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Flight за 1909 г.
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Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.

Flight, December 11, 1909

Flight in Austria.

  HERR ETRICH, who has been experimenting in Austria for some years with flying machines of his own design, at last seems to have met with some success. According to the Neue Freie Press Herr Etrich, at the aviation ground at Weiner-Neustadt, recently made a flight of 4 1/2 kiloms., attaining a speed of 70 kiloms. an hour at a height of 2.5 metres.

The Etrich monoplane on which Herr Etrich recently flew at Vienna for 4 1/2 kiloms. at a speed of 70 kiloms. per hour.
BRUSSELS MOTOR SHOW. - General view of the flight section. In the foreground is M. Jean de Crawhez's aeroplane, and immediately behind is the orthoptere of M. de la Hault, both Belgian machines.
Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

De la Hault (MIESSE).

  The flapping wing flyer for which Messrs. Miesse have the British concession is a machine of very peculiar construction. The wings consist of a pair of fabric-covered blades which are mounted on trunnions and are articulated through ball and socket connections by a pair of spur wheels which in turn are operated by a system of gearing from an engine which is placed on a lower level and with its crank-shaft vertical. The relative position of the ball socket joint to the trunnion which carries the paddle is such that the rotation of the gear wheel causes the paddles to perform downward beat followed by a feathering motion, but although this has the appearance of a rowing stroke there is no propulsive effort, for such forward drive as there might be is neutralized by a retarding period immediately preceding the downward beat. We are informed that this machine has actually lifted itself in the air for a period which was only brought to a conclusion because the gear wheels gave way.
The De la Hault orthopter, which is designed to rise in the air by beating its wings. The wing stroke, although apparently of a rowing nature, gives no propulsive effort. The engine is an 8-cylinder Miesse.
BRUSSELS MOTOR SHOW. - General view of the flight section. In the foreground is M. Jean de Crawhez's aeroplane, and immediately behind is the orthoptere of M. de la Hault, both Belgian machines.
Flight, November 13, 1909.

ORIGINALITY IN MONOPLANE DESIGN.
AN EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE NOW BUILDING IN LONDON.

  VARIOUS unusual features have been embodied in the monoplane of which we reproduce a side elevation herewith, and which is being constructed by the Aerial Manufacturing Co. of Great Britain and Ireland for a client of theirs. First and foremost it will be observed that various subsidiary planes are introduced locally at different spots with the object of assisting in the distribution of strains within the machine itself, while even the petrol tank is shaped similarly, although it is only the width of the main framework. For convenience of reference, the main plane is shown in black, the small supplementary planes, including the elevator, are cross-hatched, and the petrol tank is merely shown in outline in the drawing.
  Hardly less noticeable is the curious double-hinged framework, with its wheels in front, that is intended to facilitate starting and alighting. In the position indicated by the full lines, the two small planes carried by it (double cross-hatched) serve to assist in lifting the machine, while since the lower wheel leaves the ground last, the full weight is only taken after a fair altitude has been attained. The further object of the arrangement is to cushion the descent by allowing the lower wheel to reach the ground some time prior to arrival of the complete machine, and then, as the hinges allow the framework to fold up into the position indicated by the dotted lines, to cause the small planes to act as brakes, retarding further forward progress, at the same time that the leaf springs absorb shocks due to any roughness of the ground.
  Needless to say both the above-mentioned systems need to be given a practical trial before any conclusive statement can be made concerning their value. Other novel details are being embodied at the same time on this particular monoplane, and hence future experiments with it will be watched with considerable interest. The machine itself is of quite large dimensions, as may be judged from the scale on the drawing, the length overall being no less than 44 ft., and the span being also 44 ft. from tip to tip of the wings. An engine of novel design, developing about 50-h.p., is moreover, we understand, to be employed in conjunction with a 10-foot 4-bladed propeller. In due course, too, it is hoped that the machine will be placed on view in London, but the makers are unable to allow it to he seen in their works at the present time as they are also carrying out other commissions there, in connection with which they are pledged to secrecy.
Sketch of a bracket for joints of framework of aeroplanes which is being manufactured by the Aerial Manufacturing Company of Great Britain and Ireland, of Upper Charles Street, Finsbury. Great rigidity and lightness are claimed for these, whilst the price is quite small, we understand. The sketch shows a single bracket, and also one each side of a joint, making a very rigid fixture, with wiring connection included.
Flight, June 26, 1909.

MR. ROE'S TRIPLANE.
To the Editor of FLIGHT.

  SIR, - It may come as a surprise to your readers to learn that I have been making dozens of short flights with my British-built aeroplane during the last few weeks; true, they are hardly more than jumps, being only 2 and 3 feet high and 50 or so feet in length.
  Personally, I would have preferred to let this fact leak out on its own accord by winning the L100 and L1,000 prizes for the 100 yds. and 1 mile flight respectively, but, to be candid, to carry 40 lbs. per h.p. has proved a bigger task than I calculated on, for my machine, with self aboard, weighs 400 lbs., and is driven by a 10-h.p. air-cooled J.A.P. motor cycle engine; but I am confident there is sufficient power, and there is every reason to believe I shall continue to get better results with further experiments. Although I have been trying various gear-ratios, pitches, width of blades, diameters, two and four bladed propellers, and have kept a careful record of each experiment, there still remains quite a number of varieties to be tried yet.
  Carrying 40 lbs. per h.p. seems easy enough on paper but rather different in practice.
  The reason the above announcement is made, is because I feel confident that the machine I am now experimenting with has reached a stage well worth while copying and building in numbers, as it is so light and handy, and will obviously keep afloat under perfect control with a little more thrust.
  Perhaps my experiences may be of interest. The first two flights the machine heeled over, and broke the left tips of lowest plane on both occasions. I thought this was due to the torque of propeller, but am glad to say it was my bad steering, and should the machine lurch over, a slight twist of planes brings it back instantly; but running against winds of 12 m.p.h. or less, the machine practically balances itself. It can be steered entirely by twisting main-planes in conjunction with rear vertical rudder when running along the ground, and the front or back of machine can be raised first, according to the angle of main-planes. I usually run along with main-planes at a slight angle; this allows machine to gain speed, and the tail to rise; on increasing the angle of main-planes to about 10° the front comes off the ground, but owing to insufficient thrust it soon comes down again; while it is up it is quite obvious how quickly the machine answers to the steering.
  The aeroplane in question is a triplane (see No. 19, FLIGHT, of May 8th), having 320 sq. ft. of surface, 1 1/4 lb. per sq. ft. loaded, main-planes forward, tail well in rear; the angle of main-planes can be tilted for vertical and twisted for lateral steering. The patented system of bracing the twisted planes will, I believe, prove a valuable improvement, as it is applicable to biplanes, triplanes or multiplanes. The essence of the idea is, one plane is made rigid from tip to tip, and the rest of the planes take their rigidity from this one by means of hinged struts, consequently all planes follow the movement of rigid plane without any lateral or undue strains put upon them. Owing to the rigid plane being stiff from tip to tip, there is no need to have cables and pulleys from their tips. As a result, they are controlled from two points about 5 ft. on either side of the centre line, through levers and rods; the planes are hinged at this point, and can be folded up for transportation without interfering with any part of the steering mechanism.
  My reason for making the machine so light is almost too obvious to be mentioned, and one reason is to produce an aeroplane that will rise at a slow speed, and once off the ground the angle of planes can be reduced, and speed increased; then again, being so light considerably reduces the speed and shocks on landing. One would naturally think a light machine would be more difficult to control in windy weather than a heavy one, but I am of the opinion if the main-planes can be twisted it will be more easily controlled than a heavy one, with rigid planes, and my experiences seem to bear this out.
  Yours faithfully, A. V. ROE.


Flight, July 31, 1909

Flight in England. - Roe's Progress.

  MR. A. V. ROE is making good progress in flight, in spite of the difficulties under which he works. On Friday of last week, July 23rd, he made four successful attempts, of which three were flights of some 300 yards in length each. In the first flight Mr. Roe failed to fully accelerate his engine, and the machine alighted after a brief ascent, but on the second, third and fourth flights, he got going properly and ascended to an altitude of from 6 ft. to 10 ft. above the ground. The last of these flights landed the machine in a corner of the ground which was exposed to a change of wind, and some slight damage was done in descent. Ordinarily, Mr. Roe keeps within an area shielded by a bank of high trees where the mud conditions, if not good, are at least fairly uniform.
  Lea Marshes, where Mr. Roe is experimenting, are not ideal, but the young aviator is making the best of his environment, and considering that he is practically working single-handed, he progresses as fast as can be expected. He is attempting a difficult feat in any case, to fly with an engine of only about 10-h.p., and the fact that he has succeeded thus far is very encouraging.


Flight, August 31, 1909

Roe has a Slight Mishap.

  DURING the last fortnight Mr. A. V. Roe has been out several times on his little aeroplane, and on Monday and Tuesday last he made one or two short flights. Unfortunately a sudden landing on Tuesday morning threw the aviator through the left-hand main middle plane, which will entail a few days' work before flying will be possible again.


Flight, December 11, 1909

Progress by A. V. Roe.

  A CORRESPONDENT writes: "A. V. Roe had his new 20-h.p. triplane out this afternoon at Wembley Park, and made a number of good steady flights the length of the ground, which is about half a mile long. He flew from one end to the other, rising and falling at will, at times maintaining an altitude of from 20 to 30 feet.
  Unfortunately, the circular course has not yet been cleared, so it was not safe to venture round. His control, which is of a novel type, i.e., twisting and tilting the main planes, worked very well, for he had to dodge various obstacles. It is a pity he did not accomplish this, and previous flights, when at Blackpool, since these would have gained for him both the "All-British" and "British Aviator" prizes, amounting to L400."

Mr. A. V. Roe's British-built triplane, minus its rudder, which is undergoing tests on Lea Marshes. - It is fitted with a 6-h.p. Jap motor, has 9-ft. propellers, weight, light, 200 lbs.; plane surface, 350 sq. ft.
AVRO (1907). Tractor triplane of only 9 h.p. This flew in Lea Marshes--the lowest horse power yet flown in Europe to the present day.
Flight, September 18, 1909

THE WRIGHT GLIDER AS MADE BY CLARKE.

  GLIDING is a side of flight that is a little apt to be neglected in the present rush to achieve the higher art; but it is a useful side nevertheless, and the present is a particularly appropriate time to learn the mastery of the motorless flyer, seeing there is for the moment some difficulty about obtaining a proper supply of engines in this country. Other experimenters have, it is true, shown that the stepping-stone used by the Brothers Wright is not necessary in all cases; but, all the same, we are not at all sure that gliding may not teach a lot even to the flying man, and in any case it seems to us that Messrs. Alec Ogilvie and Searight have done very much the right thing in having a glider built for them in addition to the Wright flyer which they have on order. At the least it may be the means of saving the flyer from some little unnecessary damage during the early stages of learning to fly.
  The glider which Messrs. Ogilvie and Searight have had built for them is to all intents and purposes a copy of the machine used by the Wrights in 1902, and the work has been admirably executed by Messrs. T. W. K. Clarke and Co., of Kingston. It is of course a biplane, and has an elevator in front with a vertical tail behind. The elevator, however, is constructed according to the design shown in the latest Wright patent - with which our readers are acquainted - having flexing planes instead of simple pivoted planes. The tail at the rear consists of a single vertical plane, in which respect it is in agreement with the Wright glider, but differs from the Wright flyer, which has a double rudder. On the other hand the main decks are double surfaced on the machine which Messrs. Clarke have constructed, whereas the gliders used by the Wright Brothers were, we believe, invariably only single surfaced. The workmanship which Messrs. Clarke have put into the construction of the glider is admirable, and thoroughly upholds British reputation for making a sound job. There are some people who rather incline to the view that a machine which is going to be knocked about need not have much time spent upon its construction in the first instance, but for our own part we favour the other aspect of the case for the two points which it has in its favour, the first being that the better a machine is made the less liable is it to give trouble any way, and the second being that when it does get smashed a well-made article is always more easily and satisfactorily repaired than one which is half a wreck to start with. Moreover, there is always the consideration that a certain amount of risk attaches to flight, which it is gratuitous to exaggerate by neglecting any reasonable proportions such as using a decently built machine to fly on, and although, of course, a well-made glider will probably cost more than one on which less care has been spent, there is no reason why the old adage should not apply, "the best is cheapest in the long run."

Timber and Fabric.

  The material from which Messrs. Clarke have constructed the glider is for the most part silver spruce, a timber which, we understand, they are able to procure in 20 ft. lengths without a flaw. In one or two places where bent woodwork is required - as, for instance, the extension of the runners which carry the elevator, and the extremities of the main decks - American elm is used. The decks are double-surfaced with a special fabric of British make, which Messrs. T. W. K. Clarl.e supply; it has a weight of 36 sq. ft. to the lb., and the waterproofing is done by a celluloid treatment. The seams in the complete covering are diagonal, and each half of a deck, from an extremity to the centre, is practically enclosed with a kind of fabric bag, the edges of adjacent bags are laced together in the centre, while at intervals the fabric is tacked down to the supporting ribs. In order to prevent the fabric being torn, a thin strip of wood is placed between the fabric and the heads of the nails.

Main Decks.

  The skeleton framework on which the surfaces are stretched consists, for each deck, of a pair of transverse spars having a section 1 in. deep by 11 ins. At the extremities these spruce spars are joined together by a piece of bent elm, a scafe joint being made between the two timbers.
  At intervals of 1 ft., light ribs pass fore and aft between the spars and overlap the rear spar to give a flexible trailing edge extending rearwards about 15 ins. The ribs consist of two small strips of rectangular section wood separated by distance pieces at intervals. Each rib as it is built up is curved to a template so as to give a camber to the decks of 3 ins. at the maximum versine. The method of fastening the ribs to the front spar, which by the way is rounded off to form a blunt cutting edge, is to secure the last distance piece to the spar by screws so that it virtually belongs to that member and, as it were, forms a supporting tongue for the top and bottom members of the rib proper. The connection is then further strengthened by putting a light strap of metal round the spar and tacking the ends to the rib.
  Considered as a unit, the framework of the two decks, taken together, forms an example of the usual lattice girder work which has been commonly adopted on biplanes. In accordance with the Wright system, the machine built by Messrs. Clarke further belongs to the flexible type, that is to say, non-rigid joints are employed as fastenings between the main spars and the struts which separate them.
  These joints are carried out somewhat after the manner devised by the Wrights, but Mr. Clarke has substituted a steel plate for the wire eye used in the Wright machine. The struts have a saw-cut taken down their extremities for an inch or so, and into this is let the steel plate which is pegged and bound in place. The projecting end of the steel is drilled to receive a hook, which in this case consists of a steel U-bolt which passes through the main spar and is secured on both sides by nuts. The same steel plate also provides an anchorage for the wire ties.

(To be concluded.)


Flight, September 25, 1909

THE WRIGHT GLIDER AS MADE BY CLARKE.
(Concluded from page 571)

Elevator and Tail.

  THE elevator is, as has already been mentioned, constructed according to the latest Wright patent, that is to say, the two planes are so mounted that they flex or warp, instead of merely pivot when a change is made in their angle of incidence by the operation of the elevating lever. In order to accomplish this warping the two decks of the elevator are mounted in rather a peculiar way, the framework of each being built up upon a single transverse-spar situated about 9 ins. from the leading edge; the full cord of the elevator is 2 ft. 6 ins. There is thus a flexible leading edge as well as a flexible trailing edge, the relative flexibilities being more or less in proportion to the overhang of the main spar. The main spar itself is pivoted to the uprights which support it in order to avoid twisting strains when the decks are flexed; it is evident that although the action of the elevator mainly consists of a warping action of the decks, a certain amount of pivoting must necessarily occur simultaneously.
  The operating mechanism for flexing the elevator decks consists of three stiff ribs, which lie fore and aft, midway between the two decks of the elevator. These members are fixed to a transverse tubular spar, which is pivoted to a bracket projecting from the same upright as supports the spars of the elevator decks; it is, however, situated some few inches forward of their axes. From the extremities of each operating rib two struts pass to the leading and trailing edges of the upper and lower decks respectively, and it is by means of these struts that the elevating decks are warped. The operation of manipulating the elevator is performed by rocking the tubular transverse spar upon which the operating ribs are mounted, and the fact that this spar is pivoted about a different centre to that on which the elevator decks are supported, causes a difference in the relative amount of travel imparted to the leading and trailing edges.
  The result of this is that instead of the elevator decks remaining fiat as they tilt or dip, their surfaces become cambered, and according as the front edge is dipped or tilted so is the camber convex or concave to the ground. The object of this system is to increase the efficiency of the elevator by converting the decks, which are normally aeroplanes, into cambered aerofoils directly they are required for use. As the elevator has to work both ways, it is necessary to make provision for cambering in both directions, hence the adoption of the device for mechanically warping the decks in the manner described. For the purpose of rocking the tubular spar to which reference has already been made, a simple lever and connecting-rod are employed, the connecting-rod in this particular case being built up so as to have a hollow rectangular section in order to give greater stiffness.
  Between the elevator decks is a semi-circular vertical plane forming a prow.
  The tail, which is controlled by another lever, consists of a simple plane mounted vertically between two outrigger spars. These spars are hinged to the rear transverse spars of the main decks so that they shall not be readily broken if the tail strikes the ground. In order that this hinging may be effective, that diagonal tie-wire which would ordinarily be stretched as the result of any such deformation, is fitted with a length of strong elastic. The elastic is sufficiently strong to keep the outrigger in its proper position under normal conditions.

The Chassis and Pilot's Seat.

  The machine as a whole is mounted upon two runners which commence a short distance behind the main decks and extend forward with a gradual curve which is ultimately increased in a sharp bend where they join on the upright supports for the elevator. The runners are stayed to the front spar of the upper main deck by a set of oblique struts. The lower deck is supported a little above the rudders by a lattice work bracing.
  The pilot is accommodated in an extremely light but fairly comfortable chair - in which respect the machine differs from the original Wright gliders, where the operator took the air lying prone on the lower deck.

The Wright Control.

