14.860 m (with horn balances)
  Length 8.870 m.
  Height 3.330 m
  wing area 47.5 sq, m (without horn balances)
   49.2 sq. m (with horn balances)
  Empty weight 1,030 kg
  Loaded weight 1,565 kg
  Max speed
   4,000 m 184 km/h
  Climb to
   2,000 m 6 minutes 50 seconds
   3,000 m 11 minutes 35 seconds
   5,000 m 29 minutes 30 seconds
  Ceiling 6,100 m
  Endurance 2.75 hours
  Armament One synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun,
   two 7.7-mm Lewis machine guns on a T.O.3 or T.O.4 ring mount,
   four 120-mm bombs.
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Bomber with 300-hp Renault 12Fcx
  
  Span 14.364 m (without horn balances)
   14.860 m (with horn balances)
  Length 8.870 m
  Height 3.330 m
  Wing area 50.2 sq.m. (without horn balances)
   48.5 sq. m (with horn balances)
  Empty weight 1,017 kg
  Loaded weight 1,769 kg, bomb load 355 kg.
  Max speed 195 km/h
  Climb to
   2,000 m 9 minutes 15 seconds
   3,000 m 16 minutes 30 seconds
   5,000 m 47 minutes
  Ceiling 6,200m
  Endurance 2.75 hours
  Armament one synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun,
   two 7.7-mm Lewis machine guns on a T.O.3 or T.O.4 ring mount,
   one 7.7-mm Lewis machine gun firing through the floor of the aircraft on some B2s,
   32 115-mm bombs or equivalent load
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 310-hp Renault 12Fcy
  
  Empty weight 1,040 kg
  Loaded weight 1,915 kg
  Bomb load 300 kg
  Max speed 195 km/h
  Climb to
   2,000 m 7 minutes 40 seconds
   3,000 m 12 minutes 10 seconds
   5,000 m 25 minutes 40 seconds
  Ceiling 5,200m
  Endurance 2.75 hours
  Armament one synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun,
   two 7.7-mm Lewis machine guns on a T,O.3 or T.O.4 ring mount,
   four 120-mm bombs.
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with Renault 12Fe with Rateau Turbo Supercharger.
  
  Max speed 184 km/h at 3,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 10 minutes 1 second
   3,000 m 14 minutes 57 seconds
   5,000 m 28 minutes l6 seconds
  Endurance 3.0 hours
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 400-hp Renault 12K
  
  Empty weight 1,2102 kg
  Loaded weight 1,859 kg; bomb load 185 kg
  Max speed 203 km/h at 2,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 6 minutes 9 seconds
   3,000 m 10 minutes 19 seconds
   5,000 m 22 minutes 28 seconds
  Ceiling 7,600 m
  Endurance 3 hours 4 minutes
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 300-hp Fiat A-12 bis
  
  Empty weight 1,160 kg
  Loaded weight 1,698 kg
  Max speed 167 km/h at 2,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 11 min. 45 sec
   3,000 m 19 min. 28 sec.
  Ceiling 5000 m
  Endurance 3.0 hours
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 285-hp Lorraine-Dietrich 8Bd
  
  Empty weight 1,160 kg
  Loaded weight 1,476 kg
  Max speed 104 mph at 2,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 9 minutes 26 seconds
   3,000 m 15 minutes 11 seconds
   5,000 m 43 minutes 6 seconds
  Ceiling 5,600 m
  Endurance 3.0 hours
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with -370-hR Lorraine-Dietrich 12Da
  
  Max speed 195 km/h at 2,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 5 minutes 20 seconds
   3,000 m 8 minutes 50 seconds
   5,000 m 19 minutes 20 seconds
  Ceiling 7,600 m
  
  
Breguet 14 A2 Two-Seat Reconnaissance Plane with 400-hp Liberty 12
  
  Empty weight 1,124 kg
  Loaded weight 1,710 kg
  Max speed 126 mph at 2,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 5 minutes 49 seconds
   3,000 m 9 minutes 45 seconds
   5,000 m 23 minutes 18 seconds
  Ceiling 7,300 m
  Endurance 3 hours
  
  
Breguet 14 B2 Two-Seat Bomber with 400-hp Liberty 12
  
  Empty weight 1,124 kg
  Loaded weight 1,713 kg
  Max speed 203 km/h at 2,000 m
  Climb to
   2,000 m 8 minutes 57 seconds
   3,000 m 16 minutes 30 seconds
   5,000 m 41 minutes 2 seconds
  Endurance 4.5 hours
  
  
Breguet 14 BI Single-Seat Bomber With 300-hp Renault 12Fcx
  
  Climb to
   2,000 m 14 min. 19 sec
   3,000 m 24 min. 44 sec
  Endurance 6.0 hours
  
  
Nakajima B-6 (Breguet 14 B2) Two-Seat Bomber with 360-hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII
  
  Span 14.76 m
  Length 8.985m
  Height 3.00 m
  Wing area 51 sq. m
  Empty weight 1,171 kg
  Loaded weight 1,950 kg
  Max speed 191 km/h
  Climb to
   5,000 m 46 min
  Endurance 4 hours
  One built
  
Approximately 8,000 Breguet 14s of all type's were produced.
Breguet 14 A2 with a Fiat engine in flight
Breguet 14 in flight. This aircraft carries the French five-color camouflage scheme
Breguet AV 1 prototype which was developed into the Breguet 14 via the Breguet AV 2
Breguet AV 1 prototype which was developed into the Breguet 14 via the Breguet AV 2
AV 1 , also designated the Breguet 13 by the STAe
Breguet AV 2 which was the second prototype of the Breguet 14 series
The Breguet AV 2 fitted with balanced ailerons
Breguet 14 A2 of BR 209 which was assigned to the 3rd Armee. The escadrille's insignia was a cockatoo
Breguet 14 A2 of BR 220. Pilot is Serrant, observer Dreyfus. The machine gun mounted on the top wing is a field modification
Breguet 14 A2 serial 779 of BR 202 named Gabrielle
Breguet 14 A2 at hte airfield of No.4 Squadron AFC, 1918
Breguet 14 A2 serial 9060 which was fitted with a Liberty engine
Breguet 14 B2 serial BR 13005 of BR 134. The observer's windows were on either side of his cockpit. This late Michelin-built machine lacks the trailing-edge flaps on the lower wing. The engine is a Liberty
Breguet 14 A2 serial 16156 with the Breguet Moreux radiator
Breguet 14 A2 serial 16156 with a Renault engine and a Breguet Moreux radiator
Breguet 14 B2 of the 96th Aero Squadron of the 1st Day Bombardment Group
Breguet 14 A2 of the 96th Aero Squadron of the 1st Day Bombardment Group
Breguet 14 of the 96th Aero Squadron of the 1st Day Bombardment Group in flight
Two Breguet 14 A2s of the 96th Aero Squadron of the 1st Day Bombardment Group
Breguet 14 A2 of the 96th Aero Squadron with a model of the Breguet 14 on the wing
Breguet 14 A2 Jane IV of BR 209 flown by Capitaine De La Motte Ango De Flers in 1917
Breguet 14 A2 Jane IV
Breguet 14 B1 intended for Jules Vedrine's proposed raid on Berlin. However, the aircraft's range proved to be too marginal for the task and the raid was canceled
Breguet 14 B2 serial BR 1102 with Michelin bomb racks underneath the wings. This is an early Michelin-built machine. The fuselage windows are lower on the fuselage than on later machines
Breguet 14 B2 serial BR 1102
Breguet 14 B2 fitted with a 380-hp Liberty engine
Breguet 14 B2 serial 4599 showing its 300-hp Renault engine
Breguet 14 B2 serial 12079 of BR 123 showing a full complement of 50-kg and 75-kg bombs. The crewmen are identified as the Peyerimhoff brothers. This aircraft was built by Michelin
The Caudron G.4 was produced in response to the Aviation Militaire's need for a more powerful army cooperation aircraft which could carry a forward-firing machine gun. By equipping the G.4 with two engines, Caudron increased the aircraft's range and created a position for a nose gunner. The G.3 was redesigned to permit this arrangement; the plane was enlarged and the central crew nacelle was lengthened. The observer fired a machine gun (a Hotchkiss 7-mm or a Lewis gun) on a flexible mounting in the nose. However, this arrangement did not permit the gun to be used to protect against attacks from behind. On some aircraft a crude attempt was made to rectify this by fitting a gun to the top wing fixed to fire to the rear. This arrangement proved ineffective and the gun was soon removed from the aircraft in service. The crew was equipped with a Chauchat gun or a carbine. Some G.4s were fitted with a camera for high-altitude reconnaissance.
  To handle the increased weight and also provide the gunner with a better field of fire, two engines (either 80-hp Le Rhones or 100-hp Anzanis) were placed in streamlined nacelles on either side of the center fuselage. The Le Rhone engines were cowled, but the rotary Anzanis dispensed with the cowlings. The number of rudders was increased from two to four. The prototype G.4's first flight was in March 1915; Caudron built 1,358 G.4s during the war. G.4s were built by Bleriot, SPAD, and Caudron.
  
Operational Service
  
  On 15 August 1915 there were 36 G.4s in service with the escadrilles and in the aircraft parks. By 1 February 1916 there were 161 G.4s in service as compared with 141 G.3s. On 1 August 1917 there were 215 Caudron G.4s in service. A total of 139 G.4s were with the front-line escadrilles and aviation parks, with a further 75 available but not yet in the parks. The G.4s at first supplemented the G.3s then in service and by late 1915/early 1916 had replaced the G.3s. in operational service the G.4 was initially praised for the gunner's improved field of fire, but because of its pusher layout, could not be defended against attack from the rear. Despite this serious limitation, the G.4s were used as bombers and often provided fighter escort for the slower M.F. IIs and Voisin 3s and 5s. To overcome the handicaps of their aircraft, G.4 pilots often attacked from high altitude to avoid anti-aircraft fire and fighters. In the attack role the G.4s would dive from high altitude on enemy planes and then try to escape before the Germans who survived could recover. However, the G.4s rapidly became obsolescent and as early as April 1916 the type was being criticized for having mediocre speed, limited maneuverability, poor range, and severe vulnerability to rearward attacks.
  
  
Description: Two-Seat Reconnaissance Aircraft
  
   G.4 Caudron built G.4 A.E.R. built
Power Plant: Two 80-hp Le Rhone Engines Two 80-hp Le Rhone Engines
Dimensions:
  Span 16.885 m 16.885 m
  Length 7.19 m 7.20 m
  Height 2.55 m 2.60 m
  Area 36.828 sq.m 36.828 sq. m
Weights:
  Empty 733 kg 845 kg
  Loaded 1,232 kg 1,350 kg
  Payload 210 kg 505 kg
Performance:
  Max speed 130 km/h at sea level 130 km/h at sea level
   125 km/h at 2,000 m
   124 km/h at 3000 m
  climb to
   1,000 m in 6 min. 30 sec.
   2,000 m in 15 min.
   3,000 m in 19 min.
   4,000 m in 36 min.
  Ceiling 4,300 m 4,500 m
  Endurance 5 hours 4 hours
  Armament: one nose-mounted Hotchkiss 7-mm or a Lewis machine gun;
   the crew was also equipped with, a carbine or Chauchat gun.
  Production: 1,358 51
Caudron G.4 of C 30
Caudron G.4 of C 66 at Fretoy in 1917
Caudron G.4 of C 74
Caudron G.4 of C 74
Caudron G.4 C212
Caudron G.4 in Belgian service
Caudron G.4 in Belgian service
Caudron G.4 preparing for takeoff. The aircraft is being loaded with lance bombs
A French Caudron G.IV. Aircraft of this type equipped several of the corps escadrilles attached to the French VI Armee in April 1917
HD.1 serial 301
HANRIOT HD.1 Hd. 7517, 76th Squadriglia, ARE, 1917
A colorfully-marked Italian HD.1. The Vickers machine gun, which was originally offset, was relocated to the centerline of the fuselage in order to improve the pilot's access to the gun in flight and make aiming easier
HD.1 in service with the Belgian air force. The Aeronautique Militaire Belge ordered 79 Hanriot HD.1s in 1917
Production of the HD.1 was undertaken by Hanriot only to meet orders from Belgium.
HD.1 in Belgian service. The Aeronautique Militaire Belge ordered 79 Hanriot HD.1s in 1917
Belgian HD.1 serial number 12 of Thistle Escadrille
HD.1 showing cooling holes in cowling
Morane-Saulnier Type-N
  
  The history of the Type N fighter can be traced back to 1912, when Morane-Saulnier and Roland Garros joined forces to design and build a 60-hp monoplane. This aircraft was used by Garros to make a flight from Tunis to Rome. The monoplane was successful enough to warrant further development and a second aircraft with an 80-hp Gnome engine and a smaller wing was built. Fitted with twin floats and designated the Type 0 (see below), it was entered in the 1913 Schneider Trophy race and finished second with an average speed of 92 km/h.
  Probably inspired by the Deperdussin monocoque racer, which had finished first in the 1913 Schneider Trophy contest, the Morane-Saulnier firm designed another monoplane with a fully-faired fuselage. The fabric-covered fuselage had a circular cross-section; this streamlining was aided by the huge spinner that almost completely covered the engine cowling. The aircraft was entered in the Aspern meet in June 1914. When war broke out in August the Morane-Saulnier firm developed its sleek racer into a fighter designated the Type N.
  The Type N was constructed primarily of wood. The wing was built around two spars with nine ribs on either side of the center section. The wings were covered with fabric except for the roots, which were covered in plywood. Control was, as with the preceding Types H and L, by wing warping. The fuselage was of wood and had a circular cross-section created by wooden stringers covered with fabric. The aircraft was not a true monocoque despite the fact that in official records it was often referred to as the Morane Monocoque.
  The cowling and spinner were made of aluminum and closely covered the 80-bp Le Rhone 9C rotary. In fact the engine was so tightly enclosed by the cowling that there was insufficient airflow to cool it. The cowling of the prototype Type N was later modified to a more streamlined shape.
  The undercarriage used bungee shock absorbers. The fin, rudder, and stabilizer had wooden frameworks covered with fabric. The lower portion of the rudder was supported by the rigid tail skid.
  The most important innovation of the Type N was its armament, which usually consisted of a single 8-mm Hotchkiss or 0.303 Lewis machine gun mounted on the fuselage centerline and firing through a wooden propeller fitted with deflector plates. There was always the chance of a catastrophic failure of this system, which could result in the loss of the propeller as well as the aircraft and pilot.
  The first Type N to arrive at the front was flown by Roland Garros' friend Eugene Gilbert. Determined to avenge the loss of Garros, who had been captured after crashing behind enemy lines, Gilbert named his aircraft Le Vengeur. The Type N was given the company designation Nm. The m (which presumably stood for Militaire as it was an armed variant of the Type N racer) was almost never used in official correspondence concerning the aircraft. The SEA designation was MoS.5 for types with the 80-hp Gnome. This airplane had a fixed 8-mm Hotchkiss gun and an armored airscrew with deflector plates. The 8-mm Hotchkiss had a 25-round clip.
  Production machines differed from Gilbert's machine in having a more aerodynamic spinner, a revised head rest fairing, an enlarged rudder, and a fixed fin that had a sharp, rather than curved, leading edge. Part of the rudder extended below the fuselage and was hinged to a small fixed fin.
  According to a note dated 5 June 1915, a total of 24 Type Ns were ordered. By June 1915 ten had left the factory and it was anticipated that from 20 June to 5 August an additional 24 were to be built. Maximum speed of the Type N was given as 145 km/h and it could climb to 2000 m in 10 minutes.
  After June 1915, the first ten production Type Ns had arrived at the front. These aircraft were usually assigned to MS units to provide escort for the more vulnerable Type L/LAs. MS 12, 23, and 49 are all known to have been equipped with Type Ns; reports suggest that MS 3, 37, and 48 also utilized them. French reports for 1915 rarely mention the Type N specifically, but it is likely that from July through August 1915 most of the bomber escort missions and barrage flights flown by the NIS units included Type Ns.
  There were numerous encounters with enemy aircraft during the summer months but most were inconclusive; the German aircraft were usually described as having been forced to withdraw and few victories were achieved.
  By September 1915 the Nieuport 10 was becoming widely available, followed a few weeks later by the first Nieuport I Is. In a letter from the Ministry of War dated 7 September 1915, the Type N was preferred over the Type G and L as well as the Nieuport 10. However, when the Type N was evaluated against the Nieuport I I in September 1915 the results revealed the superiority of Nieuport's design and further development of the Morane-Saulnier's design was abandoned.
  The Type N had been found to be a demanding, and at times dangerous, aircraft to fly. The Morane-Saulnier fighter had a tendency to stall above 3000 meters and, perhaps due to its excessive wing loading, was uncomfortable to fly. The Nieuport 10s and 11s, on the other hand, not only had superior performance but were far easier to fly. There were also reports that the Type Ns were difficult to maintain in the field. Finally, the propeller deflection system of the Type N was far less reliable than the machine gun mounting on the top wing utilized on the Nieuports.
  The Type Ns continued to see very limited service in the fall of 1915; Jean Navarre (who commanded MS 12) destroyed a German aircraft while flying a Type N on 25 October. However, by the end of 1915 the Type N had been completely withdrawn from front-line units. While the Type N saw only limited service with the Aviation Militaire, it would see more widespread use with the RNAS and RFC.
  