  On each side of the pilot is a vertical lever. That on the left moves to and fro only, and works the elevator in manner already described. That on the right can move either to and fro or sideways, that is to say, in reality it has a kind of universal motion. The two and fro movement works the rudder, and the sideways motion warps the main decks. This warping of the main decks is carried out by means of wires, which pass through short lengths of Bowden tube, this method of guiding them being considered by Mr. Clarke to be far superior to the use of pulleys. It may here be mentioned, while on the subject of wire bracing, that the main wire diagonals are not fitted with any tightening device, being merely drawn hand-tight, and fastened by simple brass bands, the ends of the wire being turned back over the bands to prevent them from slipping.
  The lateral control of a Wright glider, or flying machine, by a single lever which warps the wings and moves the rudder, is the most interesting and characteristic feature of the Wright system, but its action is apt to be a little difficult to grasp unless each movement is taken in sequence. The lever on the machine built by Messrs. Clarke is situated on the pilot's right; it normally stands in a vertical position when the machine moves straight ahead on an even keel. The connections are such that -
   (1) If the lever is moved forward, the rudder puts the prow to the left.
   (2) If the lever is moved to the right, the left hand extremities of the main decks have their rear edges warped downwards so as to increase the angle of incidence.
  The next point to take into consideration is the primary result which accompanies each of the above movements made independently.
   (1) From steering to the left, the increased relative velocity of the right wing tip will cant the machine so that the right wing rises.
   (2) The first effect of increasing the angle of incidence of the left-hand extremities of the main decks is to increase the resistance of flight on that side of the machine, which consequently tends to slow up, or in other words tends to put the prow of the machine to the left.
  If, on the other hand, the course is kept straight by using the rudder, then the effect of increasing the angle on that side of the machine is to raise the left extremity of the main decks and so cant the machine over while it proceeds straight ahead. This manoeuvre may either be performed for the purpose of restoring equilibrium from an accidentally canted position or to establish a cant artificially for the purpose of banking when taking a sharp turn.
  It will be observed from the foregoing brief description that the to and fro and sideways movements of the lever have results which are closely related to one another and from which it is a simple matter to deduce that -
   (1) If it is desired to restore equilibrium from an accidental cant which has depressed the right hand extremity of the main decks, then the lever must be drawn towards the pilot - i.e., to the left - in order to increase the angle of incidence of the right hand extremities of the main decks which it is desired to lift and at the same time the lever must be pushed forward so as to steer to the left in order that the initial effect of warping described above shall not turn the machine from its straight course.
  The result of making, or rather trying to make, simultaneous movements of the lever along axes at right angles to each other is to follow a diagonal path ; from this fact may be deduced the following very important fact: -
   (1) Equilibrium and a straight course with the Wright flyer are maintained by a diagonal movement of the lever, in which
   (a) It is moved obliquely forward and towards the pilot, in order to rectify an accidental canting of the right-hand extremities of the main decks downwards, or
   (b) The lever is moved obliquely backwards away from the pilot, in order to check a cant which has depressed the left wing.
  This oblique neutral line, represented in one of our diagrams, is the normal path of travel for the pilot's right hand, while he keeps the machine on a straight course. Any movement of the hand away from this line must result in a curved course, because the rudder or the warping effect preponderates.
  The precise nature of the movement which the pilot would perform in order to steer, say, to the left depends on the manner in which he wishes is to carry out the operation, which in turn is governed by the sharpness of the curve, his speed of flight and other considerations. In general, however, it may be said that the pilot's hand for such a manoeuvre moves through an oval path starting and finishing in the neutral vertical position; this oval path is the result of a perfectly performed sequence of very short straight movements each of which has resulting in a combination of warping and rudder action. Needless to say, such perfection is not immediately within reach of the novice, the movements of whose hand would be more than likely to show up the straight line components of the curve.
  It should perhaps be mentioned here that the reason why the rudder and the warping of the planes has to take place simultaneously is primarily due to the fact that the Wrights warp the main decks of the machine instead of employing independent balancing planes. When the main decks of a glider or flyer are warped it is not easy, even if it is possible, to warp one extremity up and the other extremity down to an equal extent considered from the point of view of effectiveness. To all intents and purposes only that extremity which has its trailing edge warped downwards need be taken into consideration, because while that undoubtedly does exert a powerful lift, the corresponding warping of the other extremity does not result in an equal amount of depressing action because the resultant curvature of the decks at that end of the machine is such that their angle of incidence is diminished but not effectively reversed. On the one side of the machine, therefore, an active force is in operation, whilst at the other extremity the conditions are rather of the passive order. The resistance of that extremity which has an increased angle of incidence given to it makes itself felt, and there is no corresponding resistance at the opposite end of the flying machine to neutralise the swerving effect which it induces; On the contrary, the resistance there is less than in the normal condition of straight line flight, so that the swerving effect is outside. Hence the need for using the rudder.

A Word of Warning.

  Owing to a slight misunderstanding between ourselves and Messrs. Ogilvie and Searight, the foregoing article has been published by us without their prior knowledge. It should, moreover, be clearly understood that this particular glider of theirs was built by them at the express suggestion and with the direct permission of the Wright Brothers, pending the delivery of the full-sized motor-driven Wright machine which Messrs. A. Ogilvie and T. P. Searight have on order with them.
General view, from in front, of the complete Wright-Clarke glider. Light bow-skids are fitted under the extremities of the lower deck, as shown above.
In this view, as seen from behind, the glider is shown mounted on a specially-designed two-wheeled hand-cart, by means of which the whole machine can be easily wheeled about by one man.
The outrigger construction and relative position of the elevator are clearly indicated above.
Detailed view of the elevator, showing its attachment to vertical continuations of the runners, and the stationary cutwater or prow of semicircular form situated between the two planes.
MR. OGILVIE AT WORK ON THE WRIGHT-CLARKE GLIDER. - On the left Mr. Ogilvie is just rising from the starting rail after the release of the derrick weight seen in the background; and on the right the glider is being, with the help of a Shetland pony, brought back up the practise hill after a glide of some three or four hundred yards.
MR. OGILVIE IN FULL FLIGHT ON HIS NEW GLIDER. - Note the starting derrick in the background, giving a good idea of the distance travelled. On the right the glider is just leaving a 1 in 7 gradient on the hill, and passing over the 1 in 5 gradient, which naturally results in a distinctly increased height above the ground being attained, since otherwise a rapid acceleration of speed would be inevitable.
Mr. T. W. K. Clarke, at whose aero works the glider has been constructed, occupying the aviator's seat. This photograph also shows the two small grooved wheels mounted between the runners, one under the main deck, and the other a little in front, which support the machine on the launching rail preparatory to flight.
Diagrammatic sketch of main planes, showing the arrangement of warping-wires (in dotted line), and the manner in which the rear edges of the planes are flexed. It is important to note that the front or entering edges are unaffected by this movement, remaining always perfectly straight.
Sketch of the flexible-joint connecting the vertical struts to the main decks. A slight notch is made at the lower end of the U bolt to keep the eye of the strut central.
Instead of pulleys where the warping-wires leave the decks, short lengths of Bowden wire sheath are used clamped to the rear spars, as shown above.
The Wrights' patent flexing elevator is so arranged that a movement of the operating-rod, besides altering the angle made by the planes with the horizontal, varies their camber or curvature.
The above diagram, of which the small rectangle at the centre represents the right-hand controllever, shows in plan how the two movements capable of being given to this lever result in a third oblique line of movement, along which the aviator's hand passes to and fro to preserve lateral equilibrium during flight.
Central portion of lower deck, showing aviator's seat and the levercontrol system of the glider. It will be observed that the right-hand lever can be moved sideways as well as forwards and backwards.
Plan and Elevation to Scale of the Wright Glider as made by Clarke.
Flight, January 16, 1909

British Army Aeroplane "Flies" 20 Yards.

  PILOTED by Mr. Cody, the British Army aeroplane succeeded, on Saturday, January 9th, in "flying" a matter of 20 yards on the Farnborough Common. During the course of its brief flight it attained an altitude of about 10 feet, but at no time did the machine look very happy in the air, for it was obviously too heavy in the stern. This, according to Mr. Cody, was due to the arrangement of the condensers behind the pilot, and he anticipates that when they are shifted forward he will be able to make a more successful effort.
  We publish this week two very interesting photographs of the machine taken on the occasion of its trials on Saturday. One shows the aeroplane, which measures over 51 feet span, being drawn to the seat of operations, and the other shows it in the air at a very sharp angle to the ground.


Flight, February 27, 1909

THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE.
SOME IMPRESSIONS AND COMPARISONS.

  AFTER a period of enforced retirement, brought about by the disastrous termination of a previous trial flight, the British Army aeroplane was again taken from its shed on Thursday of last week, February 18th, and some brief, but by no means uninteresting experiments were carried out on Laffan's Plain. It was not until the afternoon that the doors of the great balloon shed at South Farnborough were moved slowly and laboriously back along their guides, to expose a yawning cavern, out of which emerged, equally slowly, a diminutive white machine. Diminutive, that is, by comparison with its enormous house, for the British Army aeroplane is, as a matter of fact, a large machine, and once away from its shed-which is, of course, the rightful habitation of "Nulli Secundus " - its full dimensions can be better appreciated. It had been intended to make a trial flight in the morning, for the dawn was calm, but as the day grew older, so did a breeze spring up; and although the casual observer might have been pardoned for supposing that the conditions were perfect, as was the weather, the authorities very properly considered that it was useless to take risks until they knew more about the handling of their machine. This decision may savour somewhat of the old chestnut about not going into the water before learning to swim, but, as a matter of fact, in the present stage of flight the art of learning how is almost as great as that of the art of flying itself. Being pitched overboard in a storm may be a very effective method of making a practical acquaintance with the water; but, just as most people would prefer to learn to swim in a calm sea, so do most aviators prefer to learn to fly on a still day. Of course, there is this fundamental difference, that whereas man can swim with his unencumbered body, he cannot possibly fly without the aid of a machine; and at first glance there would seem to be a closer analogy between flight and seamanship of the racing yachtsman than between flight and swimming. But from whichever point of view the situation be regarded, it seems to us very necessary never to overlook the important part which the individual sense of control possessed by the aviator may have in the mastery of the air with any particular machine. It may be possible ultimately to build a machine that will practically fly by itself, so to speak; but it seems reasonable to suppose that such an invention will only be brought about by an appreciation of innumerable little details which can only be revealed to those who set themselves the undoubtedly difficult task of learning to fly with the cruder machines which the brain of man is able to evolve ab initio.
  Such evidence as has so far been afforded offers no grounds for supposing that the British Army aeroplane has any particular claim to belong to the category of what what might be styled the "self-flyers," but on the other hand we can see no particular reason to take a despondent view of its ultimate capabilities of flight. As a type, the British Army aeroplane is not unlike the Wright flyer, or rather it was not, until the latest addition of a small tail - formed by the superposition of the two planes which were formerly on either side of the elevator in front - removed it to a class of its own. On theoretical grounds - so far as there is any theory worth applying in these matters -- this modification should result in an increase of the automatic longitudinal stability, on the grounds that if the machine tips fore and aft, the action of the wind upon the tail has a self-righting effect, whereas if there is no such horizontal surface at the rear, but only an elevator in front, the apparent automatic effect attributable to the presence of the latter surface is that of exaggerating any initial departure from an even keel.
  It is, of course, a feature - it might almost be said the feature - of the Wright machine, that it has no tail, and it is mainly for this reason that it is commonly supposed that the art of using it in the early days of apprenticeship is greater than is the case with the Voisin aeroplane, which has a very fully-developed empennage. That the Wright machine can be flown satisfactorily by anyone who knows how, the Wrights themselves have shown to all the world, and that the difficulties are not great in themselves, may presumably be judged from the fact that Wilbur Wright has undertaken to make his three pupils proficient. Since the British Army aeroplane now has a tail, it can no longer be classed in the same category as the Wright aeroplane, nor can it justly be said to be similar to the Voisin aeroplane on that account, for the Voisin machines have essentially a larger tail, situated at a proportionally greater distance from the main surfaces. Various views have been expressed as to the utility of such a big tail, and although it seems to be admitted that it has very considerable steadying effects, which is said to largely account for the comparatively rapid progress which untaught beginners make with these machines, it is also said to materially impede the rising qualities of the machine as a whole during the operation of starting a flight. The presence of a comparatively small tail on the British Army aeroplane, therefore, gives an individuality to this machine which makes its trials all the more interesting.
  The British Army aeroplane, in common with other biplanes, has an elevator in front and a rudder behind; but in addition to the latter there is a rudder in front also, and the two members work in unison. At present the tail is fixed, but later, experiments may be carried out with this member mounted on hinges, so that it can be worked in unison with the front elevator. If this is done it would of course afford an opportunity for carrying out comparative tests with the elevator and tail working in the same and contrary senses. If the front edges of both tail and elevator were to be raised simultaneously, the effect anticipated would obviously be the bodily lifting of the machine on an even keel, whereas if the tail were dipped while the elevator is tilted, so that both sets of planes are tangent to a common circle, the effect should be a rapid and immediate rise on an inclined keel to a higher altitude. Since the last accident, the outrigger framing carrying the elevator - which gave way in midair - has been strengthened by an additional pair of bamboo members.
  There are not wanting, by the score, adverse critics of our army aeroplane, but it is surely early days to make disparaging comments on machines which are designed to achieve such an unknown quantity as flight. It is also equally absurd to suppose that Colonel Capper and his men are not doing their level best to win the day as quickly as may be, and it must at least be admitted that Mr. Cody very cheerfully risks his own neck in furthering their common object. They are conducting their trials under conditions which are certainly far from convenient; in fact, they are unfairly difficult. They are handicapped for funds and that apparently to such an extent that they cannot even afford to build a shed on a ground which is suitable to practise flight. The workshop facilities at the balloon factory at South Farnborough may doubtless be a great advantage in the constructional Stages, but it would surely be an economy of time and labour to have the machine installed on the aerodrome during its trials. The nearest ground of any pretensions to decent surface and reasonable extent around the balloon factory is Laffan's Plain, and to get the aeroplane transferred there not only occupies a small squad of men and a couple of horses the better part of an hour, but is attended with such risks of damage to the machine from the innumerable bushes, trees, posts, and fences which have to be negotiated, that it is almost a wonder that the machine ever arrives intact. Certainly it is entirely due to the smartness and alertness of the Royal Engineers belonging to this section that the feat is accomplished. As an instance of the difficulties of the task, it is interesting to recall the performance of a man who played "outside right" in charge of that wing of the aeroplane during its transit from the shed to the plain. He never left go of the bicycle wheel which is attached to the lower plane, yet he had to go through a thick furze bush, climb two fences without the use of his hands, and jump a ditch, in order to manoeuvre his part of the machine to safety. Such performances as this may be all very well when regarded as field drill, but from the point of view of preparing for a trail flight, it seems a little unnecessary; moreover, the state of the wind may change materially in a very short time, and it is quite conceivable that a trial might be thereby frustrated before it could even be commenced.
  Laffan's Plain itself is by no means an ideal aerodrome either. It may be as good as the majority this country can produce, but there is very little doubt that the authorities were well advised to build a slow-speed machine for use there. The British Army aeroplane is large, and it looks perhaps somewhat unwieldy, but Thursday's trials showed that it has an undoubted capacity for getting off the ground very nicely while travelling at quite a moderate rate of speed, and that it does not, therefore, run undue risks of being damaged while starting.
  From a constructional point of view, flying machines of this kind will essentially appeal in different ways to the mechanical and unmechanical mind. The latter is inclined to argue, why have so many wires and stays all over the place, which get in the way and are so liable to be broken? There certainly are a great number of these members, but the engineer knows very well that it would be dangerous to leave out a few of them lest the others should break of their own accord. Our readers will doubtless remember that it was because of the inevitable wires that M. Esnault Pelterie decided to adopt a monoplane as a practical flyer after he had experimented with a Wright glider. Different engineers would doubtless have constructed such a machine as the army biplane on different systems, some using one material and some another, but it is questionable whether there would be a vast difference in the results. Possibly it might be preferable to use built-up hollow wood spars instead of bamboo poles for the outriggers, but questions of this sort are very largely influenced by finance, and it is therefore very difficult to find any just cause for that adverse criticism which has occasionally been directed against the British Army machine. Readers of our first article of the series "How Men Fly," will be interested to learn that the petrol-tank and all the struts between the two decks of the aeroplane have a torpedoshaped section, with the blunt edge facing forwards.
  In view of the unpropitious state of the wind, it was not intended, when the machine was taken out for the first time on Thursday, to make any attempt at an extensive flight with it, but two short flights were nevertheless accomplished, as incidental to the trials of the machine over the ground; and although quite short in duration, and carried out at an altitude of only a foot or so from the ground, they were far from being devoid of interest. From the spectator's point of view, the second of the two flights was the more important of the two, inasmuch as the machine was then approaching head-on against the wind. For a while it sailed along on an even keel, and without rolling in the least, but gradually the right wing rose higher than the left, until it seemed that the latter must certainly strike the ground and be wrecked. Just before landing, however, the machine partially righted itself and thus avoided any further damage beyond the bursting of a tyre on the outer wheel.
  The impression which we received from watching the machine heel over was that it was being subjected to an uprising current of air, which had caught the right wing first, and thereafter continued to slowly but steadily upset the balance by its direct pressure. This is, of course, merely an impression received by watching the action of the machine; and we base it largely on the fact that the heeling over seemed to take place comparatively slowly, and in such a way that, had one been alongside the machine at the time, one would have felt tempted to pull the wing downwards by force.
  There are, attached to the front edges of the lower planes, near their outer ends, righting sails, which take the place of the pivoted tips employed on some of the monoplanes; they are intended to act in the same way as warping the main planes themselves does on the Wright aeroplane. These sails are sheets of canvas, which normally lie flush with the surface of the planes, but can be inclined by lifting their rear edges as occasion requires. We cannot, of course, say what actual effect the operation of these sails may have had on the occasion in question, nor to what extent they were used for the purpose of righting the machine, but it seems to us that - taking into consideration their relatively small area in proportion to that of the total supporting surface, and having regard to the apparent slow velocity of the machine through the air - they could not well have been very effective under such circumstances; that is to say, assuming that the machine was indeed under the influence of a current of air having an upward trend. In a machine travelling at a relatively high velocity through the air, righting tips are doubtless all that is required, because the speed of the machine is such as to always leave enough virtual positive velocity to make them effective. With a slow-speed machine, however, it appears to us that the problem may be more complicated, inasmuch as changes in the direction of the air current may have a much greater effect. If, for instance, one end of an aeroplane is subjected to a relatively direct upward thrust at a time when the velocity of the machine as a whole through the air is not sufficient to make the righting tips effective, it naturally becomes a matter of import to consider whether some more positive and direct-acting means of restoring lateral equilibrium should not be experimented with. Possibly such difficulties as we have suggested may, if they are found to exist, be overcome by an arrangement of planes, and this would naturally seem preferable to any resort to moving weights; but in the meantime it certainly does seem desirable that some attempt should be made to observe the nature of the air currents during flight, in order that a little more may be known of the conditions under which failure alternates with success. While the British Army aeroplane is enforced to remain at South Farnborough, and those at work upon it are thereby restricted in the way that they are at present, it is, we fear, impossible to expect any really rapid progress of a permanent character; and it is to be earnestly hoped that means may be found whereby those at work on it may be placed in a position to keep in the van of progress, lest greater national expense be incurred in the future, when it may become imperative to make up leeway.


Flight, May 22, 1909.

BRITISH AEROPLANE AND AIRSHIP.

Mr. Cody Flies a Mile.

  ON the 14th inst. Mr. S. F. Cody, on the discarded Army aeroplane, succeeded in making a really good flight, and set up a new record for Great Britain by flying for a mile, reaching an altitude of 30 feet. On the previous day three short flights were made with a view to seeing that one or two improvements which had been made by Mr. Cody worked satisfactorily, and in view of the results Mr. Cody determined on making a great effort on the following morning. About ten o'clock the motor was started, and after a few short runs over the ground Mr. Cody started from one end of Laffan's Plain, and flew right to the other end and beyond to Danger Hill, where he alighted without mishap. News of the success quickly spread, and reached the Prince and Princess of Wales, who were attending the manoeuvres at Aldershot. In the afternoon the Prince asked Mr. Cody if he would make another flight, and he once more took to the air. Unfortunately, however, in making a turn to avoid some troops, after flying for about 200 yards, the aeroplane was caught by a sudden gust of wind and driven against an embankment, damaging some of the rear framework. The damage done was not very serious, and the Prince expressed to Mr. Cody his pleasure at having seen a British aeroplane that could fly.