  
   Morane-Saulnier Type N Morane-Saulnier Type N Morane-Monocoque
   Single-Seat Fighter Single-Seat Fighter Single-Seat Fighter
   with 80hp Le- Rhone 9C with 80hp Le-Rhone 9C with 120hp Le-Rhone
   and Modified Wings
  Span 8.146 m 8.146 m 9.8 m
  length 5.83 m 5.83 m 7.0 m
  height 2.25 m 2.25 m 2.25 m
  wing area 11 sq. m 11 sq. m 15 sq. m
  Loaded weight 444 kg - 658 kg
  Max speed:
   ground level 144 km/h 152 km/h 177 km/h
  climb to
   1,000 m 4 minutes - 5 minutes 54 seconds
   2,000 m 10 minutes 12 minutes 10 minutes 12 seconds
   3,000 m - - 17 minutes
   4,000 m - 45 minutes -
  range 185 km - -
  endurance 1.5 hours - 2.3 hours
  Armament: 1 fixed 8mm Hotchkiss, .303 Lewis, or 0303 Vickers machine gun
   44 built
Morane-Saulnier Type N Le Vengeur serial MS 388 of pilot Eugene Gilbert
Morane-Saulnier Type N serial MS 397 in August 1915
Morane-Saulnier Type N, probably at the Morane-Saulnier factory. The airscrew is armored and the aircraft is armed with a single Hotchkiss machine-gun
Morane-Saulnier Type N
Morane-Saulnier N of 24 Squadron, RFC
Morane-Saulnier N of 24 Squadron, RFC
Morane-Saulnier N
This Nieuport 10 single seater, wearing French colors, carries the number 237 on the rudder. The V struts can be seen between the upper and lower wing. Armament is a single, centrally mounted, overwing Lewis gun
237 has a French roundel painted on the fuselage side, highly unusual for a French aircraft. Another Nie.10 stands in the background
A Nieuport 10 N237 in French Service. French Nieuports usually did not carry roundels on the fuselage
A carry over from the days of the two seater, the Nieuport 10 has the characteristic look of an elongated two seater fuselage
Первый невооруженный прототип "Ньюпора-11" с французскими военными эмблемами, 1915 г. The unarmed and unnumbered Nieuport 11 prototype. The elevators were smaller than those which would later become standard and the spread of the undercarriage V braces are somenhat greater here. The rear center section struts just in front of the cockpit are an inverted 'U' shape, probably to improve the view from the cockpit. The national markings are French
N1135 was a Nie 11 serving with Escadrille N.26. This aircraft was lost on July 9, 1916
This Nie.11 (N1317), operating with a French unit in the Dardanelles, is having its 80-hp Le Rhone rotary engine serviced
It is unclear what national markings this Nie.11 carries, but interestingly the aircraft armed with twin machine guns. The wheel discs are believed to have been red
One of several Nie.11s that fell into German hands and were test flown. The armament has been removed and a small cone de penetration has been added to the airscrew boss. The extreme inboard position of the national markings under the lower wing is unusual
Repainted with national insignia of its captors, this Nie.11 has had its armament removed. Other Nieuports which fell into Austrian hands were often renumbered and flown in action
Nieuport 11, probably Italian-built, after capture by Austro-Hungarian forces and bearing the Austro-Hungarian serial 00.27
Французский истребитель "Ньюпор-16" с ракетами Ле-Прие / The rocket armed N959 in German hands. The ornate letter 'R' on the fuselage side of N959 was the insignia of the pilot flying it at the time of its capture, Adjutant Henri Reserval. This machine was later test flown by a number of German pilots
The insignia of Escadrille N48, the head of a crowling cock can just barely be seen on the fuselage side of this Nie.17 number 1930
Nieuport 17, possibly of Escadrille N76. This Nieuport was built in large numbers and equipped many of the French fighter squadrons, as well as a variety of Allied units.
The triangular fanion on the fuselage of N1932 is the light blue and gold emblem of Escadrille N76. The colors were also used for the zig-zag on the rear fuselage. A personal marking which is possibly medium blue aft, extends over the decking
This Nie.17 numbered N2038 belonging to Escadrille N15 was named DEDETTE III and carried an elaborate helmet and plume in front of the numeral 7
By 1916 French air strength had become impressive, and with types such as the Nieuport and Spad the fighter units had capable equipment. The Nieuport 17, as N2474 here, was powered by a 110hp Le Rhone and had a top speed of 110mph (177kph).
A Nie.17, one of the single seat trainers used by a United States' flying training school in France, hence the retention of the tricolor roundels
Operated by Czarist Russia while wearing French colors, this machine was captured by the Germans. Its identity may have been N3389
The Nieuport triplanes were designed with three wings staggered so that each formed an apex of a triangle. it was believed that this arrangement would eliminate the need for cross-bracing wires, increase stability, and improve lift. All three wings had very narrow chord and each had only a single spar. The staggered arrangement permitted each of the wings to serve as an empennage for the other two, thus producing a lightweight aircraft with improved lift and stability but without heavy, drag inducing struts. This arrangement was first tried on a Nieuport 10 fuselage with the top wing placed in front of the pilot; the middle wing was at the rear and the bottom wing was staggered ; lightly ahead of the middle wing. There were two upright center section struts in the shape of inverted Vs. The engine of his first triplane was a 80 hp Le Rhone. The aircraft was tested in 1916 but the results are not known; however, the type was not ordered into production.
  It is quite possible that the tests with the first Nieuport were not unsatisfactory, as another Nieuport triplane was built. This was a single seater and, unlike the previous design, the upper wing was located to the rear. The middle wing was located ahead of the other wings, being mounted just behind the cowling. The bottom wing was located behind the middle wing. Armament was a single Lewis machine gun. The fuselage seems to have been based on the Nieuport 17. Power was supplied by a 110? hp, Le Rhone 9J engine. The propeller had a large "cone de penetration." The type was tested in October 1916 and declared obsolete in November 1916.
  The RFC and RNAS obtained an example of a Nieuport triplane. The aircraft was tested on 2 February 1917 and favorable comments were made on the pilot's view from the cockpit and the climb rate. However, a subsequent report dated April 1917 stated that the view directly downward and forward was poor because of the location of the middle wing. Longitudinal stability was described as poor and lateral control was only fair. Controllability was good except during taxiing; landing was described as difficult because the triplane was prone to "slew round on the ground." After these tests, the RFC, as with the Aviation Militaire, took no further interest in the aircraft.
  The RNAS obtained two examples for evaluation. N521 was powered by a 130 hp Clerget engine, had a faired fuselage, and was assigned to No. 11 Squadron. It was deleted on 27 June 1917. A second aircraft, N532, is believed to have been sent to No. 11, and later No. 10 Squadrons. It was deleted from service in February 1918.
  
  
Powerplant: Two with a 110-hp Le Rhone 9J
   One with a 130-hp Clerget
  
Data for Triplane N1388
  Span 8.01 m
  Length 5.85m
  Height 2.26 m
  Wing area 43.16 sq.m.
  Empty weight 417 kg
  Loaded weight l,629 kg
  Max speed 176 km/h at 3,000 m
  climb to
   1,000 m 13.6 minutes
  Armament one synchronized 0.303 Lewis, machine gun
  Production Approximately three built
The first Nieuport triplane, serial N1118. The unusual wing layout was first tried on a modified Nieuport 10
Nieuport triplane two-seater. N 1118
Nieuport triplane two-seater
The second Nieuport Triplane
The second Nieuport Triplane
The second Nieuport Triplane
A6686 at Hounslow
Nieuport triplane fighter N 1388 was evaluated by the RFC in 1916
The RFC's Nieuport triplane, presumably still at Candas and apparently before the finishing touches were put to the painting of its RFC serial number A6686
Carrying the French serial number N1388 on the tail, this triplane variant was based on an Nie.17 fuselage, and is armed with a single centrally mounted Vickers machine gun. The original photograph is dated 26 January 1917
This rear view of N1388 shows that on the starboard side the rudder number lacks any prefix. It was also repeated in miniscule figures on the rear fuselage
Nieuport triplane fighter N 1388 was evaluated by the RFC in 1916
A6686 was tested at Martlesham Heath in April 1917 where this photograph was taken; the test report was anything but flattering
A6686 at an unknown, but extremely interesting location
N1946, this triplane had a 130-hp Clerget engine and was apparently a converted Nieuport 17bis
Nieuport Triplane #1
Nieuport Triplane #2
Nieuport Triplane #3
A view of a Nieuport Nie.25 with Nungesser in the cockpit. The onlookers appear to be Belgian officers.
The Nieuport series of sesquiplane fighters had been superseded in French service by the SPAD series of fighters. Attempts to enhance the Nieuport designs by redesigning the airframe, fitting more powerful engines, or even changing to a new wing had proved unsuccessful and the SPAD firm's dominance had continued unabated. It was inevitable, then, that the Nieuport firm would at last switch to a conventional biplane with parallel interplane struts. The major deficiency of the sesquiplanes had been low speed and poor climbing ability. An increase in wing area and a more powerful engine was required to correct these defects. Furthermore, shortcomings in the design of the lower wing had resulted in those of the Nieuport 23 ripping off in flight. A new wing had been tried on a Nieuport 27 (possibly in preparation for a similar wing on the Nieuport 28) that had two spars and a wider chord.
  The prototype Nieuport 28 had a wire-braced four-longeron fuselage made of wood that was significantly longer than that of the Nieuport 27. The fuselage was also completely rounded; the flat cross section of the fuselage bottom that had been used on the earlier Nieuports was replaced by a completely circular layout. The area from behind the cockpit to the cowling was covered with tulip wood strips rather than metal as on earlier Nieuport designs. The area from the rear of the cowling to the rear of the fuselage was covered by plywood as, apparently, were the tail surfaces. The wings had a wooden framework and two spars, and were covered with fabric. The two pine spars were fitted with wire-braced wooden ribs. The leading edges were covered with plywood veneer. The interplane struts and center section struts were also of wood. The chord of both wings was almost equal; the lower wing was still slightly smaller than the upper. The wing tips were elliptical, and there was no dihedral on the bottom wing. Ailerons were fitted to the lower wing only. The top wing was fitted at the eye level of the pilot. The interplane struts formed a single box-like structure eliminating the need for incidence or stagger wires. The tail was also made of wood and covered with fabric. The undercarriage was of aluminum tube with streamlined fairings and rubber cord shock absorbers. As with the Nieuport 27, the tail skid was internally sprung. Armament consisted of one Vickers 0.303 machine gun mounted to port. The engine was a 160-hp Gnome Monosoupape 9Nc rotary.
  The prototype flew in June 1917. The upper wing (with dihedral) was not successful, possibly because the low-set wing inhibited fitting of a second machine gun, and two other configurations were tried. At least two aircraft with full dihedral (N4434 and N6125) were built and flown. Another version was built featuring an upper wing with a slight dihedral of 1.5 degrees. The latter version was to be the only one of the three types to be produced in series.
  Production aircraft were fitted with two Vickers 0.303" machine guns, one mounted offset to port on the top of the fuselage, the other was attached to a shelf below the port center-section struts. Aside from the reduced dihedral of the upper wing and the twin-gun armament, the production Nieuport 28 seems to have been identical to the prototype. The aircraft was maneuverable and had a rapid climb rate. However, production aircraft were not popular and have been described as tending to shed fabric from the wings when they were steeply dived. Perhaps for these reasons the Nieuport 28 was not selected for production by the STAe. It is interesting to note that all the aircraft designed to fit the C1 specification that used the Gnome 9Nc rotary were also unsuccessful. Of these aircraft (SPAD 15, Morane-Saulnier 27 and 29, and Courtois-Suffit-Lescop), only the Morane-Saulnier designs entered production. These were quickly withdrawn from service, apparently because the Gnome engine was particularly prone to catch fire. In fact, it was reported that earlier versions of the Nieuport 28 were also prone to catch fire because leakage of fuel fumes from the engine would result in fires. Modifications to the exhaust system and engine cowling corrected the problem.
  Fortunately for Nieuport, there was still a pressing need for new fighters and the SPAD firm was having difficulties meeting its production goals for the SPAD 13. Also, the entry of the Americans into the conflict meant they would need new aircraft. As the French wished to retain the SPAD 13s for their own escadrilles, it was decided that the Nieuport firm would produce the Nieuport 28 for use by the American air service. A total of 297 were ordered by the A.E.F. Air Service. As mentioned above, the Nieuport 28 was unpopular and was also clearly inferior to the Fokker D.VII . It was retired from front-line service within four months and replaced in A.E.F. service by SPAD 13s.
  