Flight, August 14, 1909.

MR. CODY FLIES AGAIN.

  ON Wednesday evening Mr. S. F. Cody succeeded in making three very good flights over Laffan's Plain. Since its last appearance the flyer has undergone a good deal of rearrangement and the motor now fitted is an 80-h.p. E.N.V. The first flight was about one and a half miles, during which Laffan's Plain was encircled and the aviator returned to his starting point. Two further flights of similar length were made, but in the last the machine just touched the earth in turning. The flight aroused a good deal of interest in the Territorial Camp, over which Mr. Cody passed in the course of his trips.
  One of the principal alterations in the aeroplane is the shifting of the aviator's seat to the front of the motor. This has improved the balance of the machine and Mr. Cody now thinks he could carry two passengers easily.


Flight, August 21, 1909.

THE CODY FLYER.

  AT the present moment, when the eyes of the world are directed to the scintillating progress of the aviators on the Continent, S. F. Cody alone shines as a flying star above British soil. His work as a Government servant in the construction and use of what was originally the British Army flyer has been most painstaking, and there is not a man in the country but should feel genuine pleasure at the large measure of success which has now come to reward his labours. What Cody has already done is little compared with what he may reasonably be expected to accomplish now that he is well on the road to victory, and that, again, is a mere nothing compared with what the pilot himself enthusiastically and confidently hopes to achieve.
  The flyer, although belonging to the category of tailless biplanes, in reality belongs to a class apart, for it is by far the largest and heaviest machine with which successful flights have yet been accomplished. It embodies much originality in design, and not a little, we believe, of Mr. Cody's own handicraft, for, like the genuine enthusiast that he is, he lives alongside his beloved machine and makes himself personally responsible for its every detail. Many of these latter, too, are the objects of impending patents, and for this reason we are not at liberty to disclose their nature. One of them, for instance, is hidden behind the canvas bag which will be observed immediately below Mr. Cody's feet in the accompanying excellent photograph of the central portion of the machine.

The Chassis.

  This view, which really shows the most interesting part of the flyer, illustrates two of the more conspicuously original features in the design, these being the construction of the chassis and the arrangement of the seats. The chassis, according to the photograph, is apparently a three-wheeled affair, but in reality the machine is intended to travel over the ground on the main pair of wheels only, any lack of balance being checked in front by the temporary action of the leading wheel, and behind by a laminated wood skid, which depends like a kangaroo's tail from the rear of the main frame. Further use of the leading wheel is of course to take the shock of striking an obstacle, and it needs no more than a glance at the photograph to realize how very massive and strong is the pyramid-like construction of the outrigger on which it is supported. This same triangular system of construction is in evidence elsewhere also, another notable instance being the principal wood members which slope up to the top deck on either side of the pilot and his passenger. It is to these members that the lower booms of the bamboo outrigger, which carries the elevator and front rudder, are fastened by metal clips. Mr. Cody is one of the few constructors who have placed any faith in bamboo, but inspection of the photograph will reveal the important detail that he takes the precaution of binding the bamboo between each joint to prevent the splitting to which bamboo is liable. The main struts throughout the machine have a sharp-edged oval section.

The Arched Decks.

  The main planes have a span of 52 ft, a chord of 7 ft. 6 ins. and a gap of 9 ft. in the centre, which diminishes to 8 ft. at the extremities. The aspect ratio is nearly 7, which is comparatively high, and should be conducive to considerable lift efficiency. Another most important feature of the flyer is the arching of the span of both main decks, this principle not having been previously adopted, so far as we are aware, in any power-driven flyer, although Wilbur Wright, in his account of his early gliding experiments, states that "We decided to begin alterations at the wing tips, and the next day made the necessary changes in the trussing, thus bringing the wing tips 6 inches lower than the centre." The above mentioned alteration was for the purpose of making the 1902 glider like their previous models in order to eliminate a difference which might possibly have been the cause of a trouble they were then investigating. Glenn H. Curtiss, in the "June Bug," of which an illustration will be found in the Souvenir Supplement of FLIGHT of March 20th, arched the upper deck concave to the earth, but made the lower deck convex, so that the construction as a whole was partially elliptical. In the Cody flyer it must be understood that both decks have their extremities drawn down like a gull's wing, and it is further noticeable that for some few feet from the ends the decks are flattened. Elsewhere there is, of course, considerable camber: the decks are double-surfaced.

Elevator and Rudders.

  The arching principle in evidence on the main decks is also applied to the elevator in front. This latter is a divided monoplane of considerable area, and is arranged so that the halves can tilt and dip in unison or in an opposite sense. When working in unison, they perform the function of an elevator. When moving in an opposite sense they act as balancing planes, and are accompanied by a simultaneous movement of the fore and aft rudders. For specially sharp steering, supplementary planes can be attached immediately behind the main decks near the extremities where they are supported by the vertical struts.
  Provision is also made for warping the main decks if necessary, and in this connection it is interesting to remark that Mr. Cody has employed the principle of warping for a long time in connection with his man-lifting kites. In these the wing extentions of the main box are warped if it is found that the kite is not riding properly in the wind, but the operation is not, of course, performed while the kite is aloft.
  Of the two rudders, the forward member is mounted immediately above the elevator in the centre, while the stern rudder is carried by an independent outrigger at the rear. This latter outrigger is hinged to fold in against the main planes so as to reduce the fore and aft overall dimensions of the machine in its shed.

Control.

  The control of the rudders, the elevator and the balancing planes is entirely obtained by manipulation of a universally pivoted lever carrying a steering wheel mounted rigidly upon it. The position which the control occupies in respect to the pilot is well illustrated by the accompanying photograph, which shows Mr. Cody with the steering-wheel pressed against his body. This position is that of normal flight, and the manoeuvres are accompanied by a swaying motion on the part of the pilot, who is in the habit of keeping his position shown in respect to the wheel. The pilot's seat, likewise that used by the passenger, is similar to the seats commonly provided for the drivers of agricultural machines. It is small but comfortable, and gives a sense of security without hampering bodily movement. The seats are fastened to a sloping board, which is hinged to give access to the engine.

The Seats.

  There is a two-fold purpose in the tandem arrangement of the seats adopted by Mr. Cody. The first object is that of facilitating the training of pupil pilots, the second object is that of giving the passenger on a military flyer full scope for observation, the working of a gun, or the dropping of bombs as the case may be. In the accompanying illustration the pilot occupies the lower seat, but as instructor, Mr. Cody would take the upper seat as soon as his pupil was sufficiently accustomed to the air to be given momentary control of the machine. From the upper seat it is possible for the instructor to lean over the pupil and retain control of the machine whenever it may be necessary to do so. In a war flyer, the passenger would also occupy the lower seat, from which point of vantage he would have an absolutely uninterrupted view of everything below him, and by a slight modification of the present controlling mechanism, it would be a simple matter to rig up a gun or other special weapon of offence.

The Engine and Propellers.

  The engine at present used on the Cody flyer is an 8-cylinder E.N.V. developing about 80-h.p. It operates two propellers, revolving in opposite directions, one of them being driven through a crossed chain. The propellers are situated between the main decks, and their short shafts are carried on ball-bearing brackets, braced to the main spars by an extremely interesting construction of tubular steel work and diagonal wire-ties. An entirely unusual feature of the two-bladed propellers on this machine is that they have their arms fastened to the pressure side or face of the blade, instead of, as is usual, on the back of the blade. The arm is enclosed by a false face in order to avoid sharp angles, but there nevertheless exists a high ridge down the face of the blade, and so much is this the case that it seems almost more correct to say that the blade has a special section, presenting a triple curved face. From the cutting edge to the centre the camber increases the pitch, then comes the reversal of the curve where the false face rounds the arm, and finally a renewal of the sharp camber, where the false face runs off into the trailing edge. The blades of the propeller are broader at the base than at the tip, and this, as well as the previously mentioned feature, Mr. Cody considers as advantageous to efficiency. Although not actually fitted to his present machine, Mr. Cody also has a design of bracket for supporting the propellers, which includes a free-wheel hub.

Portability.

  Being so large and heavy - in flying order with pilot the weight is in the neighbourhood of 1 ton - the question of portability is all the more important. The main decks, which span 52 ft. in the air, divide into three sections, comprising a central portion of 20 ft. and two end portions of 16 ft. each. The rudder outrigger folds across behind the decks, as already explained, and the elevator outrigger can be dismounted en bloc. The chassis can also be taken down without trouble, and thus the whale machine is made ready for easy transport.

Conclusion.

  From the foregoing description it will be evident that England possesses one of the most interesting machines which has yet flown, and the fact that it has flown so successfully naturally enhances the importance of every feature in its construction. Incidentally it gives us cause for some gratification that the optimistic view which we took of Mr. Cody's work when last dealing with this machine in FLIGHT, February 27th, has been so soon justified. We had occasion then to point out how adverse were the conditions under which experiments were being carried out, how very cheerfully Mr. Cody was risking his neck to win success, and how very early were those days for adverse critics to make disparaging comments. Remember Mr. Cody did not start with a machine which had already flown, and he has, consequently, had to contend with the hundred and one unknown quantities which collectively or separately may be hindering progress. On the top of all this there used to be the paralysing inconvenience of transporting the flyer from its shed to the flight ground - a proceeding which we had occasion to describe in the aforementioned issue of FLIGHT.
  Then, just as things might perhaps have been going well, would come the exasperating delay caused by a burst tyre. Surely it would require the patience of Job to win the day under conditions like this. Yet the Government at that time seemed to think it was good enough, and critics seemed to be content to grumble, forsooth, because progress was slow. Mr. Cody is better situated now that he has moved into a shed of his own, and if he has not every convenience that he might like, he is managing to do very well with what he has, and in any case, there still remains the one great fact that he is the only man who is successfully flying in the British Isles to-day.


Flight, September 4, 1909

Cross-Country Flight by Mr. Cody.

  PROGRESS still continues to be made by Mr. Cody at Aldershot, and on Saturday last he made his best performance so far by flying across country. Altogether four trips were carried out during the evening. In the first, in which he was unaccompanied, a distance of about four and a half miles was traversed. This was followed by a couple of flights with a passenger, each time a mechanic having the honour. The last "jaunt" of the day was the best. After crossing Laffan's Plain, the Basingstoke Canal, and Claycart Common, he flew along the Long Valley to Jubilee Hill. Rounding this, the Long Valley was again crossed diagonally to Long Hill, and then the course was over the Canal again to Eelmoor Hill. An altitude of about 100 ft. above the ground was reached at this point, where a number of admiring spectators spontaneously cheered Mr. Cody. He finished his fine effort by making a complete circuit of Laffan's Plain, and finally came to rest a few yards from his shed.


Flight, September 18, 1909

MR. CODY AND HIS AERIAL EXCURSIONS.

  MR. CODY will have to be careful or he will find himself besieged at all hours of the day by people who wish to have a lift across Laffan's Plain. On Thursday of last week, three times in succession he flew across the Plain and back again, each time taking with him an officer of the Royal Engineers attached to the balloon factory. Capt. Brooke-Smith was first, and he was followed by Capt. King and Capt. Carden. Then Mr. F. J. Robinson, connected with New Pegamoid, Ltd, the manufacturers of the Pegamoid waterproof fabric which has been adopted by Mr. Cody for the covering of his biplane, was taken for a similar trip, and to wind up the proceedings Mr. Cody took his son Leon on to Cove Common. Unfortunately, there a leak in the radiator compelled a descent, and it being impossible to repair it in the dark the machine was towed back to its shed, after a most interesting day.
  The next day, the gusty weather prevented flying, and Mr. Cody spent the time maturing his plans for his flight to Manchester.
  On Saturday Mr. Cody had a distinguished onlooker, the Empress Eugenie driving over from Farnborough in order to witness the trials. In the first, Mr. Cody was considerably hampered by the crowd, and only kept aloft for five minutes. He then went up again, and in order to avoid the crowds of spectators, was forced to make a rapid descent, damaging one of the planes, besides buckling three of the wheels. This was, however, set right in a quarter of an hour, when Mr. Cody went up for the last time and circled over Laffan's Plain three times.
  On coming down he was presented to the Empress by Lieut.-General Smith-Dorrien and congratulated on his success.
  A rather sharp accident marred the conclusion of a successful flight on Tuesday evening. After flying round Laffan's Plain at a fairly high speed, Mr. Cody decided to come down. Apparently, however, the wheels had not been properly re-adjusted after their buckling on Saturday, and when the machine touched the ground they jammed, bringing the aeroplane to a sudden standstill. The shock threw Mr. Cody from his seat, and his face was rather badly cut, but otherwise this intrepid flyer was as cheery as ever. The front of the machine was also smashed up slightly, but this damage was quickly repaired.

The Flight to Manchester.

  WITH regard to Mr. Cody's intention to attempt to fly between London and Manchester, Mr. Brock, of the well-known firm of firework manufacturers, has suggested that the route should be marked by clouds of coloured smoke from shells sent up at various points to a height of 300 ft. Mr. Brock has drawn up a provisional code of colours as follows, and suggests that shells should be fired at each point until the aeroplane passes, when the next point would take up the work. Mr. Cody should have no difficulty in seeing the clouds, for they would be about 150 yards along and would remain visible for three or four minutes :-
   Berkhamsted ... Red
   Buckingham ... Dark blue
   Leamington ... Yellow
   Birmingham ... Red
   Stafford ... Red and yellow
   Crewe ... Yellow and blue
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - The new Army aeroplane constructed at Aldershot, en route between its shed and the trial ground at Farnborough on Saturday last, when Mr. Cody made a "flight" of about 20 yards at a height of about 10 feet. Mr. Cody, in a. cap and gaiters, is seen to the left in the photograph.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - Mr. Cody in flight on Saturday last at Farnborough on the new Army aeroplane. This flight was about 20 yards (by some it is stated to have been 50 yards) at a height of 10 feet.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - British Army aeroplane in full flight above Farnborough Common before the accident.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - In the above photographs the British Army aeroplane is seen leaving its shed at Aldershot, and being taken down to Laffan's Plain for a trial on Thursday, February 18th. The lower photograph gives a very good idea of the difficulties which have to be contended with in getting the aeroplane on to its trial ground.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - Hauling the machine on to Laffan's Plain. This view gives an excellent perspective of the front of the machine.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - View of the fore part of the machine, showing the elevator, front rudder, and machinery. The vertical tubes on the right form part of the condenser.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - View of the rear part of the machine, showing the tail and stern rudder. The two planes constituting the tail were formerly on either side of the elevator. At present this tail is fixed, but later experiments may be made with it moving in unison with the elevator.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - The above photograph was taken while the machine was in motion across the ground a few seconds after the start. Mr. Cody is at the wheel.
Mr. Cody in full flight on his aeroplane last week at Laffan's Plain, when he made a record flight of a mile.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - The end of a flight. Just before landing the aeroplane tilted over on one side, and the above photograph was secured at this critical moment.
Mr. S. F. Cody, on Wednesday of this week, on his re-modelled biplane, made some splendid flights at Aldershot. Quite a sensation was created amongst the Territorials encamped on Laffan's Plain as Mr. Cody circled gracefully above them. Above is a photograph of Mr. Cody during one of these flights. His motor is an 8O-h.p. E.N.V., the total machine weighing nearly a ton.
FLIGHT PROGRESS IN ENGLAND. - Mr. S. F. Cody on Saturday last at the moment of crossing the Basingstoke Canal, during his 8 miles flight in 9 1/4 minutes, around Aldershot. In order to demonstrate the easy control of his flyer, Mr. Cody at times throws his hands up over his head, as, it will be noticed, he was doing when our photograph was secured.
Mrs. Cody in the passenger's seat of her husband's flyer last Saturday, just before the start for one of the splendid flights which Mr. Cody accomplished on that day.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - View of the aeroplane after it had collapsed. The elevator and front steering tips are practically demolished, it will be noticed, but the main framework and surfaces are not so badly injured.
The soft sand-pit "death-trap" at Doncastet Aviation Meeting where Mr. S. F. Cody came to grief when alighting. Note how the front wheel has ploughed into the sand, causing the main part of the flyer to turn over, fortunately without serious mishap to Mr. Cody.
MR. S. F. CODY.
Mr. S. F. Cody latest flyer. (This drawing is diagrammatic only.)
Flight, May 8, 1909.

A HOLIDAY FLYER.
BEING THE RESULT OF AN ENTERPRISING THREE WEEKS' OCCUPATION ON THE PART OF SOME CAMBRIDGE UNDERGRADUATES.

  WHAT better way could there be of spending an Easter vacation - or for that matter any vacation - than by setting to work to build and experiment with a full-sized aeroplane? A more congenial task for those with energy and leisure it is indeed difficult to imagine in this year of grace 1909, when all humanity is anxiously awaiting the speedy maturity of the new era of flight. And the prospects, too, of such an undertaking! At worst, a healthy time in the open air, combined with hour after hour of absorbing interest; while at best, success in the conquest of a difficult task which very few men have as yet actually accomplished.
  Thus, with variations, were the thoughts of a party of go-ahead Cambridge undergraduates, Messrs. H. H. Franklin, A. E. Lowy, C. M. Spieimann and H. W. Holt to wit, when they evolved a mutually satisfactory design during term, when they bought the engine in advance, and when they ordered material in readiness to make an immediate start once they had established themselves with their host, Mr. Franklin, in his ideal home on the Chiltern Hills. Here, with a large field ready to hand as a prospective aerodrome, constructive operations were commenced without delay, and soon four large calico planes began to spread themselves to the fickle breezes. Bamboo spars and struts, assisted by diagonal bracing of piano wire, came into use for the main framework; and overhead was erected a skeleton "hangar" of rough wood posts and hempen ropes to prevent the whole device taking a premature leap into the air, as it frequently seemed inclined to do when the wind was gusty. Everything was nearly ready just in time to allow of one or two actual trials before vacation ended; but "there's many a slip" in experimental work, and as events turn out fate denied its favour at the eleventh hour by causing one of the chassis wheels to give way, too late to allow of making good the damage. Reluctantly, therefore, the flyer had to go into retreat ere an actual flight was made with it, but even the building of it was an experience of value, as it afforded an insight into many little details otherwise apt to be totally overlooked by the enthusiastic experimenter.
  There was the general design to be prepared in the first place, and the natural desire to make it original, which led to the construction of a double biplane type, that is to say, one having four main planes totalling 540 square feet in area arranged tandem-wise in biplane formation. The idea was to obtain greater stability by having two centres of aerial support, fore and aft of the pilot respectively, it being assumed that a slight increase in the angle of the rear planes would suffice to render them effective in the "wake" of the front planes. In setting out the curves Sir Hiram Maxim's book came in handy, as it did also in connection with the wooden propellers, a pair of which, most carefully made and finished, but possessed of curious concave bosses, were arranged to be driven on parallel shafts by one continuous chain from the 12-h.p. twin-cylinder air-cooled Buchet engine.
  Lack of opportunity prevented the motor from acknowledging its appreciation of this implied compliment to its capacity, for it was, of course, asking rather a lot of it, bearing in mind that the flyer itself was by way of being full-sized, and that even Mr. Wilbur Wright rates his engine at 25-h.p. or thereabouts. Among the special features of the flyer was a system of control for giving stability by the use of hinged corner pieces on the extremities of each of the main planes. These corner pieces, as our illustrations show, were hinged diagonally and so arranged that their front edges dipped or tilted to vary the angle of inclination. The use of the front edge for this purpose is contrary to the general principle adopted by other experimenters who, when employing flexing systems, invariably govern the angle by the movement of the trailing edge. It would have been interesting to have been able to observe the character of the control afforded by this change of method. The articulation of the planes was designed to be operated from a central vertical pole placed directly in front of the pilot's seat, which was mounted just behind the front planes, the engine - constituting the other portion of the carried load - being situated just in front of the rear planes. This pole was connected to the corner pieces by wires arranged diagonally, and the system was such that practically any combination-could be obtained from a direct movement of the pole. In front of the forward planes was an elevator, and behind the rear planes was a rudder, these latter members being under separate control. The machine, as a whole, was mounted upon wheels carried by compressed-air cylinders in such a way as to give a pneumatic suspension.
In order to secure the flyer against the wind, an open-air "hangar" was constructed of poles and ropes. The above is a side view of the machine, showing the tandem arrangement of the biplanes.
Corner pieces hinged to the main planes diagonally were provided as a means of controlling lateral stability. The photograph shows the pair on the right dipped, while those on the left are tilted.
Two wooden propellers were arranged to be driven by one continuous chain, so that if the chain broke both would be disabled.
The pilot, in this case Mr. H. H. Franklin, sits in the wire-suspended "chair" marked "Tea," and controls the lateral stability of the machine by the vertical pole held at the moment by Mr. A. E. Lowy, co-designer and builder.
THE MILLS-FULFORD MONOPLANE. - In the above photographs are shown a monoplane very much on the lines of Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle," the chief differences being that this machine has an elevator in front, while the propeller is driven by a chain from a little 4-cyl. F.N. engine.
Flight, December 18, 1909

GRATZE MONOPLANE.

To the Editor of FLIGHT.
  SIR, - I herewith enclose a photograph of my monoplane, which contains several new and distinctive features which are protected by patents.
  First, the steering is executed by the propeller, which works on a universal swivel joint. The wings are also pivoted on a junction of the frame on a patent universal-joint which enables them to be swivelled in any direction, i.e., up or down, backwards or forwards, and to alter the angle of inclination or incidence.
  The motor is an 8-cyl. 40-h. p. air-cooled engine.
  Yours faithfully, p.p. E. V. GRATZE,

Gratze monoplane was at the Blackpool Meeting of October 1909 in this form.
Flight, April 24, 1909.

A CENTURY AGO.
SIR GEORGE CAYLEY ON FLIGHT IN 1809.


  AMONG the models exhibited at Olympia was, as we mentioned in last week's issue, one which the Aero Club had had constructed as a copy of the Henson-Stringfellow model in the South Kensington Museum. Appended to the model was the following very interesting notice, which not only describes an inventor's ideas of a hundred years ago, but also pays fitting tribute to Sir George Cayley who, of all early scientists, made perhaps the most profound study of flight, thereby enrolling his name in this country honourably in the list of those who first extended their mental vision to include the conquest of the air within the boundaries of science : -
  "This year, 1909, is the centenary of the appearance in Nicholson's Journal and the Philosophical Magazine of some remarkably able articles on flight by an English scientist, Sir George Cayley. His insight into the problem of aviation was profound, but neither his own generation nor his successors realised his merit, for he was so much in advance of his time that it has needed an interval of a hundred years to demonstrate the truth of his assertions.
  "France has not hesitated to do him justice, and M. Tatin, writing in the Elements d1 Aviation, has said : -
  "'It would be difficult to construct a machine to-day which did not embody the majority of the features indicated by Cayley. His contributions to the theory of flight form a work of reference which it is well not to ignore.'
  "Much earlier, in 1874, another Frenchman, M. Penaud - himself well known as a pioneer in flight - paid a special visit to England on purpose to make research among Cayley's writings, and on his return to France he presented his discoveries in eulogistic terms before a meeting of the Societe Francaise de Navigation Aerienne.
  "Sir George Cayley seems to have appreciated almost every side of the problem of aerial navigation. He foresaw the difficulties associated with dirigible balloons on account of their enormous size, but he pointed out how they might be made to ascend and descend in the air without loss of ballast.
  "In 1796 he constructed a model helicopter with a pair of lifting screws revolving in opposite directions, and expressed his conviction that it would be possible for a full-sized man-lifting machine to be made on these lines. He anticipated the advent of aeroplanes, and, knowing that great lifting effect could be obtained from surfaces moving through the air at slight inclinations to the horizontal, he pointed out the importance of carrying out what are now known as 'lift and drift' experiments. He suggested the use of a tail as a means of obtaining automatic longitudinal stability in aeroplanes, and he further showed how the pivoting of that tail would enable it to be used as an elevator for ascent and descent. He deduced the advantage of wing flexion from his observations of bird flight, and he carried his investigations on the subject of propulsion into a close study of the theory of screws. Having invented a hot-air engine - and that, probably, the first of its kind - he foresaw possibilities in the use of gaseous mixtures, which have since been more than realised in the development of the petrol engine. On the question of steam he was even more precise, for he definitely suggested the use of a tubular boiler and surface condenser, both of which principles are now common in practice.
  "The time was not then ripe for the realisation of his ideas, but some thirty years later, in 1843, an engineer named Henson drew out designs for a steam-driven monoplane based on Sir George Cayley's data.
  "A model of Henson's machine, which he constructed in conjunction with Stringfellow, is on exhibition at the South Kensington Museum, and it is a copy of this model, on a smaller scale, which is on view above. The design was patented in 1842, and is thus officially described in the Museum: -
  "'The model consists of an extended surface or aeroplane of oiled silk, or canvas stretched upon a bamboo frame made rigid by trussing, both above and below. A car is attached to the under side of the aeroplane to contain the steam engine, passengers, &c. It has three wheels to run freely upon when it reaches earth. Two propellers, 3 ft. in diameter, are shown with their blades, set at 45 degs. They are operated by endless cords from the engine. Behind these is a fan-shaped tail stretched upon a triangular frame capable of being opened out, closed, or moved up and down by means of cords and pulleys. By this latter arrangement ascent or descent was to be accomplished. A rudder for steering sideways is placed under the tail, and above the main aeroplane a sail (not shown) was to be stretched between two masts rising from the car, to assist in maintaining the course. When in motion the front edge of the machine was to be raised in order to obtain the required air support. To start the model it was proposed to allow it to run down an incline, e.g., the side of an hill, the propellers being first set in motion. The velocity gained in the descent was expected to sustain it in its further progress, the engine overcoming the head resistance when in full flight. Experiments were eventually made on the downs near Chard, and the night trials were abandoned, as the silk became saturated from a deposit of dew. After many day trials, down wide inclined rails, the model was found to be deficient in stable equilibrium for open-air experiments, little puffs of wind or ground currents being sufficient to destroy the balance. The actual machine was never constructed, but in 1847-8 F. Stringfellow built a model which is supposed to be the first flying machine to perform a successful flight.
  "'The dimensions of the model shown are 20 ft. from tip to tip of wings, by 3 '5 ft. wide, giving 70 sq. ft. sustaining surface to the wings, and about 10 sq. ft. in the tail. Its weight is about 25 lbs. The actual machine was to weigh about 3,000 lbs., with 4,500 sq. ft. surface in the wings, and 1,500 sq. ft. in the tail."'

Over sixty years ago Henson and Stringfellow constructed the model monoplane, of which the above is a copy, belonging to the Aero Club. The original is in the South Kensington Museum.
Flight, December 11, 1909

ANOTHER MAN-CARRYING GLIDER.

To the Editor of FLIGHT.
  SIR, - I enclose a press plate of a biplane which I have just built, as I thought perhaps you might like to put it in FLIGHT. The machine is 30 ft. long and 6 ft. wide. It has the usual elevators in front and a tail behind, which, however, is not shown in the photograph. Balancing-planes are fitted at each end, and the whole is mounted on wooden runners. At present no engine is fitted, as it is being used as a glider. I have recently ordered a Bleriot monoplane, which is being delivered in January.
  Yours faithfully, V. V. D. HEWITT.
Mr. Hewitt's Glider.
Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Howard-Wright (HOWARD T. WRIGHT).

  The biplane designed by Mr. Howard T. Wright and built at his factory has several original features, of which perhaps the most important is the entire use of steel tubes in the construction of the framework. These tubes are of special steel, and are specially drawn to different sections, those forming the main longitudinal members being tubular, while those which form the struts between the two decks have a pear-shaped section in accordance with the accepted theories of air - resistance. Other tubes again are oval in section, so that in the whole construction no trouble and expense has been spared to combine strength with lightness. Throughout, the joints are rigid, and in most cases have been formed by the oxy-acetylene welding process, which has even been used for securing the staples to which the tie-wires are attached. In other places flanged joints are used, but everywhere the work has been executed with the same care, so that the machine has a particularly neat, not to say delicate appearance, the latter effect being given to it by the small section of the steel tubing of the main framework.
  In its general lines the Howard-Wright biplane belongs to the Voisin type, inasmuch as it has a box-kite tail. This member encloses a vertical rudder, and there is also a biplane elevator in front. The mounting of the machine is unusual, for there is but one wheel for it to run on beneath the central chassis and another under the tail. On the extremities of the lower deck there are, however, two small wheels of the bicycle type. The idea involved is that the embryo aviator will be able to learn something of the control of the machine without leaving terra firma by driving it about over the ground on two wheels only; in this way it is anticipated that he will learn to steer and balance the machine. Inset into the rear edges of the main planes at both ends and on both decks are small righting planes, which are used for restoring lateral stability.
  The motive power is derived from a 50-h.p. Metallurgique aero-motor, and a special feature of the system of propulsion is the use of a pair of compensated two-bladed propellers mounted in tandem. At first sight it appears as if there is but one four-bladed propeller in position, but, as a matter of fact, each pair of blades are separate, and revolve in opposite directions. They are interconnected by means of a differential-gear - similar to that used on a motor car - one member of which is driven direct by the engine. The propeller nearest the motor has much larger blades than that behind it, and absorbs two-thirds of the power, but the speeds of the propellers are equal: each runs at one-third the engine speed. Mr. Howard Wright's object in arranging his propellers so that they revolve in opposite directions is to neutralise their gyroscopic effect; the torque of the engine is not balanced by this system, as might at first appear, to be the case. The surfaces of the flyer are made of linen, coated with a specially smooth glossy varnish. The car or chassis of the machine is also entirely covered with fabric, and the pilot sits almost immediately over the front edge of the lower deck.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Howard-Wright biplane, seen from behind. The entire framework is made of steel, and another special feature is the use of tandem propellers revolving in opposite directions. The righting tips let into the rear edges of the main planes are clearly indicated in this view.
Welded joint on Howard-Wright biplane.
A small monoplane, one of his latest models, constructed by Mr. Howard T. Wright, of 110, High Street, Marylebone. It has a total width of 27 ft., length 28 ft., area of plane 160 sq. ft., weight without motor 350 lbs., in running order 500 lbs. It is fitted with 30-h.p. air-cooled motor and single propeller running at 1,200 r.p,m. Two of these machines have already been made for customers, and a third is now in course of construction, and will be ready in about 14 days.
Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Lamplough (LAMPLOUGH AND SON).

  The flying machine which has been designed by Mr. Lamplough and constructed by his firm at Willesden is of an altogether unusual description, and quite unlike anything which has probably ever been built elsewhere. In order to appreciate its principle it is necessary to know what idea governed its design, and for that it is necessary to revert to Professor Pedigrew's theory of bird wing flight. Broadly speaking, that theory may be summed up by stating that the stroke of a bird's wing forms the figure eight, and Mr. Lamplough, accepting that view as suitable for a basis of mechanical flight, set himself the problem of reproducing it in an actual machine. The mechanical system he has devised consists in imparting a kind of swaying motion to two biplanes arranged longitudinally with their cutting edges facing one another. The planes are hinged, as also are the columns which support them, and as they sway to and fro a pair of cranks dip and tilt alternately, the adjacent edges, so that in a complete cycle an approximate figure of eight is performed. As the two biplanes approach one another the adjacent edges are tilted, and the planes being forced through the air create a lifting effect; when their motion is finished these edges are drawn downwards by the cranks, and as the biplanes recede it is their outer edges which are in turn relatively elevated so that once more a lifting effect is produced. The outer edges do not actually vary their position - it is only the inner edges which rise and fall - for it is along these edges that the planes are hinged to their supports. This part of the machine is a lifting device pure and simple, and forms the central portion of the structure; extended on either side, however, are a pair of biplanes proper with their cutting edges arranged transversely in the usual way. In front and behind are biplane elevators enclosing single rudders, and propulsion is effected by a pair of wooden propellers.
  In the machine exhibited the whole construction is of wood, but when finished the vertical supports will be of tubular steel and the diagonal ties of steel wire. We understand that models which have been made have given remarkable results, lifting themselves by clockwork mechanism right up into the air, and a curious feature which has been found to be associated with this principle is that the lifting planes act as a parachute to steady the descent when the motive power stops. The lifting action, of the lifting planes which has already been described may perhaps be better understood by considering it as analogous to the slight paddling motion which a swimmer makes with his hands whilst he floats on his back.
AERO SHOW. - The Lamplough Orthopter Biplane, seen from behind. The central planes, which run longitudinally, sway to and fro with a lifting effect, while the lateral biplanes on either side are rigid in the usual way. At the extreme rear is a biplane elevator containing a rudder, and in front there is a precisely similar structure. The machine is unfinished.
AERO SHOW.- The Lamplough Orthopter Biplane, front elevation, showing the cranks which sway the lifters and the link motion which reverses their angle of inclination so that each stroke is effective. The dotted lines indicate the limiting positions of the lifters in each direction.
The Lamplough machine has been designed to lift itself direct from the ground by the aid of waving aeroplanes. It has stationary aeroplanes for gliding.
Lamplough's flexible fastening.
Model Aeroplane constructed by Messrs. Mortimer and Vaughan to illustrate a full-sized flyer which they are building.
Flight, September 25, 1909

MORE PIONEER WORK IN GREAT BRITAIN.

  Despite of the apparent backwardness of this country in matters affecting the conquest of the air by heavier-than-air flyers, yet a considerable amount more pioneer work has in reality been going on in this direction during <...>
Fig. 1. - Mr. C. H. Parkes mounted on the experimental biplane which was built by him upon a bicycle, and had its propeller coupled up to the pedals.
Fig. 2. - The improved biplane built by Mr. Parkes was equipped with a twin-cylinder air-cooled engine of 4-h.p.; and with this machine he was able to accomplish "jumps" of from 10 to 40 ft.
Fig. 3. - In the above photograph may be seen the position of the 4-h.p. motor and of the three supporting wheels on Mr. Parkes' later biplane, which weighed 350 lbs. with himself seated upon it.
Flight, June 12, 1909.

THE PILCHER GLIDER.

  Two very interesting photographs are reproduced on this page of the glider upon which the late Mr. Pilcher met his death, while experimenting in 1899. By the courtesy of Mr. T. O'B. Hubbard, we are able to publish these, together with the measurements given below.
  The machine has been recently repaired by Mr. Clarke. The following are the dimensions: -

  Extreme width 24 ft. 8 ins.
  Overall length 18 ., 6 "
  Main surface, extreme fore and aft 10 ,, 0 ,,
  Area of main surface about 240 sq. ft .
  Distance between main and tail surfaces 5 ft. 6 ins.
  Area of horizontal tail 5 sq. ft.
  Area of vertical tail 2 1/4 ,,
  Extreme breadth of horizontal tail 6 ft. 6 ins.
  Fore and aft of horizontal tail 2 " 10 "
  Height of vertical tail 2 " 10 "

The Pilcher Glider, in which Mr. Pilcher, on September 30th, 1899, met with his death, after having been successiul in his early efforts at flying. In the photograph on the right Mrs. Tidswell, Mr. Pilcher's sister, who helped him considerably in his work, is standing by the tail of his machine. For these pictures and the accompanying information we are indebted to Mr. T. O'Brien Hubbard, the Assistant Secretary of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain.
Flight, September 25, 1909

A Glider at Portsmouth.

  ON the evening of the 17th inst. a glider was tried on the Portsdown Hills by two young naval officers, Lieuts. Porte and Pirie, attached to the Haslar submarine depot. The glider is of the biplane type, as seen in our frontispiece, but with the upper plane placed a good deal in advance of the lower one. There is no elevator in front, but elevating and steering planes are placed between the main planes at the ends, and there is a tail. With both officers seated in it the machine was mounted on a trolley and run along a temporary track, but it failed to rise, and eventually pitched forward and collapsed, both officers being thrown out but escaping unhurt. The design is particularly promising, and we have little doubt that after a few lessons have been learnt a practical machine will be evolved.
A BRITISH-BUILT AND DESIGNED GLIDER. - The machine which has been invented by Lieuts. Porte and Pirie, two young naval officers attached to the submarine depot at Haslar. In the top picture bluejackets and villagers are hauling up the glider to the summit of Portsdown Hill, overlooking Portsmouth, preparatory to the gliding experiments; and in the lower photo Lieuts. Porte and Pirie are in their glider at the top of the hill ready for being launched for a flight. Although the experiments resulted in a smash, defects are to be remedied, and successful progress may be safely looked for with such a businesslike machine.
Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Short (SHORT BROS.).