United States
  
  The Air Service of the American Expeditionary Force was in desperate need of fighters and was willing to accept any aircraft, even the Nieuport 28, which had been rejected by the Aviation Militaire. A total of 297 aircraft were delivered to the Americans. Only four units used the Nieuport 28: the 27th, 94th, 95th, and 147th Aero Squadrons.
  The 27th Aero Squadron was based at Tours in March 1918. As part of the First Pursuit Group, it participated in the battles in the Toul and Aisne-Marne sectors.
  The 94th Aero Squadron received 22 Nieuport 28s between 15 and 21 March 1918. it provided air cover for the 8th C.A. from St. Mihiel to Pont-a-Mousson. By the end of June the 94th had given up its Nieuport 28s for SPAD 7s and 13s. The unit had 18 confirmed victories while flying Nieuport 28s.
  The 95th Aero Squadron was based at Issoudun on 16 November 1917. It was particularly active over the Toul sector. By July 1918 the unit had re-equipped with SPAD 13s.
  The 147th Aero Squadron was assigned to the 1st Pursuit Group and was based at Tours in March. ft was active over the 6th and 8th C.A. sectors. In June the squadron supported the American 1st Army and was based at Toul.
  The Nieuport 28s were not well-liked by all the American pilots, but some men achieved good results with the type. Although the aircraft was quite maneuverable, its engine was prone to catching fire due to leaks in the fuel system. These leaks appear to have been caused by vibration. it was also discovered that the Nieuport 28s had a tendency to shed the wing fabric covering the leading edge. There was also a shortage of machine guns which meant that many aircraft were armed with only a single weapon. Although attempts were made to rectify these problems, it was soon decided to replace the Nieuport 28s with other types of fighters. By July most of the Nieuport 28s were relegated to training units.
  Postwar, approximately 50 Nieuport 28s were returned to the United States. Most were used by the Army Air Service as trainers. Twelve aircraft went to the United States Navy and were given serial numbers A 5794-A 5805. These aircraft were reportedly flown off platforms fitted to the forward turrets of battleships and were also used to practice formation flying and combat techniques. These Nieuports constituted Combat Squadron Three, which in 1920 was the only fully-armed fighter squadron in the United States Navy. Some of these aircraft were later used as racers.
  
  
Nieuport 28 Single-Seat Fighter with 160-hp Gnome Monosoupape 9Nc
  
  Span 8.16 m
  Length 6.40 m
  Height 2.50 m
  Wing area 16.00 sq. m
  Empty weight 456 kg
  Loaded weight 698 kg
  Max speed 198 km/h at 2,000 m
  Climb to 2,000 m in 5.5 minutes
  Ceiling 5,180 m
  Range 400 km
  Endurance 1 hour 30 minutes
  Armament Two 0.303-inch Vickers machine guns
  Production run Approximately 310 built
  
  
Nieuport 28 Experimental Fighter with 200-hp Clerget 11E
  
  Wing area 21.00 square meters
  Empty weight 530 kg
  Loaded weight 850 kg
  Max speed 200 km/h at 4,000 m
  climb to 4,000 m in 12 minutes
  Endurance 2.5 hours
  
  
Nieuport 28 Monocoque
  
  Loaded weight 640 kg
  Max speed 198 km/h at 2,000 m
  climb to 3,000 m in 7.33 minutes
  Endurance 2.25 hours
Unnumbered prototype that had no dihedral
Unnumbered prototype
A refined development of the Nieuport 28 existed in prototype form
Sometimes mistaken, even by French writers, for the Nieuport 28, this later development of November/December 1917 had the 200 hp Clerget 11E engine
At least two aircraft were built with diedre total (full dihedral) on the upper wing. One of these bore the SFA serial number N4434
The other Nieuport 28 known to have the diedre total wing configuration was N6125
1/Lt. James Meissner's Nieuport N6144 following the incident in which its upper wing fabric tore away on May 2 1918
The sober looking 1/Lt. James Meissner stands beside N6144 after losing upper wing fabric on May 2 1918
1/Lt. William J Hoover and his ground crew stand before N6157, his Nieuport of the 27th Aero Sqdn.
Members of the 27th Aero Sqdn. gather behind Hoover's Nieuport N6157
Rickenbacker's 'White 12', the serial N6159
1/Lts. Eddie Rickenbacker, Douglas Campbell and 1/Lt. Kenneth Marr before a white-cowled Nieuport 28 of Rickenbacker's flight which may well be his own N6154
Captain Kenneth Marr beside Rickenbacker's Nieuport N6159
2/Lt. Alan Winslow stands beside John Wentworth's Nieuport N6168
1/Lt. Thorne C Taylor in N6180
Nieuport 28 N6168, undergoes engine maintenance at Gengoult in May 1918
1/Lt. William F Loomis' N6181 of the 94th Aero Sqdn.
Major G Raoul Lufbery beside his Nieuport N6193
Nieuport 28 6212, the former mount of 2/Lt. James F Ashenden, 147th Aero Squadron, USAS
'Pip' Porter's Nieuport N6250 after being flown and crash-landed - by 1/Lt. Abernethy
Nieuport N6250 undergoing repairs
Nieuport N6250 undergoing repairs
Nieuport 28 N6254 being painted in the markings of the 147th Aero Squadron
1/Lt. Kenneth W Porter beside Nieuport 28 N6256 of the 147th Aero Squadron
Nieuport 28s of the 27th Aero Sqdn., USAS
Members of the 27th Aero Sqdn. beside Nieuport 28 No.2, assigned to 1/Lt. Leo H Dawson at Toul in early June 1918
27th Aero Squadron's 'A' Flight at Saints aerodrome, August 1 1918, abount 25 minutes before the patrol in which six members of the squadron were lost
Nieuport of the 95th Aero Sqdn.
1/Lt. Edward Buford, Jr. stands before a Nieuport 28 of the 95th Aero Squadron
1/Lt. Johm Hambleton stands before his Nieuport of 95th Aero Sqdn's. 'C' Flight
1/Lt. James C Knowels stands before his Nieuport of 'A' Flight, 95th Aero Sqdn.
2/Lt. William E Brotherton beside a Nieuport 28 of the 147th Aero Sqdn.
1/Lt. George A S Robertson of the 147th Aero Squadron and his damaged Nieuport, N6232
Lt. C A McElvain (second from right) with his mechanics and Nieuport 28
The rat terrier emblem of the 147th Aero
Gnome Monosoupape engine of a Swiss Nieuport 28
A Nieuport 28 (or in French designation, XXVIIIC.1) fuselage is shown here without armament. In March, because guns had not yes supplied, the 95th and 94th Squadron pilots went over the lines in limited sorties near Villeneuve
It soon became clear to the Aviation Militaire that the reconnaissance units' A.R.1s and A.R.2s were underpowered and that the Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutters were too fragile and carried an inadequate payload. A requirement for a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft capable of carrying a crew of two, several machine guns, a camera, and a T.S.F. unit was announced in 1916. Several aircraft were developed to meet this requirement; including the Breguet 14 and the Salmson 2A2.
  The Societe des Moteurs Salmson, which had previously concentrated on the production of aero engines, had gained considerable experience in aircraft manufacturing when it had built Sopwith 11/2 Strutters under license. To meet the new requirement it designed a completely new biplane, drawing upon the knowledge acquired in producing the Sopwith machines.
  The Salmson 2 was a biplane powered by a 230-hp Salmson 9Za. The wings were of equal span with ailerons on both the upper and lower wings. The wings had two hollow spars of spruce. The ribs were plywood and the bottom was covered with poplar. The spars of the lower wing were attached to the fuselage longerons by metal fittings. The upper wing was held in place on the fuselage by the cabane struts and was attached to the lower wing by two bays of struts.
  The fuselage had a rectangular structure composed of four longerons with several fuselage formers which were attached by hinges and reinforced by a latticework of piano wire. At the rear were vertical tubes to which the rudder and vertical stabilizer were attached. The longerons were made of ash sheathed in aluminum at their attachment points. There were two 100-liter fuel tanks, both held in cradles in the lower fuselage. The oil tank held 47 liters and was located on the right side of the fuselage beneath a rounded fairing. The engine was mounted on two metal holders which were held together by a U-shaped support. The motor mount was attached to the fuselage longerons by bolts. The armament was two flexible 7.7-mm Lewis guns and a synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers.
  The undercarriage had six struts (three per side) attached to the motor mount and the rear spar. The articulated axle was wrapped in bungee chord to act as a shock absorber. The tail skid was a tube of duralumin attached to the lower fuselage.
  The performance was good and the test pilot stated that the Salmson 2 responded well to the controls but the nose tended to wander ~"hunt") when coming out of a turn. It was recommended that the bungee chords attached to the rudder be tightened. A drawback in combat was the considerable distance between the pilot and gunner.
  It had not been planned to equip the aircraft with bomb racks; however, as the war progressed modifications were carried out to some Salmson 2s to enable them to carry 230 kg of bombs for ground attack.
  Production totaled 3,200 aircraft. Salmson produced 2,200 and the remaining 1,000 were built by Latecoere, Hanriot, and Desfontaines.
  
Variants
  
  The aircraft underwent remarkably few changes during its service career. Latecoere, which built the type under license, produced a number of interesting variants. The Latecoere Type 2 was a Salmson 2 modified to conform more closely to the Latecoere production process. Only six were built; the other aircraft produced at that plant were assembled without modification. The Latecoere firm also modified one aircraft to enable it to carry a torpedo; however, no production of this type was undertaken.
  The Salmson 2 D2 was a two-seat training version of the Salmson 2. The D designation stood for double command (dual control). In addition to having dual controls fitted, the Salmson 2 D2s were fitted with 130-hp Clerget 9B engines. Several were built in 1917.
  
  
Description: Two-Seat Reconnaissance Aircraft
Manufacturer: Societe des Moteurs Salmson
Power plant: 230-h p Salmson 9Za
Dimensions:
  Span 11.75 m
  Length 18.50m
  Height 2.90 m
  Wing area 37.27sq. m
Weights:
  Empty 780 kg
  Loaded 1,290 kg
Performance:
  Max speed
   sea level 188 km/h
   2,000 m 186 km/h
   3,000 m 181 km/h
   4,000 m 173 km/h
   5,000 m 168 km/h
  Climb to
   1,000 m 3 minutes 18 seconds
   2,000 m 7 minutes 13 seconds
   4,000 m 17 minutes 20 seconds
   5,000 m 27 minutes 30 seconds
  Ceiling 6,250 m
  Range 500 km
Armament: One synchronized Vickers 7.7mm machine gun
   and two ring-mounted 7.7mm Lewis machine guns
Production: 3,200
Прототип самолета внешне отличался отсутствием заголовника кабины пилота и жалюзи перед радиатором. (Experimental Salmson 2 fitted with a 260-hp engine. The aircraft underwent testing in 1917)
Salmson 2 serial 22
Salmson 2 of SAL 33; serial number 49. The pilot's name was Delavenne
Salmson 2 A2 serial number 513
Salmson 2 serial number 637 of SAL 59. This escadrille was assigned to the 10th Corps d'Armee
Salmson 2 A2 of the 1st Aero Squadron assigned to the 1st Corps Observation Group
Salmson 2 A2 of SAL 32. The escadrille was assigned to the 10th C.A. and was initially based at Montdidier
Salmson 2 of Col. Hamonic
A Salmson 2A2 of Sal.40, summer 1918
Paul Schmitt 7
  