  The biplane Messrs. Short Bros, are showing at Olympia is one they have designed and constructed to their own ideas, and must not be confused with the Wright machines, which they are also building, but are unable to show. It is not like the Wright machine, except so far as it belongs to the same "tail-less" category, but this is an important similarity in view of the popularity of the Voisin "tailed" flyer among other constructors. Not only has the Short machine no tail, but it has no outstanding rudder as there is on the Wright flyer, steering on the Short model being effected by means of four interconnected rudders arranged in pairs just behind the extremities of the main planes. Where the rudders are situated the main planes themselves have greater fore and aft dimensions, and the flexible lips thus formed ate flexed in opposite directions to control the lateral stability. Propulsion is effected by a pair of large diameter twin-bladed wooden propellers, situated immediately behind the rear edges of the main planes. The machine is mounted on a pair or skis, and arrangements have been made to use a loose-wheeled chassis for trial purposes if necessary.
  The machine exhibited at Olympia is unfinished, but it is so far forward that it is difficult to believe that there has been but a fortnight's labour spent on it. To those really interested in flying machines its present state is possibly far more interesting than its final condition would have been, in fact, it may be said to bear the same relationship to the fledged flyer as a chassis does to a complete motor car, for it gives an unimpeded view of its constructional details. The machine is built entirely of wood and the workmanship throughout is excellent; moreover, much ability has been shown in the design of details, and it is evident that those responsible are fully appreciative of the importance of accuracy in experimental work. The structure as a whole is characterized by considerable flexibility, the object being to allow the machine to accommodate itself to the inequalities of the ground when landing. On the other hand the planes are rigid fore and aft to ensure an accurate curvature under all pressures. The main transverse spars dismantle into three sections for transports the joints being effected by simple fish-plate fastening, which are relieved of the bending strain by the usual system of diagonal wires and vertical wood struts. These latter are of plain oval section and are hinged at their extremities to aluminium lugs on the main spars by the use of flush steel flitch-plates. The planes themselves when finished will be double surfaced, and the construction of the fore and aft ribs to which the Continental fabric will be attached is one of the most interesting details in the construction. The same principle of double surface construction has been adopted for the rudders. There is a small vertical plane forming a prow or "cut-water" between the two decks of the biplane elevator. Like the rest of the machines the propellers are constructed of wood and have also been made at the Short factory. Each propeller is built up from a composite block of wood made of six layers.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Short flyer seen from one side, showing the skeleton framework. One of the four rudders has alone been covered with Continental fabric, the remainder of the machine being quite unfinished. The flexing of the righting tips is well shown on the extreme right, and in front, on the left of the photograph, the biplane elevator can be seen.
THE PRINCE OF WALES' VISIT TO THE AERO'SHOW AT OLYMPIA LAST WEEK. - His Royal Highness is seen in our photograph examining the exhibits on Messrs. Short Bros.' stand.
The Short biplane, like the Wright flyer, is a tailless machine, and it represents a type of its own in having no outrigger framework for carrying the rudder.
Short's flexible fastening.
Short's flexible rib.
Flight, October 2, 1909

Mr. Moore-Brabazon's Success.

  ALL interested in the cause of aviation in Great Britain will join in congratulating Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon on the success he is meeting with in his experiments with his new British-designed-and-built biplane. It has been built by Messrs. Short Brothers, and is similar to the machine which was exhibited by them in skeleton form at the Olympia Show, the designer being Mr. Horace Short. In spite of the fact that he was handicapped by using a heavy motor car engine, Mr. Moore-Brabazon easily flew a mile in a semi-circular direction on Monday last and he intended to compete for the 250 yards, the half mile, and mile prizes offered by the Aero Club on Thursday of this week. When Mr. Brabazon has his new "Green" engine, which weighs about 200 lbs. less than the present motor, he is confident that he will make up all time lost in waiting for his present machine.


Flight, October 9, 1909

Mr. Moore-Brabazon's Progress.

  ON Thursday of last week Mr. Moore-Brabazon did not meet with quite so great success as he obtained three days previously, and the longest distance flown was 400 yards. As the result of a sudden landing the machine was slightly damaged. We are able to give several views of this machine this week which give a good idea of its general appearance and clearly illustrate its characteristic features. We were fortunate in securing a snap of the machine during one of its brief flights last week, and this forms the frontispiece for the current issue. Mr. Moore-Brabazon has entered for the Daily Mail prize of L1,000 for the first British aviator on an all-British machine, covering the circular mile; as soon as he can get his new Green engine installed he will make an attempt for the prize, and there seems every likelihood of it being annexed very shortly now.


Flight, November 6, 1909

FLYING AT THE AERO CLUB'S GROUNDS, SHELLBEACH.

L1,000 "All British" Prize "Won.

  AT last a flying machine, entirely constructed in Great Britain, has flown for a mile out and home, and no doubt this will go a great way in stimulating interest in the home product. It was on Saturday last that Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon succeeded in fulfilling the conditions of the Daily Mail L1,000 prize for the first circular mile flown on a British machine, and his mount was the Short biplane with which he has been experimenting for some time at the flying ground of the Aero Club at Shellbeach. Our readers will remember that this machine was fully illustrated in our issue of October 9th, and from the photograph which we publish in this issue it will be seen that although the machine is in some respects similar to the Wright flyers, considerable differences are conspicuous. Instead of the wings warping, stability is effected by small supplementary planes pivoted between the extremities of the main planes; the main planes are rigid; the rudder is placed in front, while the trailing vertical plane is fixed; the skids are quite different, and the two propellers revolve in the same direction instead of opposite. The motor fitted to the machine was a 50-60-h.p. Green, which has a bore and stroke of 140 by 140 mm., and weighs without fly-wheel and magneto about 250 lbs. It is quite fitting that this success should fall to Mr. Moore-Brabazon, for he was one of the first Englishmen to turn serious attention to flying. After experimenting with a machine of his own design for some time, he purchased a Voisin, on which he made one or two short flights. At the Aero Show at Olympia last spring he ordered the British-built machine from Messrs. Short Brothers, with which he has now met with such gratifying success.

Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon in flight last week, at the Aero Club's Shellbeach Aerodrome, on his new all-British biplane, constructed by Messrs. Short Brothers.
Mr. Moore-Brabazon flying at Shellbeach on the Short biplane on which he won the "Daily Mall" L1,000 Prize on Saturday last.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon's new biplane, designed and constructed by Messrs. Short Bros., with which he has been making his flights at Shellbeach, being brought up to the starting rail after a flight.
Three-quarter view, from the back, of the Short biplane, constructed for Mr. Moore-Brabazon.
Getting Mr. Moore-Brabazon's Short biplane in place on to the starting rail. The Short No.2, fitted with, a Green engine, with which J. T. C. .Moore-Brabazon won the L 1,000 Daily Mail prize for a circular flight of one mile.
Short S.2 on which Moore-Brabazon won the Daily Mail prize for a circular flight of one mile in October 1909.
Preliminary to his recent successful flights on his Short-Wright flyer, the Hon. C. S. Rolls obtained considerable proficiency in soaring with a man-carrying glider, also built by Messrs. Short Bros., by special permission of the Wright Bros., early last year. This was the first made with proper seat for the operator to sit in an upright position, and levers working like the full-size power machines, in fact a miniature reproduction minus the power plant. Mr. Rolls has sent us a couple of unpublished "snaps" of his glider practice which helped him so much in manipulating the full-sized machine.
Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Weiss (HANDLEY PAGE).

  Readers of the "Flight" section of The Automoior Journal will recollect our description of the bird-like model monoplanes constructed by Mr. Weiss. The machine which Messrs. Handley Page exhibit at Olympia is a full-size flyer on the same lines, and has also been built by the inventor himself. Like most work which has been put together in this way, the flyer is naturally somewhat rough-and-ready in appearance, for practically the whole of the framework is built up of cane, and this is a material which does not lend itself very well to neat jointing.
  The Weiss flyer is of the monoplane type, and is peculiar amongst such machines in having no tail whatever. Let into the rear edges of the main wings, however, are a pair of righting planes operated by pedals so that they can work in unison for ascending and descending, and in opposite directions for steering and righting. Another peculiarity of the construction of the wings is their double curvature at the tips, it having been found from the gliding experiments with the models that everything depends upon having this curvature absolutely correct. Propulsion is effected by two propellers placed between the righting planes and the rear edges of the main planes. These propellers are chain-driven from an engine which is situated immediately behind the pilot. The machine, although comparatively small in appearance, has a considerable extent of supporting surface. As yet no actual man-lifting flight has been accomplished.
AERO SHOW. - The Weiss Monoplane, seen from in front. This is a full-sized model built by the inventor himself, and is mainly constructed of cane. The use of two propellers on a monoplane is an uncommon feature.
The Weiss Flyer, like most monoplanes, has arched wings, and somewhat resembles a bird in appearance. An unusual detail is the use of two propellers.
Flight, August 28, 1909

THE HOWARD-WINDHAM MONOPLANE.

To the Editor of FLIGHT.
  SIR, - I am enclosing a photo of the Howard-Windham monoplane which I have been working on for some time past at Wembley Park. Although the photo is not a good one, it clearly shows the general outlines of the machine, with the propeller, which is one off Capt- Windham's biplane. This machine is now fitted with a new 6-cyl. Dutheil-Chalmers engine and we hope to try it within a week or two.
  Since it was shown at the Olympia, it has had several new patents put on and we expect great things from it.
  Yours faithfully, C. GURNEY GRIME.
Flight, October 2, 1909

Herr Grade Has a Fall.

  WHILE making an attempt to win the Lanz Prize of L2,000 at the Mars flying ground, near Berlin, Herr Grade had a nasty accident with his monoplane, but fortunately without injury to himself. The regulations stipulated that a flight of 2 1/2 kiloms. should be made in a figure of eight. Herr Grade started off splendidly, but in the middle of the trip the propeller broke and the machine fell about 30 metres, but the force of the fall was broken by some low pine trees. The machine was badly damaged, but it was hoped that it would be repaired in a few days.


Flight, November 6, 1909

Herr Grade Wins a Prize.

  AFTER long and patient experimenting, Herr Grade has at last met with success, and last Saturday succeeded in winning the Lanz Prize of L2,000, easily fulfilling the conditions required. These were that the aviator must be of German nationality and use a German built machine, and describe a figure " 8" round two posts placed a kilometre apart. Herr Grade's machine, as will be seen from our photograph, appears like a combination of the latest Bleriot and Antoinette machines, the aviator sitting below the main planes. On the following day Herr Grade had his monoplane out again at Johannistal and made four flights, the first three of 3 mins. 45 secs, 14 mins. 30 secs., and 4 mins. 55 secs, respectively, while the last was of one turn round the course. From this it would seem that at last Herr Grade had overcome his difficulties and evolved a successful machine.


Flight, December 11, 1909

THE GRADE MONOPLANE.

  ALTHOUGH in Germany attention has been almost entirely directed to the development of dirigibles, yet the past year has produced one machine with which some very good results have been obtained. It is the invention of Herr Grade, an engineer of Berlin, who has been patiently working away at the problem for some considerable time. His first machine was a triplane, but as a result of his experiments, Herr Grade gradually modified his designs until the successful flyer was evolved in the form of a monoplane, which in silhouette combines several features of the Bleriot and Antoinette machines. Our readers will remember that Herr Grade's first success was obtained during the last few days of last year, when he was able to rise in his machine to an altitude of one metre and cover distances varying between 100 and 400 metres. After that followed a long period of patient experimenting with but little visible result, and it was not until the early part of last September that Herr Grade came prominently into public notice again. He transferred his monoplane to the Mars flying ground, to the south-west of Berlin, and made three short flights, each of a mile and a half in length. Then success followed rapidly, and Herr Grade has gradually improved his record until on November 15th he remained aloft for 54 minutes, during which he occasionally rose as high as 100 metres. One of his most notable performances was the winning of the Lanz prize of L2,000 for the first German-built aeroplane to describe a figure "8" round two posts placed a kilometer apart. This Herr Grade successfully accomplished on October 30th. Although he has had one or two tumbles Herr Grade has only experienced one serious accident, and that was due to the propeller breaking when the machine was flying at a height of 30 metres.
  With regard to the machine itself, of which we are enabled to give scale drawings this week, it will be noticed that the planes are mounted on a framework built up of steel tubing and carried on three wheels, which are fitted with pneumatic tyres. This framework is remarkably simple, consisting as it does of the triangular front frame and the tube which forms the backbone of the apparatus. This latter member, as can be seen in the plan, is attached to the front frame by a forked end, and this fork carries the main-planes, and is also continued forward to serve as engine bearers. The main planes are strengthened by wire stays, of which those on the upper side meet at the apex of the vertical front-frame, while those on the under-side are attached to the hub-caps, on the Santos-Dumont method. Our photograph clearly shows the way in which the pilot sits below the main planes in a hammock seat suspended by springs from the framework. He controls the machine by warping the wings, by means of the hand lever, and by the tail, which is similar to that adopted by M. Santos Dumont on his little "Demoiselle." The flyer has an area of 208 square feet, and is fitted with a 4-cyl. air-cooled "V" motor, which is also the production of Herr Grade. This is of 24-h.p. and weighs 35 kilogs. The propeller is a two-bladed metal one, directly attached to the crank-shaft. A keel is fitted above the main plane and is continued behind the pilot's seat. That part of it on top of the machine is of inverted "V" section, as it follows the shape of the top portion of the front frame. Incidentally, therefore, it affords a covering for the pilot.

Herr Grade, the German aviator, who has been flying on his monoplane at the Mars Aerodrome, near Bork, for the Lanz prize.
The First All-German Flyer. - Herr Grade is seen in the above view on his monoplane during the flight on Saturday last at Bork, which secured for him the L2,000 prize offered by Herr Lanz for the first German to describe a figure "8" round two posts placed a kilometre apart.
THE GRADE MONOPLANE. - Front elevation.
THE GRADE MONOPLANE. - Side Elevation and Plan to scale.
Flight, April 3, 1909

An Indian Aeroplane.

  FROM India we have received an interesting photograph, which we reproduce on this page. It is sent by Engineer O. H. Drewe, of the Sarpukuria and Asansol Collieries, Ltd , Asansol, who writes as follows, under the date of March 10th : - "Herewith I forward a photograph of my aeroplane, which was taken after it smashed. I started down an inclined railway on top of a truck, and had scarcely gone 100 yards when the machine left the truck with me on board, and flew a distance of 20 yards. Unfortunately I had no motor, or would have made a much longer flight. I had twenty witnesses at my experiment."
First Indian Flyer, after a flight at Asansol, March 1st, 1909.
An Italian Monoplane - the Miller Aerocurve - built at Turin. - Inset is the machine as seen when in flight.
Flight, May 1, 1909.

PRESENT STATUS OF MILITARY AERONAUTICS.
By GEORGE O. SQUIER, Ph.D., Major, Signal Corps, U.S. Army.

REPRESENTATIVE AEROPLANES OF VARIOUS TYPES.

The "June Bug" (Fig. 25).

  The "June Bug" was designed by the Aerial Experiment Association, of which Alexander Graham Bell is president. It has two main superposed aerosurfaces with a spread of 42 ft. 6 ins., including wing tips, with a total supporting surface of 370 sq. ft.
  The tail is of the box type. The vertical rudder above the rear edge of the tail is 30 ins. square. The horizontal rudder in front of the main surfaces is 30 ins. wide by 8 ft. long. There are four triangular wing tips pivoted along their front edges for maintaining transverse equilibrium. The vertical rudder is operated by a steering wheel, and the movable tips by cords attached to the body of the aviator.
  The motor is a 25-h.p., 8-cyl., air-cooled Curtiss. The single wooden propeller immediately behind the main surfaces is 6 ft. 2 ins. in diameter, and mounted directly on the motor-shaft. It has a pitch angle of about 17°, and is designed to run at about 1,203 r.p.m.
  The total weight of the machine, with aviator, is 650 lbs. It has a load of about if lb. per sq. ft. of supporting surface. Two pneumatic-tyred bicycle wheels are attached to the lower part of the frame.
  With this machine, Mr. G. H. Curtiss, on July 4th, 1908, won the Scientific American trophy by covering a distance of over a mile in 1 min. 42 2/5 secs, at a speed of about 39 m.p.h.
Fig. 25. - "June Bug" Aeroplane. Hammondsport, N.Y., Aerial Experiment Association.
Flight, January 2, 1909

Flight Experiments in America.

THE Aerial Experiment Association are continuing their experimental work in America, and have just completed their fourth plane, which has been christened "Silver Dart." It follows very much the lines of the "June Bug," but is slightly smaller. The planes are 6 ft. across at the centre, where they are placed 6 ft. apart, diminishing to 4 ft. wide at the tips and 4 ft. apart. The spread of the wings, including the movable tips at each end, is 49 ft., and the total lifting area of the machine amounts to 420 sq. ft.; 15 ft. in front of the main planes there is a double elevating rudder, while at the rear # 11 ft. from the main planes # is the single vertical rudder. The wooden propeller is also at the rear, is 8 ft. in diameter, and driven at a speed of 1,000 revs, per min. by an 8-cyl. Curtiss motor. At each end of the main planes are fitted movable triangular planes which are controlled by the swaying of the operator's body. These "wing tips " have a total area of 40 sq. ft.
The "June Bug" has now been slightly remodeled and mounted on pontoons, so that experiments may be conducted upon the water. During some recent tests upon Lake Keuka at Hammondsport, N.Y., the machine, now known as the "Loon," covered 2 miles (1 mile with and 1 against a wind of 5 or 6 miles an hour) at an average speed of 27-06 miles per hour, but this was not sufficient to enable the apparatus to completely rise from the water. Further experiments are now being conducted with hydroplane hulls of various types.


Flight, March 6, 1909

The "Silver Dart" Flies 4 1/2 Miles.

SINCE the various flying machines of the American Aerial Experimental Association have been transferred from Hammondpont, N.Y., to Dr. Graham Bell's estate at Nova Scotia, the progress made, as we announced last week, has been very satisfactory, especially with the biplane "Silver Dart." On Wednesday of last week, the aeroplane, with Mr. Douglas McCurdy as aviator, made a flight of three-quarters of a mile in a straight line, and, in a second attempt, flew, at a speed of 40 miles an hour, for 4 1/2 miles, up and down Baddeck Bay and over the frozen waters of the Bras d'Or Lakes. The aeroplane seemed to be under perfect control, and at one time Mr. McCurdy caused the machine to rise, so as to clear the tops of some trees on a neck of land. The flight was brought to a conclusion because Mr. McCurdy found himself too close to the earth to effect a safe turning, so he therefore shut off the power and glided down to the ice. We gave a description of this aeroplane in our issue of January 2nd last, and our readers may remember that a feature of the machine is the movable wing tips, which are triangular in shape. The main planes are arranged in the form a distended ellipse.


Flight, March 27, 1909

The "Silver Dart" Wins the "Scientific American" Trophy.

  ON Thursday of last week, Mr. McCurdy made a successful attempt with the "Silver Dart" to win the Scientific American Trophy, which was first won by the "June Bug" last year. An 8 mile course was laid out, and Mr. McCurdy succeeded in circling round this course twice, the flight being witnessed by a member of the American Aero Club. At twilight on the same day, Mr. Baldwin, another member of the American Experimental Association, took Mr. McCurdy's place, and made a successful flight, thus demonstrating that the machine can be handled by more than one person. It may be remembered that in the early flights Mr. Curtiss was in charge.
Front view of the American Aerial Experiment Association's "Silver Dart," which achieved some fine flights in Nova Scotia last week.
THE WINNER OF THE "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN" TROPHY. - In the above photo the successful American aeroplane, "Silver Dart," is seen just preparing for a flight. Last week, by circling twice over an 8-mile course in this machine, Mr. McCurdy secured the "Scientific American" Trophy.
The Pilot of the "Silver Dart." - Mr. J. A. D. McCurdy, who has made the successful flights in this biplane, at the wheel of the flyer.
The Bates Aeroplane and a motor car lined up on Daytona Beach for the start of a "race" between them. No details as to the result have, as yet, come to hand.
Flight, February 27, 1909

A Tetrahedral Aeroplane.