  The Paul Schmitt 7 was a development of the Type 6 bomber. in most respects it was identical to the Type 6 and both used the 250-hp Renault engine. However, the lower wing of the Type 7 was attached directly to the fuselage. Thus the Type 7 carried the Schmitt designation B.R.A.H., standing for Bomber Renault Aile Haute (high wing). The wing area was so large that it led to serious problems when the Type 7 was introduced into operational service. As with the Type 6, the Type 7 dispensed with the variable incidence wing. The wings were constructed in two parts mounted to a fixed central section. The center section was attached to the fuselage by four steel tubes. The fuselage was constructed entirely of metal and covered with aluminum. As with the Type 6, the radiator was located in the nose. The landing gear was altered on the Type 7; whereas the Type 6 had featured a quadracycle undercarriage or nose skids, most Type 7s had a single pair of wheels beneath the fuselage. The landing gear was supported by ash runners and bungee cords, which served as shock absorbers. Wing spars were made of ash and pine. The wing formers were of plywood. There were 16 struts; four were of metal, the others of pine. Ailerons were on the to wing only. There was a fuel tank of of 450 liters capacity.
  The B.R.A.H. was given the STAe designation Paul Schmitt Type 7, and approximately 150 were ordered. They are believed to have had Schmitt construction numbers 33 to 180 and carried military serials PS 22 to PS 170.
  The Paul Schmitt 7/4 was the only major variant of the P. S. 7. It featured dual nose wheels, presumably added to prevent the aircraft from nosing over during landing. This was a common problem with French night bombers of the period; the heavily laden aircraft frequently crashed when they attempted night landings on soft or muddy soil. The addition of the nose wheels would have become necessary when the role of the Paul Schmitt 7 was changed from day to night bomber.
  The government contract for the P.S.7 was to prove a mixed blessing for Schmitt. While he now had the opportunity to produce a new bomber for the Aviation Militaire, he had yet to create a factory to produce the planes. Like many other French aviation pioneers, Schmitt had very limited financial and manufacturing resources. He was able to secure economic assistance from diverse sources, including a French minister of parliament and an American banker who anticipated selling large numbers of P.S.7s to the fledgling American air service,
  However, Schmitt's problems were far from over-he still needed to construct a factory to assemble the bombers. Huge sums of money were spent building the Schmitt establishment, obtaining the requisite raw materials, and hiring a skilled work force. The result was that the Schmitt bomber, which had been selected as an interim day bomber in 1915, did not reach frontline units until April 1917. By 1 August 1917 only 16 were in service. The delay was to prove fatal both for Schmitt's plans to produce an armada of P.S.7s and for the unfortunate crews who had to fly the obsolete machines in combat.
  
Operational Service
  
  On 8 April 1917 PS 125 and PS 126 were formed on the Paul Schmitt 6 and 7. Two additional units were formed, PS 127 on 14 April and PS 128 on 15 May 1917. All four were assigned to GB 3 on 7 July 1917.
  It was soon apparent that the new bomber had serious deficiencies. The aircraft were found to be too slow and carried inadequate protection for daylight missions (this problem had been noted as far back as the 1915 concours puissant). The flying characteristics of the P.S.7 were so poor that the aircraft became unstable if the maximum bomb load was carried. The bomb load had to be reduced even further so that more defensive armament could be carried, the aircraft being particularly vulnerable to fighters because of its slow speed.
  Formation flying was virtually impossible because of the P.S.7's poor maneuverability, due to the huge wing. The aircraft, because they were unable to fly in tight formation, could not concentrate their firepower and were therefore easy prey for German fighters.
  The PS escadrilles of GB 3 were based at Plessier Saint-Just in April, operating a mix of P.S.6s, P.S.7s, and P.S.7/4s. After the PS escadrilles had been attached to GB 3, the group moved to Pierrefonds. From this base the PS units were to bomb targets in the Somme and Aisne sectors. Later in the month the Paul Schmitt bombers were active over the Serre Valley. On2 May the PS units successfully bombed Essigny-le -Petit. On 27 May a major raid was flown on the Nouvion-Catillon aerodrome. The next month the units spent most of their time practicing formation flying. They returned to action on 13 July when stations and bivouacs were attacked. Eleven days later, the 18 aircraft bombed German camps at Lanquetaille, and two machines of PS 125 bombed the Cambrai train station.
  An attempt to bomb targets in the vicinity of Pouilly sur Serre proved disastrous; enemy fighters caused heavy casualties and forced the escadrilles to miss the target. The PS units were then assigned to support the G.A.N. during the Second Battle of the Somme and l'Aisne. Various train stations along the front were attacked in September. October would be the last month the PS 7s would be used operationally, when Catele, Ramicourt, and the cement plant at Mont d'Origny were attacked.
  It was now obvious that the Paul Schmitt 7s were useless in either the day or night bombing role. PS 128 received Sopwith 11/2 Strutters in June. PS 126 and PS 127 re-equipped with Breguet 14 B2s in November and PS 125 received Voisin 8s on 24 January.
  Production delays had resulted in an aircraft that incorporated the technology of 1915 being introduced into combat in 1917. Given the rapid pace of aviation development in the intervening years, it is not surprising that the Paul Schmitt 7s proved to be a costly failure.
  
  
Description: Two-Seat Bomber
Power: 250-hp Renault
Dimensions:
  Span 17.50 m
  Length 9.50 m
  Wing area 48.40 m
  Empty weight 1,298 kg
  Loaded weight 2,098 kg
Performance:
  Max speed:
   at 2,000 m. 135 km/h
   at 3,000 m. 131 km/h
   at 4,000 m. 121 km/h
  climb to
   2,000 m. 21.45 minutes
   3,000 m. 36.5 minutes
Ceiling approximately 4,000 m.
Endurance 5 hours
Armament: Two 7.7-mm machine guns fired by the gunner and 150 kg of bombs
Production: Approximately 150 built
Paul Schmitt 7.B2 company number 33, serial 22 (always 11 less) fitted with Eteve gun mounting
Paul Schmitt P.S.7 serial PS 22. Note wheels in the centre section for the operation of the aileron.
Paul Schmitt on an airfield near Dunkerque. These appear to have wing-mounted Lewis guns and include serial numbers 23 and 24
Paul Schmitt no 67 attracts the attention of 56 Sqn RFC
Another view of Paul Schmitt number 67 visiting 56 Sqn RFC
Paul Schmitt P.S.7 with a 250-hp Renault engine
Paul Schmitt 7.B2 crashed with Escadrille PS126
A wrecked Paul Schmitt 7/B2 of PS126
P.S.7. Approximately 150 were ordered. These aircraft are believed to have had Schmitt construction numbers 33 to 180
Paul Schmitt P.S.7
Paul Schmitt 7/4.B2 with 4-wheeled undercarriage
The Paul Schmitt 7/4 was the only major variant of the P.S.7. It featured a dual nosewheel which was presumably added to prevent the aircraft from nosing over during landing
Of all the problems that faced early aircraft designers, one of the most challenging was finding a way for combat aircraft to fire a fixed machine gun without damaging the propeller. The SPAD firm and Bechereau took a novel approach to this problem. The new design was intended to give the gunner an unobstructed field of fire ahead of the aircraft while maintaining the agility and safety (from rear attack) of the tractor configuration. This design was felt to be so promising that a French patent (No.498.338) was applied for on 27 February 1915. Originally, the plane was a tractor biplane with a gunner's nacelle suspended in front of the propeller by struts attached to the upper and lower wings. This made access to the engine too difficult and the design was modified (Addition No.22.088) to permit the nacelle to be hinged to the undercarriage struts.
  The SPAD SA.1 was in many ways a conventional biplane. The fuselage was of wooden construction with four spruce longerons faired top and bottom with stringers. Later, lateral ducts ("cheeks") were added to either side of the engine compartment; these were later retrofitted to early versions of the A series when they were brought in for maintenance. It seems likely that these were to ensure adequate engine cooling. The fuel and oil tanks were mounted on top of the fuselage and in front of the pilot. The wings featured a novel design unique to the SPAD firm. At the intersection points of the landing and flying wires was a two-part articulated auxiliary strut. The genius of this design was that it permitted a biplane with large span wings to be braced as a single-bay structure. This gave the appearance of a two-bay aircraft, although the A series actually had only a single bay of struts. Otherwise, the wings were quite conventional, of equal span and chord with ailerons on both upper and lower wings. The engine was a 80-hp Le Rhone mounted in the nose and in front of this the gunner's nacelle (or 'pulpit") was attached to the landing gear. This arrangement enabled the nacelle to be moved out of the way to start the engine (although it could be started with the nacelle in place) or for maintenance. The nacelle was built of ash longerons and covered with plywood. In addition to the struts to the landing gear, the nacelle was supported by a bearing attached to the rear bulkhead and seated on the propeller shaft. An additional attachment came in the form of two struts from the top wing to an L-shaped pylon built into the aft bulkhead. Armament consisted of a 7.7-mm Lewis machine gun mounted on a vertical track. The tail had wood framing and a steel tube elevator spar. The tail was of the same triangular outline used in later SPAD designs.
  To facilitate communication between gunner and pilot there was a communication tube passing from the gunner's compartment through the propeller hub to the pilot's cockpit. This was of critical importance because the crewmen were separated from each other by a noisy engine and, while the gunner could fire the gun, it was the pilot who had to maneuver him into position to use it.
  The SPAD SA.1 was evaluated in May 1915. Complaints about the type included inadequate cooling because of the location of the nacelle and excessive vibration in the gunner's nacelle. The excellent field of fire was praised. it was suggested that better results might by obtained if the gunner was replaced by four fixed machine guns. In fact this modification was carried out and became the Type G.
  The flight tests recorded the following data: span 9.10 m; length 7.30 m, height 2.60 m; area 21.35 sq. m, maximum speed 150 km/h; climb to 500 m in 2 min. 10 sec.; 1,000 m in 4 min. 33 sec.; 1,500 m in 5 min 45 sec; 2,000 m in 7 min. 40 sec.; 2,500 m in I I min. 35 sec. ;and 3,000 m in 16 min. 5 sec.
  Although the SPAD SA.1 was considered a successful design, it was not produced in large numbers (approximately ten were built) because an improved version, the SA.2, became available.
  The SA.2 was powered by a more powerful 110-hp Le Rhone 9J engine. The only other differences from the SA.1 consisted of minor changes to the nacelle attachments, gun mount, and horizontal tail surfaces (which now had parallel leading and trailing edges). The prototype flew on 21 May 1915. A total of 42 SA.2s were ordered by the Aviation Militaire; an additional 57 were purchased by the Imperial Russian Air Service. However, Shavrov identifies the Russian SA.2s as being fitted with 80-hp Le Rhone engines. The wings of some, if not all, Russian SA.2s and SA.4s had a center-section, unlike the French machines, which had the two upper wing panels joined in the center.
  The SA.2s were never formed into a single escadrille by the French, but were instead divided among the reconnaissance units to provide fighter escort. It is clear that the SA.2 was not liked by the French crews. The gunners felt that the pulpit position was hazardous and meant certain death if an accident should occur during landing - the gunner would almost certainly be crushed by the engine. The occupant of the nacelle also was at risk of injury or death from the adjacent propeller. in addition, the pilots noted that the cockpit, which was located in the middle of the fuselage, meant that the view was very poor, especially during landing.
  The SA.2s had a short life in French service. By 4 February 1916 there were only four still in front-line service with an additional five in service with training units. N 49 had only one SA.2 on strength in late March 1916; less than two months later this aircraft was no longer listed with N 49.
  Although the SA.2 had only briefly served at the front, the SPAD firm continued a number of developments and modifications to its basic layout. The SA.3 was similar to the SA.2 but featured two gunners, one in the nose pulpit and another in a separate cockpit behind the wing. The rear gunner was in the position occupied by the pilot in the SA.1 and SA.2. indeed, the only major change was the fitting of dual controls and providing a rearward-firing machine gun. This certainly represented a logical development of the A series, since one of the advantages of the tractor layout was that it permitted a rearward-firing gun for defense against stern attacks. The sole example of the SA.3 was given the serial number S.40. Although the SA.3 was not pursued further, the basic layout for a front and rear gunner was repeated in may of Bechereau's subsequent designs, including the SPAD C, D, E, and F. The idea of gunners with dual controls would also appear in the contemporary Ponnier twin-engine fighter (see above).
  The SPAD SA.4 was an SA.2 airframe fitted with an 80-hp Le Rhone engine, possibly because of cooling problems with the 110-hp Le Rhone 9J. The other basic change was that ailerons were fitted to the top wing only. Also, the wings were positioned a few millimeters further aft than on the SA.1 and SA.2; this may have been intended to offset the tail-heaviness found on the earlier SPADs. The first flight of the SPAD SA.4 was on 22 February 1916. Only 11 were built. One was evaluated by the Aviation Militaire and the remaining ten were purchased by the Imperial Russian Air Service. However, Shavrov identifies the Russian SA.4s as being fitted with I 110-hp Le Rhone 9J engines. it is possible that Shavrov had confused the SA.2 with the SA.4 by assigning the more powerful engine to the later type. Another possibility is that these designations were unique to the IRAS. In any event, this was the last variant of the SPAD SA series to see combat service. While the type was shunned by its aircrews and rapidly withdrawn from service, many of the innovations of the series found their way into Bechereau's elegant and far more successful SPAD 7 and 13.
  The STAe system of designations for SPAD aircraft are not known, but may have been as follows: SPAD SA. 1 = SPAD I SPAD SA.2 = SPAD 2 SPAD SA.3 = SPAD 3 SPAD SA.4 = SPAD 4
  
Foreign Service
  
  Russia
   In Russian service the SPAD SA.2 and SA.4 were known as SPADs "with cabin." Shavrov estimates that 50 SA.1s and six SA.4s were used by Russia, while other sources state that 57 SA.2s and ten SA.4s were obtained. There were victories credited to pilots who flew the SPAD SA.2s and 4s, A.A. Kozakov and observer-pilot Yu. A. Bratolyubov being one such successful team. It was reported that "insufficient construction" of the forward cockpit resulted in the pulpit falling off when the mounting had been damaged by bullets. This appears to be the main reason the type was disliked by Russian pilots. There was a report that one gunner's neck was broken when his scarf became caught in the propeller.
   The No. I Fighter Squadron and the 2nd Guard Air Squadron had SPAD SA.2s on strength. The latter unit had three SA.2s in June 1917; these had serials 95, 98, and 100. The 1st Turkastan Air Squadron of the 11th Air Division had two SA.2s and one SPAD SA.4 with serials 54, 78, and 68 (or 63).
   As of April 1 1917 there was a total of 25 SPAD SA.2s and SA.4s still in service. This represented more than ten percent of the Russian fighter force at that time. it would appear that at least a few of the SA.2s and SA.4s saw service during the Russian civil war. As of 9 December 1917 a total of 19 SPAD fighters of all types, including SA.2s and SA.4s were listed on strength.
  
  
SPAD SA1 Two-Seat Fighter 80-hp Le Rhone 9C
  
  Span 9.55m
  Length 7.29m
  Height 2.60m
  Wing area 25.36 sq.m
  Empty weight 421 kg
  Loaded weight 708 kg
  Max speed 135 km/h
  Endurance 2.75 hours
  Armament One 7.7-mm Lewis machine gun mounted on a swivel in the gunner's pulpit
  Production run 10 built
  
  
SPAD SA.2 Two-Seat Fighter 110-hp Le Rhone 9J
  
  Span 9.55m
  Length 7.85m
  Height 2.60m
  Wing area 25.36 sq.m
  Empty weight 414 kg
  Loaded weight 674 kg
  Max speed 140 km/h
  climb to
   1,000m 6.5 minutes
   2,000m 12.5 minutes
   3,000m 23.5 minutes
  Ceiling 4,000m
  Endurance 3 hours
  Armament One One 7.7-mm Lewis machine gun mounted on a swivel in the gunner's pulpit
  Production run 52 built for the Aviation Militaire
  
  
SPAD SA.2 Two-Seat Fighter 80-hp Le Rhone 9C in Russian Service
  
  Span 9.55m
  Length 7.3m
  Height 2.60m
  Wing area 25.3 sq.m
  Empty weight 535 kg
  Loaded weight 815 kg
  Max speed 112 km/h
  climb to
   1,000m 8 minutes
   2,000m 20 minutes
  Ceiling 3,000m
  Endurance 2 hours
  Armament One One 7.7-mm Lewis machine gun mounted on a swivel in the gunner's pulpit
  Production run 47 built for the IRAS
  
  
SPAD SA.3 Two-Seat Fighter 110-hp Le Rhone 9J
  
  Span 9.55m
  Length 7.3m
  Height 2.60m
  Wing area 25.3 sq.m
  Empty weight 414 kg
  Loaded weight 674 kg
  Max speed 140 km/h
  Armament One Two 7.7-mm Lewis machine guns mounted on swivels;
   one in the forward gunner's pulpit
   and the second in the rear gunner's cockpit
  Production run 1
  