  DR. GRAHAM BELL is continuing his experiments at Nova-Scotia, whither he has removed his machines from New York, and last Monday he made the first trials with his tetrahedral apparatus. This contains 3,690 tetrahedral cells, and, including the aeronaut and the 50-h.p. motor, weighs 950 lbs. Unfortunately, very shortly after the machine had risen in the air, the propeller-shaft sheered and the propeller dropped off, but the machine glided slowly down without sustaining any serious damage. The trial was made over the frozen Bras d'Or lake at Baddeck, the aeroplane being mounted upon sledge runners. The machine is known as "Cygnet II," and the operator was Mr. Douglas McCurdy.


Flight, March 20, 1909

Graham-Bell Tetrahedral Machine.

  ON Monday last, Dr. Graham-Bell's tetrahedral aeroplane "Cygnet II" was again tried over the ice at Baddeck, N.S., and although a speed of 15 miles per hour was attained, the machine failed to rise. Dr. Graham-Bell will now overhaul the apparatus and embody one or two improvements which have been worked out as a result of the experiments. It will be remembered that we published some particulars of this machine in our issue of February 27th.
THE GRAHAM-BELL TETRAHEDRAL AEROPLANE. - We reproduce above, from the "Scientific American," two views of the extraordinary aeroplane with which Dr. Graham Bell has been experimenting at Baddeck, N.S. On the left the apparatus is seen from the front, the vertical and horizontal rudders being prominent; while, on the right, the rear view of the machine shows the large wooden propeller, which is driven by an 8-cyl Curtiss motor.
Flight, June 26, 1909

THE BOKOR TRIPLANE.

  IN the accompanying photograph we illustrate the triplane with which Mr. Morris Bokor is experimenting at the American Aeronautic Society's grounds at Morris Park, New York. The three main planes measure 25 ft. from tip to tip, and are 6 1/2 ft. wide, giving a lifting surface of 507 sq. ft. A further 70 sq. ft. are obtained from the horizontal rudder, the dimensions of which are 14 ft. by 2 1/2 ft., while another addition is secured by the two planes which are mounted at a sharp dihedral angle behind the two upper main planes. The machine in going order with Mr. Boker on board weighs 1,181 lbs. The middle main plane is placed 5 ft. above the lower one, while the top one is 6 ft. from the one below it.
  Two 8-ft. wooden propellers, of 11 ft. pitch, are driven by chains from the 4-cylinder 4-in. motor, the gear ratio being 3 1/2 to 1. One special feature of the machine is that the aviator's seat is mounted on a pendulum, with the object of obtaining automatic stability. When the machine tips to one side or the other, the flexible rear edges of the main planes are warped by means of cables from the pendulum. Since this photograph was taken, the machine has been mounted on skids, and for starting it is mounted on a little four-wheeled truck, which is left behind when the machine rises in the air.
Flight, July 3, 1909

THE CURTISS BIPLANE.

AMERICA NOW POSSESSES ONE OF THE MOST INTERESTING FLYERS YET CONSTRUCTED: THE CURTISS BIPLANE BEING BUT LITTLE MORE THAN HALF THE WEIGHT OF THE WRIGHT MACHINE.

  VERY important and very interesting developments are taking place in America, and it is every day becoming more and more evident that the wonderful success of the Wright Brothers has inspired others in the field with the most intense desire to go one better along original lines. And of these enthusiasts there is no one who has yet done more than Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss, whose latest achievement is the evolution of what bids fair to be the most successful one-man flyer which has yet been built. By a "one-man" machine, we mean a flyer which is essentially designed to carry the pilot alone, and is neither equipped nor capable of carrying a passenger. That is to say, the design of the machine and power plant have been cut down as low as it has been considered safe, in order to reduce the weight and to render possible a machine which is only a fraction of the size of those made by the Wrights and Voisin.
  Comparatively few have experimented in this direction, and yet it is not only one of the most attractive sides of flying machine design, but it is also at the same time one of the most scientific, comparable in a sense to that period in motoring when the cleverest engineers in the movement were devoting their energies to the building of weight-limit racers.

The One-Man Type.

  One of the keenest of sportsmen on the subject of small machines is Santos Dumont; in fact, he is a little inclined to affect the Lilliputian scale altogether, for his "Demoiselle" flyers are just a little too skimpy to be representative of a sound constructive type at the moment. In this country Mr. A. V. Roe is attempting to fly with a bicycle engine mounted on a heavier sort of machine, and it has thus been left to Mr. Curtiss in America to evolve what may be termed the first rational type of one-man machine, although even in his flyer we are of the opinion that the power plant which is said to be capable of 30-h.p. has been designed on unnecessarily generous lines, and that it might have led to a much greater achievement had the same skill been exercised in the design of an engine of but little more than half that power.
  The weight of the engine itself without its accessories is only 85 lbs. The radiator, magneto, &c, add another 107 lbs., and thus bring the power plant complete up to 192 lbs., which is still considerably below anything of this power actually in successful use. It is, of course, very easy to understand why a pioneer of a new type does not want to take too many risks simultaneously, and having, as Curtiss has, cut down the supporting area of the main plane to 272 sq. ft., whereas those on the Wright flyer are about 560 sq. ft., it is perhaps not to be wondered at that he should hardly desire in the first instance to take risks - also with the engine.

The Designer and His Associates.

  To our readers who have followed the progress of flight in America, Mr. Curtiss' name is already well known, for it will be remembered that he was associated with the design and construction of the flyers which were built by the Aerial Experiment Association, of which Dr. Alex. Graham Bell was President. Of these machines the "June Bug" and "Silver Dart "are those which have been most successful. This association is now dissolved, but Mr. Curtiss is still associated with Mr. A. M. Herring in his designs.
  Mr. Herring is a pioneer who, to the newcomers in the world of flight, is perhaps less well-known by the name than he ought to be, for it should never be forgotten that Herring commenced his flight experiences while working as assistant to the famous Chanute, whose gliders he for the most part piloted. After leaving Chanute, Mr. Herring still continued his researches, and as far back as 1897, proceeded to equip a double deck machine with an engine and propeller, with the idea of definitely achieving horizontal flight. At first he built a petrol engine, but it was not altogether successful. Then he made a compressed air engine with which he is reported to have acheived some short flights, and finally he built a steam engine. This was in the days before the petrol engine, as it is now known, had been evolved to the degree of perfection which has now enabled him to participate in the design of one which develops 30-h.p. in 85 lbs. weight.
  It is also reported that Captain T. S. Baldwin, who made the U.S.A. Army dirigible "No I," assisted the two partners in the design of the motor.

The Owners of the Curtiss Flyer.

  The present machine, which is the first that Mr. Curtiss has built since the cessation of the Aerial Experiment Association, has been constructed with a view to its being taken over by the Aeronautic Society, who will retain it for the use of members for their sport and experiment, if Mr. Curtiss performs preliminary trials with it which come up to their expectation. Already several successful flights have been made at Hammondsport, the longest being a 3-mile journey over a figure of eight course. Since then, however, the machine has been transferred to the grounds of the Aeronautic Society at Morris Park, where further trials are in progress. The price which the Aeronautic Society have agreed to pay is $5,000.

Constructional Features.

  The Curtiss flyer is a biplane having two decks spaced 5 feet apart by laminated shuts, which, like the main spars, are of Oregon spruce. Each deck is 28 ft. 9 in. span, and has a chord of 4 ft. 6 in. The decks are considerably cambered, the maximum height of the curvature being about one-ninth the chord. Baldwin rubberised silk, similar to that employed in the U.S.A. Army dirigible "No. 1," is used as surfacing, and the fabric is mounted in sections, those at the outside being fastened by a system of lacing. The fabric is stretched as tight as possible, and its rigidity is augmented by spruce ribs. The decks are single surfaced, and the ribs are enclosed in pockets sewn to the upper side of the fabric. These ribs overlap the rear spar and form a flexible trailing edge, through which a wire is run for bracing purposes. When at rest on the ground the chord of the decks is inclined at an angle of about 6- to the horizon, but this does not represent the horizontal flight position. The angles of entry and trail have not been made known.
  The aspect ratio, i.e., ratio of span to chord, is 6.4, which is fairly high value, and should result in correspondingly good lift efficiency.
  At the extremities, the rear edges of the main decks have their corners cut away, similarly in the centre, where this is done in order to accommodate the propeller. It will be observed that the main decks are in no way arched on the present machine, as they were on the earlier Curtiss designs.

Supplementary Surfaces.

  Extending fore and aft to a distance of 10 ft. 6 ins., from the edges of the main decks are two triangular outrigger frames, carrying the elevator and tail.
  The elevator consists of a pivoted biplane of 6 ft. span by 2 ft. chord, and having an area, therefore, of 24 sq. ft, or less than one-eleventh of the total area. This is a smaller ratio than exists in the large machines.
  Between the decks of the elevator, and also extending a little above the top deck, is a triangular prow, which serves the purpose of a cutwater to give sensitiveness to direction.
  On the other outrigger which extends rearwards, is a horizontal tail of 12 sq. ft., and a vertical rudder of 6 ? sq. ft. area divided into two parts so that it is symmetrical above and below the tail.
  In addition to these supplementary surfaces, there are two others situated between the extremities of the main decks, where they serve the same purpose as is performed by warping on the Wright machine. These balancing planes, as they may be called, have each the same dimensions (2 ft. by 6 ft.) as the decks of the elevator and tail, and it will be noticed on reference to our drawing that they extend some little distance beyond the extremities of the main planes, although the greater part of their area is between decks. This feature we consider to be of very considerable importance on the score that it is questionable practice to put supplementary planes of this description between the main decks, both because it tends to throttle the gap and thereby possibly interfere with the lift efficiency, while conversely the decks themselves may be expected to have a restricting influence on the action of the righting planes when they are tilted or dipped. The fact that a portion of the righting planes on the Curtiss flyer are quite outside the extremities of the main planes is therefore a detail which should not be overlooked.

The Chassis.

  The machine as a whole is mounted upon a three-wheeled chassis, of which the framework is made of wood. Two of the wheels are placed immediately beneath the lower deck of the main planes, while the third is mounted on an outrigger some distance in front. All wheels are shod with 20-in. diam. pneumatic tyres.

Control.

  The system of control on the Curtiss biplane is naturally much the same in its essential features as that on other machines of the type. Steering to the right or left is accomplished by a joint manipulation of the righting planes and the rudder, which may be employed either in the same or in opposite senses, according as it is required to increase or minimise the cant. Longitudinal oscillations are damped out by the elevator, and any tendency to capsize is checked by using the balancing planes. Ascent and descent automatically accompany variations in engine power, although the elevator can be used as a means of producing temporary jumps for adjusting the line of flight.
  The operating mechanism by means of which the pilot is enabled to perform these various manoeuvres, consists of a steering wheel and a lever formed by the pivoted back of his seat, which has extensions embracing his shoulders so that it can be operated by a swaying motion of his body. The steering wheel is mounted on a sliding shaft, and is pulled and pushed bodily to and fro for the purpose of tilting and dipping the elevator. Turning the steering wheel upon its axis operates the rudder, and swaying the pilot's body to the right or left controls the righting planes.

Power Plant.

  Some mention has already been made of the engine, the power capacity of which is stated to be 30-h.p. at 1,200 r.p.m. It is a petrol motor of the 4-cyl type, the cylinders being cast separately, and with a thickness of only 5/32 in. Set diagonally in the heads are the inlet and exhaust valves, both of which are operated by a single pivoted rock lever, controlled from a double acting tappet rod.
  Surrounding the cylinders are copper-jackets fastened in place with welded joints. On one end of the camshaft is a gear wheel water pump and from the other end a Bosch high-tension magneto is driven through spur gearing. In the centre an oil pump is driven, but splash lubrication is also provided in the crank chamber. The radiator carries 2 gallons of water and the fuel tank 2 1/2 gallons of petrol.
  Direct coupled to the crank-shaft is a two-bladed propeller 6 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. pitch. At 1,200 r.p.m. it develops a thrust of 180 lbs., which is considerably in excess (it is conceivably twice as much) of that required for horizontal flight.

Materials.

  Timber is employed throughout in the construction of the Curtiss biplane, and for the most part the selected wood is Oregon spruce, although it is a feature of the details that some parts of the elevator and tail are made of bamboo. The main spars and ribs of the main deck are of spruce, and the propeller is also of this material. The surfacing consists, as mentioned elsewhere, of Baldwin rubberized silk.

Weights and Dimensions.

  All the principal dimensions, together with the leading weights, will be found on the accompanying drawing, and some have already been referred to in the text above. The engine alone weighs 85 lbs., the magneto 12 1/2 lbs., the radiator 40 lbs. Altogether the accessories bring the engine weight up to 192 lbs. The weight of the machine mounted is 550 lbs., so that as a glider it would weigh mounted 358 lbs., and allowing 170 lbs. for the pilot, the machine alone comes out at 188 lbs., which is an amount that ought to have given the constructors a fair chance of making a sound strong job of their work.

THE CURTISS BIPLANE. - General view of the machine on terra firma, showing the elevator in front of the main decks. The camber of the decks is particularly well shown in this view, which should be compared with the drawing.
THE CURTISS BIPLANE IN FLIGHT. - Snapshot taken during one of the successful trial flights which Mr.Curtiss himself made at Hammondsport before handing his machine over to the Aeronautic Society at Morris Park. The photograph shows the flyer at a height of 100 feet above the ground.
THE CURTISS AERO-MOTOR. - General view of the 4-cyl. Curtiss engine used on the Curtiss biplane. The cylinders are 5/32 in. thick, and have copper jackets. The weight, without magneto, is 85 lbs.
CURTISS BIPLANE. - Elevation and plan showing the leading constructional features and dimensions of the Curtiss biplane, which has been made in America by Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss in conjunction with Mr. A. M. Herring. It should be noted that the weight of the machine mounted is only 550 lbs., and that it is fitted with a particularly light engine. Instead of warping the main decks as on the Wright machine, lateral control is obtained by independent balancing planes.
Flight, June 26, 1909

THE KIMBALL AEROPLANE.

  ANOTHER aeroplane with which experiments are being made at Morris Park is that of Mr. Wilbur M. Kimball, the Secretary of the Society, to which we referred in our issue of April 10th. It is of the biplane type, and is peculiar for the fact that it has eight propellers, 3 ft. 10 in. in diam., arranged between the planes, as seen in our photograph. The drive is by wire rope 1/8- inch in diameter, and the propellers are arranged in two sets of four, which are driven at a speed of 1,600 revs, per minute by a 4-cylinder motor 4-in. bore 4-in. stroke. From tip to tip the wings have a spread of 37 ft., and are 6J ft. wide, and placed 4 ft. 2 ins. apart. A special feature is the square tips 4 ft. by 4 ft., which are used for steering instead of flexing the wings. The planes of the elevator, which is fitted 9 ft. 9 ins. in advance of the main planes, measure 12 ft. by 12 1/2 ft., the distance between the two surfaces being 3 ft.
KIMBALL BIPLANE. - Multiple propellers between the planes, and the steering tips at both ends of the main planes, are the notable features of this American machine.
Flight, July 17, 1909

THE MORRIS PARK MEETING.

  CONSIDERABLE success attended the meeting of the American Aeronautic Society's flight exhibition in the grounds of Morris Park, for although the actual flying was confined to the exhibitions of Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss, the fact remains that flight took place, and that visitors turned up in their thousands to see the sport. As we announced last week, Mr. Curtiss easily carried off the prize offered for a flight of a kilometre in length. In fact, he did far more than was necessary to fulfil any such condition, and altogether succeeded in showing the Aeronautic Society that they had every reason to suppose they had secured a good thing in their latest acquisition, for, as our readers know, they are to buy the Curtiss flyer for the use of their members.
  Of the other demonstrations which were given, the most notable was that made by Mr. Martin on a motor-towed glider. His experiments afforded one more example of the foolhardiness of tests of this character, for we have always maintained that there is little or nothing to be learned through being towed behind a car in this manner, and that a great deal of unnecessary risk attaches to the operator. Merely regarded as a method of initial ascent, the exigencies of the situation may doubtless justify the means, but as a test in itself the towing of a glider behind a car is absolutely inconclusive. The presence of the tow-rope is a restriction on the operation of the machine, and a menace to what natural stability it may possess. Indeed the conditions do not represent the problems of flight in the least. Mr. Martin at Morris Park was no more successful than others have been before him at this game, for he ended up his short and erratic aerial journey by being pitched off his machine over a picket fence, which the machine itself demolished.
  Apart from the actual demonstrations, various devices were on view for the inspection of visitors, and as there was mostly sufficient wind, a certain amount of diversion was created by kite-flying amongst the youngsters.
The scene at Morris Park Race Track, New York, during the aeronautical experiments arranged under the auspices of the American Aeronautic Society. The machine seen in the picture is the Martin glider.
One of the events in connection with the American Aeronautic Society's experiments was the testing of the Martin glider by towing it into action behind a motor car. The machine came to grief, and our picture shows the glider at the critical moment.
A low glide on the 1901 model. Often the machine was only a few inches from the ground.
A high glide with the 1901 model, which had neither tail nor rudder, steering being effected by warping the wings.
Testing a Glider by Soaring. - The above view shows the glider soaring stationary in the wind. The machine shown is the early 1902 model, with the fixed double tail before it was converted into a rudder.
Launching the 1902 glider on 10 October. Orville is piloting, and Wilbur is at the starboard wingtip. Note the single, fixed vertical rear rudder.
Turning to the right. A view from behind of the later 1902 model after it had its rear tail converted into a rudder.
At close range, showing very clearly the exact position occupied by Wilbur Wright in gliding. The machine illustrated is the 1902 model fitted with a rudder.
Flight, January 2, 1909

THE WRIGHT AND VOISIN TYPES OF FLYING MACHINE.
A COMPARISON BY F. W. LANCHESTER.

The Wright Machine-Origin and Description.

  The Wright machine can, metaphorically speaking, trace its ancestry back to the gliding apparatus of Otto Lilienthal; according to Gustave Lilienthal (brother of the famous aeronaut) two Lilienthal machines were sent to the United States, one to Octave Chanute, the other to Herring; Chanute and Herring are said to have been associated in their experimental work. The gliding machine, originated by Lilienthal, was improved, especially as to its structural features and its method of control, successively by Chanute and the Brothers Wright, until the latter, by the addition of a light weight petrol motor and screw propellers, achieved, for the first time in history, free flight in a man-bearing machine propelled by its own motive power.
  The Wright machine of the present day weighs complete, when mounted by aeronaut, 1,100 lbs. (500 kilogs.), and has a total supporting surface measuring approximately 500 sq. ft., the ordinary maximum velocity of flight is 40 miles per hour or 58 ft. per sec. (= 64 kiloms. per hour). The aerofoil consists of two equal superposed members of 250 sq. ft. each, the aspect ratio (lateral dimension in terms of fore and aft), is 6'2, the plan form is nearly rectangular, the extreme ends only being partially cut away and rounded off. The auxiliary surfaces consist of a double horizontal rudder placed in front, and a double vertical rudder astern, also two small vertical fixed fins of half-moon shape, placed between the members of the horizontal rudder. The total area of these auxiliary surfaces is about 3 of that of the aerofoil, or say 150 sq. ft.
  The Wright machine is propelled by two screws of 8 ft. 6 in. diameter (2-6 metres), and so far as the author has been able to estimate the effective pitch is somewhat greater, being about 9 ft. or 9 ft. 6 ins. These propellers are mounted on parallel shafts 11 ft. 6 ins. (3'5 metres) apart, and are driven in opposite directions by chains direct from the motor shaft, one chain being crossed. The number of teeth of the sprocket-wheels, counted by the author, gave the gear ratio 10 : 33.
  The motor is of the 4-cyl. vertical type, the cylinder dimensions being variously given as from 106 to 108 mm. diameter by 100 to 102 mm. stroke, the probable dimensions being in inches 4 1/4 in. by 4 in. The total weight of the motor is reported to be 200 lbs. (90 kilogs.), and its power is given as 24 b.h.p. at a normal speed of 1,200 revs, per min. According to another source of information it is capable at a speed of 1,400 revs, of developing 34 b.h.p.; the two statements do not altogether agree.
  In conversation, the author understood Mr. Wright to say that he could fly with as little as 15 or 16-h.p., and that his reserve of power when unaccompanied amounted to 40 per cent. His gliding angle he said was about 7 degrees.


Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Wright."

  Full-sized model, not intended for trial purposes, constructed by Chantiers de France at Dunkirk for the Comp. Generale de Navigation Aerienne, of which M. Lazare Weiller - who bought the French patents from the Wrights - is a director. The sales are controlled by M. Michel Clemenceau - son of the well-known Minister - who states that he has already disposed of no fewer than thirty two machines. The first models are to be ready in February, and will be tested at Cannes, where M.Clemenceau has selected his trial ground. The machines are to be fitted with 25-h.p. Wright engines, made by Messrs. Bariquand and Marre; the transmission is by chains, one crossed and the other direct, to two wooden propellers, as on Wright's own machine. The control is by two levers. One lever, that on the pilot's right, is moved sideways to steer, by the rudder and by warping the wings, while another lever to the left controls the elevator. The warping is done by diagonal wires attached to the rear corners of both main planes, and the maximum deflection is about 15 cms. Both planes warp the same way at the same extremity of the machine, but opposite extremities move in contrary directions. The front edges of both planes are unaffected except, perhaps, indirectly.


Flight, February 6, 1909

WRIGHT BROTHERS' NEW ELEVATOR.

  THE Brothers Wright have had granted to them in America a patent for a new elevator, which was filed as an improvement on their patent of May 22nd, 1906. The idea embodied in the new invention is that of rendering the elevator more effective by causing its surface to automatically camber as it moves from its normal position. The accompanying drawing, reproduced from the specification, shows very clearly a method of putting the principle in practice.
  The elevator illustrated is of the biplane type, having two simple flat surfaces, A, coupled together by hinged struts, A', and pivoted at A3 to a rigid vertical frame, B. Fastened to the struts, A1, is a longitudinal beam, C, which is pivoted about a centre, C, so that it can be swung into any position by suitable mechanism operated from the lever, C3. The support for the pivot, C1, is provided by the frame, B, but it will be noticed that its centre is not in the same plane as the pivots, A2, which form the attachment of the elevator surfaces. Consequently, while the surfaces, A, remain perfectly flat in their normal horizontal position, they become cambered so soon as they are either tilted or dipped by the action of the operating mechanism. It will be noticed, moreover, that the surfaces are not pivoted midway between their front and rear edges, and consequently the inclination of the rear part of the frame is greater than that in front.


Flight, February 27, 1909

King Alfonso and the Wrights.

So His Majesty Alfonso XIII of Spain did not make a flight with the Wrights after all, for, like a good many married men of less august degree, he found himself bound, so report has it, by a promise to Queen Eugenie Victoria that he would upon this occasion sink his personal desires in deference to her anxious fears for his safety. There is no doubt, however, that His Majesty managed to impart a great deal of interest into his part of spectator when he motored over to see Wilbur Wright fly, as he did on Saturday of last week, February 20th. Nothing contented him but that he should have the whole mechanism and the operation thereof fully explained to him, and that he might get a better appreciation of the reality of things, he absorbed his lesson seated on the machine with Wright beside him. The visit was paid to the aerodrome quite early in the morning; in fact, the King left his hotel soon after nine o'clock, motoring over in a 150-h.p. Delahaye belonging to M. Jose Quinones de Leon, the exhibition flights being concluded by half-past ten. Wilbur Wright elected to make a flight directly His Majesty arrived, and he remained in the air for 28 mins.; half of this time he was actually out of sight, and some of the spectators began to express fears of a mishap. Before landing, Wilbur Wright executed several figures of eight in front of the King, who was undoubtedly immensely impressed by the spectacle, and wholeheartedly congratulated the American on his wonderful accomplishment. His Majesty expressed a wish to see a passenger flight, and Wilbur Wright thereupon invited the Count de Lambert to accompany him on a flight which lasted twenty minutes. Before leaving the Pont Long ground, His Majesty honoured the Wrights by an invitation to lunch with him at the hotel, and it is said that they are to be created Commanders of the Order of Isabel the Catholic. An officer of the Spanish Army will, in all probability, be entered as a pupil of the Brothers Wright, as the Spanish Government is said to contemplate purchasing one of these machines.


Flight, March 20, 1909

HOW WILBUR WRIGHT RIDES THE WIND.
By H. MASSAC BUIST.

  WE had turned the car off the road into the enclosure at Pont Long and were in the act of alighting to thread our way out of the long string of other vehicles, the owners of which had preceded us on to the practice ground, when a whirring noise overhead and the casting of a shadow for an instant caused us to gaze upwards. At that moment the 40-foot broad biplane, the appearance of which has been rendered familiar throughout the world by photographic and other reproductions innumerable, swept over our heads not more than 20 feet above the tops of the cars. There were two men on the machine, and it was the pupil, the Comte de Lambert, who was controlling the machine. It was his eighteenth lesson, and at that time he had been practising for a total of not more than four hours. Yet the master seated beside him was allowing him not to cross the line of vehicles, but to fly deliberately over and along it, so that it would have been absolutely impossible to have alighted quickly without disaster.
  That was my first glimpse of the Wright aeroplane in actual flight. By the time we had walked a couple of hundred yards or so to the huge brown shed the lesson had been voluntarily concluded by bringing the machine to earth hard by the starting rail, in readiness to be mounted and launched on another flight with another pupil aboard.
  What happens when Wilbur Wright wants to fly? Perhaps the best course will be to endeavour to give a more or less consecutive account of the processes gone through. When the big doors of the reddish-brown shed have been rolled back, the four-year-old aeroplane is revealed, with all the woodwork rendered resplendent with aluminium paint, with which the propellers are also treated. This is not for ornament, but is a precautionary measure, because long use in all sorts of weathers having rendered the woodwork dirty, it has been found that the coating of aluminium paint serves the dual purpose of a preservative and a means of throwing any cracks or fractures into relief. The back of the machine faces the opening of the shed, and as soon as the biplane, which is mounted on two wheels, is drawn into the open, one notices that the canvas is worn and torn, soiled and burnt, patched and stained, and tattooed with tintacks. There are stretches as big as a towel that have been sown and tacked on because the original fabric has been destroyed by one means or another. On the other hand, there are bits in the canvas that have evidently been burnt through by placing a lighted cigar or cigarette on them. Such trifles, however, do not worry the Wrights, for they do not fly by a hair's breadth, as it were, but in virtue of having devised a system that works.
  As you follow the little party of half-a-dozen or so who push the weather-stained machine to the starting rail, one or two things strike you as being rather peculiar. In the first place, you notice that it is being bumped about a good bit. So you glance over the Champ d'Aviation. Regarded as an expanse of over four miles in circumference, it certainly answers to the description of flat land; but when any part of it is considered in detail, it is impossible to discover a single square yard of level. It is composed of a series of close-set hummocks or mounds, some almost hemispherical and anything from a foot to 20 ins. in diameter and from 6 ins. to 16 ins. high. Certainly no aeroplane fitted with wheels could be run over or let down on such country. Accordingly, it is not surprising to learn that the Pau authorities have leased another and smoother ground nearer the city for the use of those experimenters whose flying machines are fitted with wheels. Yet the Wright aeroplane has not a single spring, pneumatic cushion or other shock-absorber of any sort, whereas all the wheel machines employ means of deadening the shock of landing even on smooth ground.
  When the American aeroplane is placed on the starting-rail, an examination of it proves that the reports that have been put abroad to the effect that it is crudely built are not borne out in fact. The design is extremely simple and bold, and there is not the slightest hint of "finnikiness" anywhere; but the work is all quite well finished. Indeed, the only feature that can have given rise to so utterly misleading a report is the evidences of age and use that the machine bears. Truth to tell, it is a wonderfully handy piece of mechanism, for quite apart from the use that has been made of it, there is no brittle thing that can be hurt by handling, as the French machines evidently are, to judge by the black looks you receive if you lay a finger on them. No one minds in the least if you lend a hand in manoeuvring the Wright machine on to the starting-rail; nor does anybody instruct you to catch hold of it here and not to touch it there.
  The much discussed starting apparatus, that has been dispensed with on more than one occasion, though never publicly, is a light version of the ancient Roman instrument for hurling missiles. Should need arise, a couple of men can move it from one part of the ground to another. The 75-foot rail is the only part that needs to be changed. It is laid in one or other of three directions, according to the wind, the work of changing it over occupying about twelve minutes, so that it is a common thing to hear Wilbur Wright instruct his mechanic to have the rail changed to another direction immediately he has launched the aeroplane in flight, so that everything may be in readiness by the time he has given one pupil a lesson. The rail itself is a very flat piece of iron, laid on a piece of wood, that is admirably illustrated in the photograph published on page 128 (March 6th). The woodwork raises the rail to approximately nine inches off the ground. Only two ball-bearing wheels, made solid and of about three inches in diameter, are employed. They are set one in front of the other, bicycle fashion, and spaced about a foot apart; very slight flanges are furnished to keep the wheels on the rail. The starting bogie consists of a beam just long enough to reach from one runner of the aeroplane to the other, and affixed midway, in swivel fashion, to the support on which the wheels are mounted, so that when on the rail the aeroplane can be turned round with the utmost ease.
  The placing of the machine on the starting bogie occupies scarcely more than a minute, one of the single wheel trolleys on which the machine is drawn about the field, being left under the planes during the preliminary proceedings- that the aeroplane may remain stable. If it chances to be your first visit to Pau, you may doubt if Mr. Wright will ever go up, so long do the preparations usually take him. The brothers and their assistants never seem to be working against time. But if you had been to Pont Long you would be well aware that there is only one signal which Mr. Wright gives, and which invariably means that a flight is about to commence. Until the starting-weights begin to be raised off the ground you never know whether he will order the machine back to the shed without making a flight. But the moment his willing helpers begin pulling at the rope, you may rest assured that within the next ten minutes the machine will be rushing along the starting-rail.
  Oil-can in hand, with pockets bulging with "waste" and twine, a screw-driver, a wrench, and other less indispensable tools, Wilbur Wright, clad in a suit the trousers of which have plainly long been strangers to the press, and having a motor cyclist's type of leather coat over his jacket, usually begins proceedings by giving a rapid glance over the whole machine. Then he will climb over the slack tangentially-set wires and stand in front of the machine, brother Orville joining him. "Right," he will say to the mechanics, one of whom stands behind each screw. "One, two, three," is the signal, at which they put pressure on the handiest blade, thereby turning the engine over, two or three attempts being usually needed to start the motor. The men have to be alert to get their hands clear of the propellers the instant they begin to turn, at which moment some onlookers have usually to be warned to move out of the line of the revolving blades, which are so broad at the extremities that being six feet in diameter, and turning at not more than 450 revs, a min., can be just detected if one fixes the gaze on a given spot above the upper plane. To obviate the likelihood of the blades ever striking the ground, they have been raised slightly above their former position, so that they extend above the upper plane and do not reach down to the lower one. When first tried in the new position, it was found there was an inclination to thrust the machine downwards, but by altering the range of curvature of the front flexing planes for controlling the flight path, and by making sundry other minor adjustments, matters were found to work satisfactorily. The relatively enormous size of these propellers by comparison with the French ones, as well in the matter of diameter as of surface, is extraordinary, quite apart from the great pitch that they have and from the fact that two propellers revolving in opposite directions are employed in place of one as generally exploited by the French school, many of the foremost members of which, however, are now inclining to use two propellers, even as in biplanes they are having to space them two metres apart, which the Wrights all along maintained was the closest possible distance without losing efficiency through the compression of the air by the bearing of the upper plane being communicated to the upper surface of the lower plane. The relatively little disturbance of air caused by the revolving Wright propellers cannot but impress anybody who has watched other machines. The Americans seem to disturb only that amount of air which is necessary for the actual propulsion of their machine, there being seemingly no churning to waste.
  Anybody accustomed to seeing a petrol motor run in a chassis, or on a bench, receives a shock on beholding the engine start in the Wright aeroplane. "Shiver my timbers!" you exclaim, instinctively, as it appears to bounce and wriggle about on the pliant frame. When it is running slowly at the start, it seems inevitable that its breaking adrift can be a matter of minutes only. Yet if you try to follow the vibrations to any extremity of the machine you will fail to do so. The shocks caused by the power pulses are quite absorbed before they reach the extremities of the main planes, or the flight path control planes forward, or the vertical rudders behind. Then it begins to dawn on you that this non-rigid type of biplane, with its extraordinarily simple and ingenious design for resisting shocks at those points where they are likely to be received, has really no need of coil springs, pneumatic shock-dampers, combinations of levers and other guess contrivances. The scheme allows plenty of play, and you do not see anybody making wires taut, as in the case of the rigid French-built machines.
  Having run the motor for a while, during which he has been busy with an oil-can, Wilbur Wright may ask for some hot water. "Don't suppose there's any," says the mechanic, strolling off. "What about that they were making tea with?" shouts Wilbur after him. "Go and ask the chef fellow." Meantime he gets busy with a spanner, hangs his watch up on one of the struts that heads from the runners to the upper main plane, and calls out, "Smoke, somebody, please." Immediately half-a-dozen responsive puffs enable him to see the exact extent to which the wind has veered round during his testing. The hot water being now forthcoming, and thick grease having been stuffed into the guide tubes through which the propeller chains pass, Wilbur strides down the starting-rail in his tremendously energetic manner to the point where the rope tackle runs round the pulley wheel. Now you may come forward and lend a hand at the hauling, even as Mr. A. J. Balfour has delighted to do. As the weight begins to rise, you will hear a murmur from the roadway where the thousands who have not ten francs to spare for the privilege of entering the enclosed ground wait patiently, knowing that once the craft has been launched in the air, they will see its performances as well as any of the privileged ones.
  Wilbur walks slowly back along the rail with the releasing catch mechanism in his hand. Presently he climbs under the aeroplane and sets everything himself, nobody else ever being entrusted with this important business. It is not void of risk, though the only awkward incident that has ever occurred in this connection was when something missed, and Orville found himself and the machine rushing down the rail at forty miles an hour with the motor working and nobody aboard. That was in the early days in America. During the scurry, he managed to climb to the motor and stop it, but suffered a wrench to his shoulder that left it weak and stiff for a matter of eighteen months thereafter.
  "Who tied this up" asks Wilbur, pointing to something as he climbs out from under the machine. A mechanic having signified that he is responsible, also that he had no proper string. "Never you do that again," says Wilbur, adding, "Always go about with a ball of twine in your pocket."Producing one from his own, he calls over his shoulder, "Mr. Tissandier - you're elected," whereupon the famous little amateur balloonist quickly buttons up his coat, and seats himself in the place immediately beside the motor. Straightening his back as a relief from the bending posture, Wilbur jerks a glance towards the horizon as though actually viewing the wind, then, buttoning up his short leather overcoat, he casts a final rapid glance over the machine, from which Orville has never taken his eyes all this while, for both brothers are extremely careful that everything shall be absolutely right before the launching.
  An instant later Wilbur has taken his seat, with "Little Tissandier" between himself and the motor. He tugs the familiar old cap tight and low over his eyes, signals the mechanic to draw a supporting plank away from under the plane, grasps the long lever for controlling the elevation of the front planes with the left hand, feels for the release-catch with his right hand between his legs, nods to the mechanic to let go his hold of the wing by which he has been easily keeping the machine balanced, gives the release-catch a sudden jerk, and, with a whirr, the gigantic half-ton glider has started down the rail at 40 miles an hour. Before it has traversed the entire 75 feet it has passed the spot where the pulley-catch drops free. The instant it reaches the end of the rail. Wilbur changes his crouching attitude by throwing back his body to get the maximum power for pulling back the lever with his left hand to the utmost extent, so that the machine rises slightly as it leaves the rail, the bogie tumbling free on to the ground below at that instant.
  But the machine rarely rises into free flight immediately on clearing the rail; instead, it usually scrapes along the ground for 40 ft. or 50 ft., or even more, bumping from hummock to hummock, until you would declare it could not possibly rise, if only on account of the presumable braking effect. But the idea has scarcely come in mind to you than you perceive the machine to take a distinct upward set, whereupon it rises obviously clear of the ground, and there is no longer any doubt that the craft is actually flying. Having given the engine a little relief by allowing the machine to fly level for a few moments thereafter - for the motor only develops 24-h.p. at starting and lifts a half-ton machine and two men, which is assuredly a degree of proficiency out and away beyond the capacity of any other type of aeroplane at present known - it is again made to rise to any height between 16 ft. and 30 ft., for, with pupils aboard, it is usually kept within the bounds of the ground, and there is nothing like an aeroplane in flight for eating up distance, because it can travel straight. So, in a little you will espy the machine developing a cant, and as it leans over just like a bird, it will turn with equal ease and in relatively as small a compass by the warping of the outermost quarters of the two main planes to an extent that cannot be detected by the eye unless the wings chance to be so flexed, in opposite directions in synchronism, when the machine is brought to a standstill. In one of the illustrations in this issue, Mr. Griffith Brewer, who represents the Wright interests in this country, has shown the machine in the act of making a turn, one of the pupils being responsible for actuating the gauchissement, as the French term the wing flexing. That accounts for the comparatively slight tilt, for the pupils do not turn abruptly right away, as the Wrights can do by making the machine heel over to an angle of 450. This is something so startling to state that perhaps one is not completely convinced of the fact until one's own eyes have beheld it. The proceeding, however, is no out of the ordinary one, as a visit to Pont Long would quickly convince you. I have never seen a photograph taken close to the aeroplane, and depicting it tilting over to the full extent, yet I should fancy that, were one procurable, it would be the most picturesque aspect of an aeroplane flight possible to snapshot. But there are many difficulties in the way of getting such a snapshot, for you never know whereabouts Wilbur Wright will make one of his amazingly sudden turns; also, he does not allow photographers to go wandering about the field during flights.
  The exigencies of space are imperative, therefore many aspects of the amazing machine in flight cannot be discussed on the present occasion, when I will conclude by indicating how the pupils are taught. In the first place, the Wright machine is unique in that no learner need risk his life by finding out how to fly "all on his own." Instead, you get aboard in an ample seat beside a man who knows how to handle the machine, and learn your business as safely as though you were being taught how to drive a motor car.
  Has it ever struck you that MM. de Lambert, Tissandier, and Gerardville are learning how to drive the Wright aeroplane left-handed? That is because only one of the levers is duplicated, namely, that for actuating the front minor planes, which Wilbur Wright holds in his left hand, and the pair of which the pupil grasps with his right hand. Between them is the single lever for controlling the wing flexing and the rudders. It has a movement in all four directions and takes the place of two independent levers which Orville Wright prefers to employ. At first the pupil is only allowed to try to control the flight path by the use of the lever, which he grasps with his right hand. At the sixth lesson - they average about twenty minutes each - a quick learner like "Little Tissandier" will begin to try the gauchissement. This is to say, he places his left hand on top of Wilbur's right, and first feels, then tries to make the movements. In this position the elbows of master and pupil are in touch, so that the instant the teacher nudges to learner the latter desists, giving over all control to his instructor. That way safety lies. The rush of wind past the ears renders speaking impossible.
  And you may say that there is nothing more in learning to aeroplane than that and handling it as a glider without power applied. The pupils all tell you the machine is amazingly simple to handle. You may judge that from the fact that when he came to fly at Le Mans, Wilbur Wright had not had as much experience with a power-driven aeroplane as the Comte de Lambert had at his eighteenth lesson, by which time he had handled it for a total of about four hours only. In those circumstances is it any marvel that Wilbur's flight path was somewhat undulating when he began at Le Mans, feeling very nervous, very ill, and with the whole of his reputation at stake? Would you not expect to "wobble" when riding a bicycle for the first time in eighteen months, particularly if you were the first man who had ever balanced on one, so that you had to find out everything for yourself?
  But Wilbur Wright's first three pupils will not learn the machine left-handed, for they will sit in Wilbur's seat. And presently MM. de Lambert, Tissandier, and Gerardville will teach each the other how to handle the aeroplane from Wilbur's seat, so that in time they will be ambidextrous at the business.
  Of the niceties of manoeuvring in mid-air, the consummate ease with which the machine can become lost to view when scouting, the gracefulness of its circling and tiltings, its rises and its dips, the matter-of-courseness with which it is put to fly a measured kilom. just as you would drive a motor car past a mark; its excursions over woods and crowds of carriages and onlookers, the accuracy of its alighting at the very doors of the aerodock or beside the starting rail, and the astounding smoothness of its landings, are matters that must be discussed anon.