  
SPAD SA.4 Two-Seat Fighter 110-hp Le Rhone 9J Russian Service
  
  Span 9.5m
  Length 7.3m
  Height 2.60m
  Wing area 25.3 sq.m
  Empty weight 565 kg
  Loaded weight 960 kg
  Max speed 135 km/h
  climb to
   1,000m 6 minutes
   2,000m 12.3 minutes
   3,000m 34 minutes
  Ceiling 3,500m
  Endurance 2 hours
  Armament One One 7.7-mm Lewis machine gun mounted on a swivel in the gunner's pulpit
  Production run 11 built for the IRAS
The unusual SA.1 was the first of many SPAD fighter designs by Louis Bechereau.
Spad A prototype
Французский "Спад" A1. An early production S.A-1
S.12
SPAD SA.2 serial S.17 with pillar-type gun mount
Spad A-2, serial S.19 of an unidentified French unit, carried the name "MA JEANNE" (My Jean) on the fuselage side in Black
S.19 with 110 hp Le Rhone
S.31
This Spad A-2 of the imperial Russian Air Service was equipped with skis for operations from snow covered airfields
This Spad A.2 served with the Imperial Russian Air Service and was fitted with skis for operations from snow covered airfields. This aircraft carries a rear view mirror attached to the rear fuselage cabane strut
Стойки гондолы крепились к шасси на шарнирах. Это позволяло открывать двигательный отсек для ремонта. (The front nacelle of the Spad A.2 pivoted around its lower attachment points to the undercarriage. The upper support struts detached allowing the nacelle to be lowered for engine maintenance. The small wire screen at the rear of the cockpit was designed to protect the observer from the propeller)
S.A-2
Port-side aspect of an S.A-2
Photograph of an S.A-2, in which the observer has a Lewis gun
A Spad A Type that had overturned was not a pretty sight
A-2
A-2
Spad S.A-2
SPAD S.A-2, 1915
Spad S.A-3, S.40
This Russian S.A-4 fell into Austro-Hungarian hands on June 28 1917
A Ukrainian (formerly Russian) biplane of the Spad biplane type, with the airscrew in the middle of the body. Note should be taken of the special skids for running on snow. The unenviable position of the gunner in front of the propeller is clearly illustrated!
The Russians flew the Spad A.2 and its sucessor the Spad A.4 long after the French had retired them - chiefly because there was a chronic shortage of aircraft within the Russian Air Service. This aircraft (serial S.79) is armed with a .303 Lewis machine gun
Captured Russian S.A-4
Captured Russian S.A-4
Russian Spad S.A-4, armed with a Colt machine-gun fitted with a Russian-made amunition box
This aircraft is believed to be the Spad V, prototype for the production Spad 7. The aircraft lacks national markings, has short individual exhaust stubs, and a smaller windscreen than production Spad 7s
This Spad 7 (S.111) was the first aircraft off the production line. The aircraft was later modified with a wide radiator cowling opening. A collector pipe was fitted to the engine exhaust stubs
Le Grand Chasseur, LT Georges Guynumer, the best known French ace of the war beside his first Spad 7 (S.113). This was the first of three Spad 7s flown by Guynemer, all of which carried the name Vieux Chales on the fuselage. The Stork marking of Escadrille Spa.3 was in Red with White details
CAPT Georges Guynemer in his third Spad 7 (serial S.254) on 25 May 1917. This aircraft was the first Spad 7 powered by the 180 hp Hispano-Suiza to be sent to the front. Guynemer gained nineteen of his fifty-four victories with this aircraft, which still exists. It was recently restored by the Musee de l'Air for display at Le Bourget
During 1976 Guynemer's Spad 7 (S.254) was displayed at the Armee de l'Air Academy at Salon-de-Provence. The aircraft was hung indoors, however, there was no attempt to restore the Spad until 1981, when it was turned over to the Musee de l'Air and completely restored
S.154 also carried tri-color stripes on the rear fuselage. The starboard section of the windscreen has been removed, a practice that was often done on the Spad 7 to provide easier access to the gun breech to clear jammed rounds. THis aircraft also carried roundels on the tailplane
This Spad 7 (S.239) of Spa.102 at Courbeaulieu during March of 1917 has the engine cowling access panels removed for maintenance. The fin has been painted a dark color and carries a personal marking, possibly consisting of the pilot's initials
LT Frederic Loiseau of N 561 in his Spad 7 (S.1068) at Lido airfield. The nose of this aircraft was White and the area around the cockpit is believed to have been Green, with a shield-like marking bearing Loiseau's initials. The charging Black elephant on the fuselage side was also a personal marking
This Spad 7 (S.1379) was assigned to Spa.65 and it is believed that the aircraft was assigned to ADJ Marcel Henriot. The diagonal stripes on the fuselage side just behind the winged dragon unit insignia are Red and White
This Spad 7 (serial S.1379) carries the Black Dragon of Spa.65 on the fuselage and is believed to have been flown by ADJ Marcel Henriot
Rene Fonk's Spad VII (S1461) with the Spa 103 'Stork' and the Roman IX number. Forced landing in May 1917
An early production Spad 7 (serial S.1837) on the airfield at Bar-le-Duc. The standard color scheme for early Spad 7s was overall clear dope on the fabric surfaces with the metal cowl panels painted Light Yellow to roughly match the doped fabric. The Yellow painted area extended to just behind the cockpit
These Spad 7s and 13s of an unidentified French Escadrille de Chasse parked on a forward French airfield are in the process of having the unit insignia painted on the fuselage. In the foreground is a Spad 7 (S.5190), while behind is a Kellner-built Spad 13 (S.4567)
Another view of a 'shark mouth' marking on this crunched Spad VII of Spa 67
Spad VII of Spa 103. Note the Le Prieur rocket tubes on the wing struts
Ground crews bore-sight the Vickers machine gun of a Spad 7 into a hillside firing pit at a French airfield on the Marne during April of 1917
This Spad 7 was one of a number of Spads that were exported to Czechoslovakia. The aircraft served with the Czechoslovakian Air Force during 1920 and had the landing gear struts faired over in an attempt to increase the aircraft's top speed
SPAD VII Ltn Decaix, Escadrille Spa.150
This crashed Spad 7 is believed to have been assigned to Escadrille Spa.67. The aircraft has a pair of eyes painted on the cylinder head fairings. The large square and circular cutouts in the fuselage engine access panels were done to provide additional cooling air to the engine
Spad 7s from various Escadrilles de Chasse on the airfield at Ham. The Spad in the foreground is assigned to Spa.31, while immediately behind it is an aircraft belonging to Spa.48
This Spad 7 of an unknown Italian unit carries an inscription on the fuselage side which reads T veclo...!!! (old man in the Venetian dialect). The fighter in the background is an Ansaldo S.V.A.5
LT Rudolf Windisch of Jasta 66 in the cockpit of a captured Spad 7. LT Windisch flew the Spad in combat with German markings, howeverm he retained the dragon marking and tri-color wing stripes of its former owners, Escadrille Spa.65, on the fuselage side
This Spad 7 was experimentally equipped with a 150 hp Renault engine which required extensive modifications to the aircraft's nose in order to accomodate the 60 angle of the engine's cylinder banks, The engine was not selected for production Spad 7s
This Spad 7, fitted with a non-standard windscreen, carries no armament and is believed to have been used as a training aircraft. The marking on the fuselage is believed to be a personal insignia
An RAF ground crewman demonstrates the use of a Hucks starter truck to start the engine of this Italian Spad 7. The British demonstrated the Hucks starter to the Italian during the mid-1920s
The small cowling opening of the Spad 7 caused engine cooling problems during warmer weather. Eventually the opening was enlarged, however, before this was done a number of field modifications were tried, including drilling extra cooling holes in the cowling as on this Spad 7
This early Spad 7 reveals the single Vickers machine gun, wrap-around windscreen, and early cowling opening. The two teardrop shaped fairings are the covers for the engine cylinder heads and the fairing between the upper wing and the fuselage covered the gravity fuel tank and radiator header tank piping
During cold weather, early Spad 7s experienced problems keeping the engines warm enough. A number of field modifications were tried to correct this problem including fitting the radiator with a solid metal cover, such as on this Spad 7
This Spad 7 belonged to an unidentified French pilot who wanted no one to mistake his nationality. The aircraft carries French roundels on the fuselage, wings, and horizontal tail plane. Additionally, he had broad Red, White and Blue stripes painted on the fuselage sides. The reason for this was to avoid possible confusion with German Albatros D.I and D.II Fighters
German postcard of a Spad
Caporal Stuart Walcott and a Spad 7 at the G.D.E., Plessis-Belleville, France, October 1917
Spad 7
SPAD VII Plain finish
SPAD VII 4 colour camouflage pattern as used by de Marcay
SPAD VII 5-colour camouflage
While the SPAD 7 was a definite improvement over the Nieuport series and more than a match for contemporary German fighters, it had one definite weakness-its armament. Unlike many of the German fighters in 1917, the SPAD 7 was armed with only a single machine gun. One of the pilots who had put the SPAD 7 to such good use was Georges Guynemer. He approached Bechereau with the idea of fitting a cannon mounted to fire through the hollow hub of a 200-hp Hispano Suiza 8Cb engine. Bechereau designed the SPAD 12 to meet Guynemer's request, and the prototype first appeared in December 1916.
  The cannon selected for the SPAD 12 was a 12-round, 37mm S.A.M.C. In addition to this powerful weapon, a single Vickers machine gun was fitted to starboard. The only other obvious changes were the elimination of the tear-drop cylinder fairings and a more streamlined cowling. More subtle additions were the increase in wing area (necessitated by the weight of the cannon), positive stagger of the wings, and rounded wing tips. Subsequent modifications included fitting of a 220-hp Hispano Suiza 8Cb engine and addition of pocket extensions to the wing tips. Guynemer himself tested initial examples of the SPAD 12 in combat, and he achieved notable success with the type. However, it would seem that it took pilots of Guynemer's skill to use the SPAD 12 successfully in combat.
  The SPAD 12 prototype was successful and a total of 300 were ordered, although it seems that not all were completed. These aircraft were supplied in limited numbers to some fighter units but it does not appear that they ever equipped an entire escadrille. In August 1917 only one was on strength. The mystery as to why the operational career of the SPAD 12 was so short may be found in a memo dated 28 November 1917. Here it was noted that there were only two SPAD 12s at the front several months after the type was accepted for operational service. Because of delays in production it was decided to abandon plans to supply more aircraft to front-line units. By April 1918 the number of SPAD 12s had risen to eight, and by 1 October there were still only eight at the front. The cannon armed SPAD 12s remained available in small numbers and were intended for use by the best pilots in each escadrille. Some French aces scored numerous victories with the SPAD 12.
  It was soon found that the weight of the cannon severely limited the aircraft's performance and that the cannon was at best tricky to aim and fire. The Vickers machine gun was apparently used to aim along the line of fire and, once this was determined, the pilot had to fire the cannon at the correct moment. The single-shot weapon had to be reloaded in flight by the pilot through the breech, which extended into the cockpit between the pilot's knees. This extension prevented a control stick from being fitted, so the aircraft used a control system similar to that developed by the Deperdussin firm. In addition to these difficulties, the engine vibration and gases from the cannon made the SPAD 12 extremely difficult to fly in combat. It has been recorded that for all these reasons the SPAD 12 was disliked by most pilots and saw little front-line service.
  
  
SPAD 12 Single-Seat Fighter with 220-hp Hispano-Suiza 8Cb
  
  Span: 8.00 m
  Length: 6.40 m
  Height: 2.55 m
  Wing area: 20.2 sq. m
  Empty weight: 587 kg
  Loaded weight: 883 kg
  Maximum speed:
   2,000 m 203 km/h
   3,000 m 198 km/h
   4,000 m 190 km/h
   5,000 m 177 km/h
  Climb:
   2,000 m 6 minutes 3 seconds
   3,000 m 10 minutes 2 seconds
   4,000 m 15 minutes 42 seconds
   5,000 m 23 minutes 13 seconds
  Ceiling: 6,850 m
  Endurance: 1.75 hours
  Armament: A 12-round, 37-mm S.A.M.C.
   and a synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun
  A total of 300 were ordered but it is unlikely all were built.
After the Spad 12 was delivered to Guynemer, he added the name Vieux Chales and a diagonal White stripe to the fuselage sides. The individual aircraft number, 2, was in Black
Georges Guynemer in the deep cockpit of the first Spad 12 (S.382). Guynemer personally conducted much of the flight testing on the Spad 12
Guynemer displays his avion magique to General Francet d'Esperey at La Bonne Maison on 5 July 1917. Earlier that day, Guynemer had flown the first combat mission with the Spad 12, during which the aircraft was damaged. The wings of S.382 have been removed, pending its transport to Buc for repairs
An early Spad 12 (S.434) parked on a French airfield. Most units had one or two Spad 12s assigned to them, with instructions to allow the best pilots in the unit to fly the aircraft. This Spad 12 is believed to have been painted overall Light Grey
This Spad 12 (S.440) reveals the plywood pocket extensions that were fitted to the wing tips trailing edges of Spad 12s to square off the wings. Later, new wings incorporating square tips were introduced onto the production line
The other Spad 12 assigned to Fonck was S.445. Fonck's personal number, VI, was carried on the rear fuselage and repeated on the port upper wing surface in Red, outlined in White. The White-outlined Red star on the starboard wing was the former unit insignia of Spa.103
Spad 12s were progressively modified during production with new engines and other improvements. This late Spad 12 is powered by a 220 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bc engine and has the louvered engine access panels removed for maintenance
This Spad 12 was flown by the commanding officer of the 13th Aero Squadron, United States Air Service, MAJ Charles J. Biddle
This early Spad 12 reveals the revised cowling which lacked the prominent cylinder head fairings and repositioned exhaust stacks which were lower on the fuselage sides than on the earlier Spad 7. This aircraft eas a test machine and had the fuselage undersurfaces painted Black
This camouflaged late production Spad 12 has been modified with squared off wings tips. The Vickers machine gun on the Spad 12 was offset much further to starboard than the gun on the earlier Spad 7
Two Spad 12s (foreground) share the field with five Spad 7s, at Reserve Generale de l'Aviation (RGA) airfield while awaiting delivery to French Escadrilles de Chasse. The two aircrafts carry different color schemes; the aircraft on the left is painted an overall dark color, while the aircraft on the right has been camouflaged
This early Spad 13 is believed to have been one of the twenty pre-production aircraft built during early 1917. These aircraft had a more tapered engine cowling than the Spad 12 and also reintroduced the teardrop-shaped cylinder bank fairings, similar to those used on the Spad 7
Among the first French aces to fly the Spad 13 in combat was Guynemer, who was assigned Spad 13 (S.504) in September of 1917. Guynemer was lost flying this aircraft on 11 September. S.504 bears the Stork insignia of Spa.3 (White with Black wings) and Guynemer's personal number, 2 on the fuselage side, however, it did not carry the name Vieux Charles
This Spad 13 (S.512), one of the first twenty pre-production aircraft built, was used for official tests by the Section Technique del'Aeronautique at Villacoubly from March through September of 1917
This Spad 13 (S.1893), flown by ADJ Jacques Roques of Spa.48, carries the later form of the unit's Fighting Cock insignia. The radiator cowling and the arc around the insignia are Blue, while Roqies' personal number, 7, is in Red
An eearly Spad 13 (S.1895) of Escadrille Spa.48, which was flown by ADJ Jacques Roques
This early Spad 13 (S.1929) reveals the rounded wing tips that were common on early production Spad 13s. An unusual feature of this particular Spad 13 is that all the wing ribs have been taped. This aircraft also has a rear-view mirror on the upper wing center section
This Bleriot-built Spad 13 (S.2179) is believed to have been assigned to Escadrille N 561 based at Lido Aerodrome, near Venice, Italy. Pilot in the cockpit is thought to be Xavier Garros
CAPT Edward V (Eddie) Rickenbacker, America's leading ace, in the cockpit of his Spad 13 (S.4523) of the 94th Aero Squadron. The Hat-in-the-Ring unit marking was carried on both sides of the fuselage along with a White numeral 1 outlined in Red, which was repeated on the starboard upper wing surface. Rickenbacker scored twenty-one of his twenty-six victories in this aircraft
These Spad 7s and 13s of an unidentified French Escadrille de Chasse parked on a forward French airfield are in the process of having the unit insignia painted on the fuselage. In the foreground is a Spad 7 (S.5190), while behind is a Kellner-built Spad 13 (S.4567)
Components for at least two Spad 13s, including S.7542, prepare to leave the Kellner production plant. The aircraft were shipped by truck to a reassembly RGA where they were delivered to French fighter units
CAPT Robert Soubiran standing next to his Spad 13 (S.7714) of the 103rd Aero Squadron (formerly the Lafayette Escadrille). The Indian head unit marking was framed by a White-outlined Red diamond. The diamond was repeated on the horizontal tailplane, but without the White outline, and a tri-color stripe was added to the fuselage and radiator cowling
This Kellner-built Spad 13 (S.16541) was flown by MAJ Robert L. Walsh of the 22nd Aero Squadron, USAS. The fuselage number was Red, outlined in White, and the radiator cowling was Blue. This aircraft was a companion to the one which is now in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington
The pilot of this early Spad 13 assigned to Spa.3 waits while a ground crewman checks the guns before starting the engine. The pilot at the extreme left is believed to be Guynemer
Spad 13C.1, Sergeant Henry Foster, Spa.15, July 1918
Spads of Spa.68 are neatly lined up on a French airfield. The two aircraft in the background is a Spad 7. The French horn on the fuselage side is the unit insignia for Spa.68. The horn and the individual aircraft number are repeated on the upper wing surface
ADJ Marius Blanc in the cockpit of his Spad 13. Blanc was assigned to Spa.81, Fighting Greyhounds. The Greyhound insignia was one of the most attractive unit insignias used by French forces during the war
A Bleriot-built Spad 13 of Spa.81 carries the running Greyhound squadron insignia. It was flown by ADJ Marius Blanc
This Spad 13 was assigned to Spa.84, which was also part of the French Occupational Forces stationed in Germany during 1919
This late production Spad 13, believed to have been assigned to Spa.89, was brought down intact by LT Albert Hausmann of Jasta 13 in August of 1918. The aircraft was repainted in German markings and was test flown by Jasta 13
Jean Lucas alongside a late production Spad 13 of Spa.97. The wooden fairing around the drag wire which runs from the top of the forward cabane strut to the top of the fuselage has the appearance of an additional strut. The individual number, 12, in White on the fuselage side was also repeated on the upper starboard wing
Marechal des Logis Rene de Liniere alongside his Spad 13 of Spa.103. Spa.103 was part of the Allied Occupational Forces at Neustadt, Germany during the Spring of 1919. The Spad in the foreground is thought to be a Kellner-built aircraft fitted with a non-standard windscreen
This Spad 13 served with the 2nd Air Regiment of the Czechoslovakian Air Force during 1925. The national insignia under the wing is a representation of the Czech flag
French officers prepare a Bernard-built Spad 13 for a demonstration flight in Japan. The Spad was part of the French Aeronautical Mission to Japan during 1919. The following year, the Japanese Army Air Force adopted the Spad 13 as its standard fighter under the designation Hei 1
S.P.A.D., along with eight different subcontractors were involved in the production of the Spad 13. The aircraft factories of that period appear very primitive when compared with a modern aero-space plant. It is difficult to believe that thousands of Spads were built under such conditions
This Spad at Thionville during 1923, the last year the Spad served with French military aviation. By this time most of the Spads that remained in service were being used as advanced training aircraft
This photo from an instruction manual shows the SPAD 13 armament from rear. Ammunition was fed from boxes below and inside the fuselage. Gun cocking handles are just forward of the windshield. Ammunition gave serious problems with belts sticking and poor cartridge sizing, conditions which could not be fixed in flight
На S.7 патроны снаряжались в матерчатую ленту, которая наматывалась на барабан. Питание пулеметов "Виккерс" на S.13 сделано по "британской" схеме - с металлической составной патронной лентой. Патронная коробка с этими лентами находится между пулеметами. (Front view of the Vickers machine guns on SPAD 13 with engine cowling removed. Vibrations from recoil, coupled with other shocks from poorly operating engines created fuel and oil pipe leaks in nearly every flight. Constant checking and fine-tuning of the Hispano-Suiza engines, and replacement of pipeage, oil and fuel tanks was required)
Voisin 5
  
  The Voisin 3 had proved a successful bomber, but its payload was limited by the Salmson M9 engine, which produced only 120-hp. The Aviation Militaire wished to obtain a more powerful airplane but with the concours puissant (competition for a heavy bomber) not due to take place until mid-1915, it was decided to produce a Voisin 3 with a new engine. A Voisin 3 airframe was fitted with a 150-hp Salmson P9 engine, and the airframe was strengthened and the central nacelle streamlined. The new engine was placed on a raised platform to provide clearance for the propeller and was angled to provide downward thrust. The landing gear was strengthened and the wing chord was increased from the roots to the wing tips. The new aircraft was given the STAe designation Voisin 5, while the factory designation was LAS. The S stood for sureleve (raised) which indicated the raised engine mount. While the exhaust system on the Voisin 3 permitted fumes to escape freely, that of the Voisin 5 ejected the fumes upward through two exhaust pipes.
  One Voisin 5 was transformed into a twin-engine aircraft in 1916. This was accomplished by adding a second Salmson in the front of the fuselage driving a tractor propeller. it is believed this was done to test a possible configuration for a new bomber planned by Voisin. The twin-engine Voisin 5 first flew in early 1916; apparently the type was not developed further.
  The first Voisin 5 reached VB 101 in 1915 and soon replaced the Voisin 3 on the production lines. However, the Voisins 150hp (as they were referred to at the front) were held in low regard by their crews. Despite the more powerful engine, the Voisin 5s' payload was only marginally better and the maximum speed was only 13 km/h faster. Approximately 300 Voisin 5s were built, and these served alongside the Voisin 3s in front-line escadrilles during 1915 and well into 1916.
  
  
   Voisin 5 (LB) Voisin 5 (LBS) Voisin 5
   Two-Seat Bomber Two-Seat Reconnaissance Two-Seat Cannon-Armed Fighter
   150-hp Salmson P9 160-hp Salmson 225-hp Salmson built in Russia
   Built in Russia
Span 14.74 m 15.70 m 18.80 m
Length 10.28 m 9.5 m 11.0 m
Height 3.80 m 2.95 m 2.95 m
Wing area 45 sq. m 47.00 sq.m 63.00 sq. m
Weights:
  Empty 1,000 kg (970 kg) 975 kg 1315 kg
  Loaded 1,450 kg (1,370 kg) 1,325 kg 1,865 kg
Bomb load 180 kg
Performance:
  Max speed 109 km/h at 2,000 m 105 km/h at 2,000 m 120 km/h at 2,000 m
  climb to
   1,000 m 10 minutes 9 minutes
   2,000 m 22 minutes 22 minutes 20 minutes
   3,000 m 40 minutes 36 minutes
  Ceiling 3,500 m 4,000 m
  Endurance 4 hours 4 hours 2.8 hours
Voisin 5 serial number V.1310
Voisin 5 serial number V.1321
Вид на кабину экипажа Вуазена LA. Пилот самолета сидит под треногой с пулеметом "Кольт". В задней кабине летчик-наблюдатель держит пару авиабомб. Позади него возвышаются короба водорадиаторов.
Voisin 5. This aircraft was a Voisin 3 airframe fitted with a 150-hp Salmson P9 engine
Voisin 5 (LB)
   Two-Seat Bomber
   150-hp Salmson P9
  
Span 14.74 m
Length 10.28 m
Height 3.80 m
Wing area 45 sq. m
Weights:
  Empty 1,000 kg (970 kg)
  Loaded 1,450 kg (1,370 kg)
Bomb load 180 kg
Performance:
  Max speed 109 km/h at 2,000 m
  climb to
   2,000 m 22 minutes
  Endurance 4 hours