Flight, May 1, 1909.

PRESENT STATUS OF MILITARY AERONAUTICS.
By GEORGE O. SQUIER, Ph.D., Major, Signal Corps, U.S. Army.

REPRESENTATIVE AEROPLANES OF VARIOUS TYPES.

The Wright Brothers' Aeroplane (Figs. 14 to 23).

  The general conditions under which the Wright machine was built for the Government were, that it should develop a speed of at least 36 miles per hour, and in its trial flights remain continuously in the air for at least 1 hour. It was designed to carry two persons having a combined weight of 350 lbs. and also sufficient fuel for a flight of 125 miles. The trials at Fort Meyer, Virginia, in September of 1908, indicated that the machine was able to fulfil the requirements of the Government specifications.
  The aeroplane has two superposed main surfaces 6 ft. apart with a spread of 40 ft. and a distance of .6J ft. from front to rear. The area of this double supporting surface is about 500 sq. ft. The surfaces are so constructed that their extremities may be warped at the will of the operator.
  A horizontal rudder of two superposed main surfaces, about 15 ft. long and 3 ft. wide, is placed in front of the main surfaces. Behind the main planes is a vertical rudder formed of two surfaces trussed together about 5 1/2 ft. long and I ft. wide. The auxiliary surfaces, and the mechanism controlling the warping of the main surfaces, are operated by three levers.
  The motor, which was designed by the Wright Brothers, has four cylinders and is water-cooled. It develops about 25-h.p. at 1,400 r.p.m. There are two wooden propellers 8? ft. in diameter, which are designed to run at about 400 r.p.m. The machine is supported on two runners, and weighs about 800 lbs. A monorail is used in starting.
  The Wright machine has attained an estimated maximum speed of about 40 miles per hour. On September 12th, a few days before the accident which wrecked the machine, a record flight of 1h. 14m. 20s. was made at Fort Meyer, Virginia. Since that date Wilbur Wright, at Le Mans, France, has made better records; on one occasion remaining in the air for more than an hour and a half with a passenger.
  A reference to the attached illustrations of this machine will show its details, its method of starting, and its appearance in flight.


Flight, September 11, 1909

Orville Wright Flies 55 minutes at Berlin.

  LAST Saturday, Orville Wright had his flyer out again on the Tempelhof field and flew for 19 minutes. There was not a very large attendance of the public, probably due to the fact that Orville Wright did not take the air on the two previous days, when expectant crowds had been compelled to retire with their disappointment. On Tuesday afternoon a most successful flight, lasting 55 minutes, was witnessed by a very large concourse of people, while on Wednesday two trials were made, one of 35 mins. 56 secs., and a second of 17 mins., with Capt. Hildebrandt as passenger.


Flight, October 23, 1909

FLYING ROUND THE EIFFEL TOWER.

  JUST a glimpse of future possibilities of flight was accorded to Parisians on Monday, when Count Lambert demonstrated his complete confidence in his Wright flyer by leaving the Juvisy aerodrome and flying over Paris, and round, or rather circling above, the Eiffel Tower. He left the Juvisy aerodrome at 4.37, after rising by circling round till a height of well over 150 metres had been reached, and steered straight for the Eiffel Tower, steadily rising meanwhile.
  This reached, he turned round at an estimated height of about 100 metres above the Tower, which itself is 300 metres high. Only two persons, it appears, were aware of Count Lambert's intentions. No small wonder, therefore, was evinced when the Count was seen by the Juvisy crowd to dart away beyond the outskirts of the aerodrome and disappear towards Paris. Interested watchers not unnaturally supposed that he was simply indulging in a little cross-country flight of a couple of kiloms. to give a bit of sensation to the day's programme. But as time passed and there were no signs of his return, interest turned to anxiety for his safety. Nothing short of alarm soon arose, until at length, about half past five, he was once more discerned. A huge cheer went up, speedily followed by the calmest and most collected descent by the Count within 5 metres of his shed. His time for the round trip of about 30 miles was 59 mins. 39 secs.,and needless to say, on his return he was accorded a tremendous reception, in which Orville Wright, who happened to be present, joined. At a meeting held immediately afterwards it was decided to award a gold medal to Count Lambert, and M. Deutsch de la Meurthe announced that he would give 50,000 frs. to the Society d' Encouragement d'Aviation as an acknowledgment of what they had done at Juvisy.

The Wright Machine outside its shed.
Taking shelter under M. Lefebvre's Wright (No. 25) during a rainstorm at the Rheims Aviation Meeting.
Fig. 22. - Ready for the start Orville Wright and passenger, Fort Meyer, Va., September 12th, 1908.
WHY WOULDN'T SHE START? - Wilbur Wright tries the starting bogie along the rail to see if the ball-bearing wheels run free. On this occasion it was eventually found that the pulley-wheel at the top of the derrick had seized and jambed the rope. The group includes Orville Wright (extreme right) and the three pupils on the left.
TRYING' THE ENGINE. - Here you see Wilbur Wright, with his left-hand feeling the water-circulating pipe, and his right busy with an oil-can, Orville standing beside him suggesting and discussing in characteristic fashion. You may know the machine is not yet ready for flight because the starting weight has not been hauled up.
THE MOST TICKLISH PART OF THE BUSINESS. - Here is portrayed the final art of preparation, for the starting weight has just been hoisted, and Wilbur is about to climb out from under the machine, having fixed the rope catch. Once, in America, the catch went off unawares, and Orville had a narrow escape, his wracked shoulder being troublesome for months.
JUST OFF! - This snapshot was taken three seconds after Wilbur had polled the release catch. It shows you his "flying face" and characteristic crouch, with cap pulled well over the eyes, the gaze being fixed in the far distance. You see, too, how the front portion of the machine is slightly raised by the pull being nearly at the normal flying angle. As he reaches the end of the rail Wilbur will pull back the lever in his left hand with all his might to set the front planes at the maximum angle to the wind.
REMARKABLE PHOTOGRAPHS OF A WRIGHT FLYER TAKEN FROM A BALLOON. - In the lower picture the machine is ready at the derrick on the starting rail for the flight; and, in the upper photograph, the machine is in full flight, with!|two passengers on board. The majority of the watchers are military men, and, in the upper picture, in the distance, several visitors in their cars are noticeable watching the scene.
Mr. Frank K. McClean, a member of the Committee of the Aero Club, on his Short-Wright biplane just leaving the starting rail during one of bis recent successful flights at Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey.
Short-Wright biplane S.5 was the third of these built for F.K. McLean.
In England, six Wright Flyers were built under license by the Short brothers. Here, Mr. Francis Kennedy McClean takes off at Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, in his Short-Wright Model A late in 1909. A distinctive feature of the Short-built machines was the small skid protruding forward at each wingtip. In 1910 this machine was fitted with wheels and a fixed tailplane.
BEGINNING TO HEEL OVER, BIRD FASHION, TO MAKE A TURN. - Orville will explain to you that the turning is done more by warping the planes in opposite directions in synchronism than with the rudder. The machine is shown about to begin a turn, which is often effected with the aeroplane heeling over at an angle of 45 degrees. The road and the spectators are shown in the background. This photograph was taken by Mr. Griffith Brewer, the well-known balloonist.
WRIGHT FLYER DEVELOPMENTS. - It is but a very short time ago - little more than a year - that Wilbur Wright first publicly demonstrated his remarkable flyer in France, that the above photograph is of historic interest in connection with the information recorded elsewhere regarding the commercial development of the Wright flyer in America. The above shows him during his flight of 1h. 9m. 45fs. with M. Painleve, on October 11th, 1908, at Auvours, the culmiaating test in the contract with the French syndicate.
Wilbur Wright flying at Pau, with a passenger, on Saturday last, before the King of Spain, who is towards the front of the group watching the flight.
Orville on the 1907 Flyer at Fort Myer, Virginia, in the USA, September 9th, 1908. Although a fatal crash marred these acceptance tests for the US Army, they were successfully resumed and completed on the Signal Corps Machine during June and July 1909.
Fig-s. 19, 20 and 21. - Wright Brothers' Flyer, Fort Meyer, Va., September 12th, 1908, during its flight of 1h. 14m. 20s.
Fig 23. - Orville Wright and passenger, Fort Meyer, Va., September 12th, 1908. Time of flight, 9 mins. 6 sees.
FIRST FLIGHT IN BERLIN. - Orville Wright, on his flyer, making his first flight at the Tempelhof Field midst the intense enthusiasm of the crowd.
A FLIGHT AT THE RHEIMS AERODROME BY M. LEFEBVRE, THE MOST POPULAR AVIATOR OF THE MEETING, ON HIS WRIGHT BIPLANE. - M. Lefebvre is just passing round the Judges' box and the telegraph installation.
Last week M. Lefebvre's (in his Wright flyer) sudden swoop down in passing under M. Paulhan's machine was recorded and the effect upon an enterprising Press photographer mentioned. In the above photograph the moment of this incident is depicted, as secured by the brother "photo-fiend."
RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - A race in the air between M. Bunau Varilla on a Volsln biplane and, in the distance, M. Tissandier on one of his Wright ilyers.
JUVISY AVIATION WEEK. - M. Paulhan, on his Voisin biplane, and Count de Lambert (nearest), on his Wright flyer, during the contests at Port Aviation, near Paris, at the end of last week. General view of the aerodrome taken from the top of the Grand Stand.
Count Lambert's historical flight las Monday evening from Juvisy, round the top of the Eiffel Tower, and back.
The large Aero Dock at Pont Long, showing the large doors drawn back preparatory to taking out the biplane. Wilbur Wright is in the act of passing into the shed. The snapshot gives an admirable notion of his energetic walk. On the left are seen the windows of the dwelling rooms. On the right is the workshop where the machine with which the demonstrations to be made in Rome is partly in process of erection. The car in front is the Hon. C. S. Rolls' Rolls-Royce.
THE WRIGHT FLYER. - Special method of joining up the main framework and stays of the flyer, enabling it to be easily dismantled for transport.
Figs. 14 and 15. - Showing details of construction in the Wright Brothers' Flyer.
WRIGHT'S FLYER. - Showing the motor, tank, radiator, &c. Particularly noticeable are the transmission chains, running through the tubing, to the propellers, that on the left being crossed in order that the propellers may revolve in opposite directions to neutralise their disturbing influence on the balance of the machine.
Fig. 16. - Details of rear view of Wright Brothers' Flyer.
The 32-h.p. 4-cyl. Engine of the Wright Flyers, weight 87 kilogs.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
Interior of Short Brothers' principal erecting shop, where the British-built Wright flyers are in course of construction. Although hardly established three months in their new premises, Messrs. Short are already employing 80 men. The above shop is 140 ft. long by 45 ft. wide.
King Alfonso of Spain, last Saturday, in the passenger's seat of the Wright aeroplane, beside Wilbur Wright, the King of the Air, having the whole art of flying the machine explained to him by Wright.
The most interesting model at the Show was that of the Wright Flyer, of which the above illustration shows two views. The model, which was constructed by Messrs. T. W. K. Clarke, also included the starting apparatus.
SIR, - I have pleasure in enclosing photo of a model Wright machine, with starting derrick, I have just made. The machine is complete with warping mechanism to planes, &c. Yours faithfully, C. H. CRITTENDEN.
Wright Model
Diagrammatic plan of Count Lambert's flight.
The new Wright elevator
Flight, January 2, 1909

AEROPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.

Ader - A Pioneer.

  In the electrical world, the name of M. Ader is one of renown for his valuable work in connection with telephones; in the new realm of flight he has an almost equal claim to respect, for he was an early pioneer who not only diligently laboured to attain the conquest of the air, but actually achieved some measure of success. It is on record that he flew a distance of 50 metres on October 9th, 1890, in the grounds of the Chateau d'Armain villiers, and subsequently, on October 14th, 1897, he flew a distance of 300 metres at Satory before a committee of army officers delegated by the French Government to witness the trial.
  The machine was undoubtedly in the air - as shown by the absence of wheel tracks in the wet ground-while it travelled this latter distance, but its direction of flight was, owing to a strong cross-wind, far from the circular course marked out, and this fact, coupled with the damage done to the machine in landing, doubtless led the principal officials to take a gloomy view of its prospects. At any rate, the Government refused to continue its financial assistance to the inventor, and M. Ader had reluctantly to abandon his favourite work.
  The histories of many pioneers are sad, especially if they are before their time - and Ader was certainly that. Being a Frenchman, he was born in a sympathetic land, however, but even so, he was very fortunate to get so far as to gain the assistance of the Government at such an early stage in the proceedings. M. Ader himself was an enthusiast on flight from boyhood, and was of course, therefore regarded by many as a mere dreamer. That was in the days before he became sufficiently wealthy as an electrical engineer to put some of his ideas into practice. To modern eyes, his attempts seemed doomed to failure, it is true, but he did his best with the materials at his disposal, and his name unquestionably deserves to go down to history among those of the great. And, although he himself is now perhaps past taking an active interest in modern work, his engineer, M. Espinosa, is actively engaged in the industry.

His Avions.

  Ader built three flying machines, and it is the last of these that has been taken from the museum of the Arts et Metiers to grace the first Aeronautical Exhibition; the others no longer exist. His first machine he called " L'Eole," and with that he achieved the flight of 50 metres in 1890; the third machine, on view in the Grand Palais, is the " Avion," with which he demonstrated before the French Government in 1897.
  It is a machine of the monoplane type, constructed to resemble a bird in its general shape. Its wings are deeply cambered and arched, and their surface material is stretched over an elaborate framework, presumably intended as a copy of the natural formation of a bird's wing. The wings have a total spread of 16 metres, and present an area of 56 sq. metres ; they extend on either side of the body, and are so mounted that they can be swung forwards or backwards slightly in order to shift the centre of pressure relatively to the centre of gravity when desiring to ascend or descend. Beneath the rear portion of the wings, which extend far back in the centre, is a rudder controlled by pedals.
  The mechanism, all of which is carried by the main body, consists of a multi-tubular alcohol-fired boiler and two horizontal compound engines. The boiler was rated at 40-h.p., and, when working at 10 atmospheres (140 lbs. per sq. in.), the steam in the dome was usually about 215 degrees C. The engines are placed in front with their cylinders horizontal and their crankshafts longitudinal. Each is coupled direct to the shaft of a tractor screw. They are compound engines with two high-pressure and two low-pressure cylinders each, the dimensions being 65 and 100 mm. bore by 100 mm. stroke. At the normal boiler pressure they developed 20-h.p. each at a speed of 600 r.p.m.; their weight is 21 kilogs. each.
  The propellers are most peculiar, for they resemble nothing so much as eight gigantic quill pens arranged in two sets of four. The blades are, in fact, imitation feathers, and are made of bamboo. Each propeller is three metres in diameter, and has a pitch approximating to three metres (it is impossible to give an exact figure with such a form of construction). Their position is such, too, that they overlap one another considerably, and it appears as if that on the port side must have been working under difficulties.
  Quite the most interesting fact about the " Avion " is that its entire weight was only 258 kilogs. This is due to the use of nothing but wood in the construction of the framework, and a system of making the joints and employing hollow struts and beams was thought out by M. Ader for the purpose; it is the same as is now put into practice by the Soc. Cons. d'Appareils Aeriens, of which M. Espinosa (M. Ader's engineer) is a Director.

PARIS AERO SALON. - Front view of Ader's "Avion No. 3." The bird-like appearance of the machine is well shown, as also are the curious feather propellers.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the principal part of the Aviation Section. In the foreground, a little to the left, is a back view of Ader's "Avion," to the right is the R.E.P. monoplane, and opposite to it is the Delagrange biplane. In mid-air is the "Ville de Bordeaux," and in the distance, down the Grande Nef, can be seen part of a spherical balloon.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Antoinette"

  Monoplane built and engined by the Soc. Antoinette. It has, like the " Bleriot No. 9," a particularly light, speedy appearance, and is not unlike a huge dragon-fly when viewed from above. The long V-section girder frame, resembling a racing skiff, enhances its sporting effect, and suggests that the type might become very popular if ultimately proved to be successful. Part of the frame is filled in by the condenser-tubes belonging to the Antoinette installation, as described elsewhere. At the rear is the rudder and the elevator; both are small triangular surfaces, and the former is placed immediately above the latter. They also both form extensions of fixed triangular planes forming a cross-tail.


Flight, January 23, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

Antoinette.

  The manufacturers are specially building this year, for aeroplanes, a 50-h.p. installation which is the same as is used in their own monoplane. It is peculiar for the system of "steam-cooling" that has been adopted ; the water being allowed to boil in the jackets but being subsequently condensed. Twelve litres of water are carried in a small cylindrical tank and the water is pumped through the jackets, where it becomes more or less converted into steam by the time it returns to the tank; the jackets are electrolytically deposited in copper. Only the exhaust-valves are mechanically operated, the induction-valve is atmospheric.
  On one end of the crank-shaft is the propeller, and on the other is the water-pump. The cam-shaft is driven by exposed gears and drives the fuel-pump which injectspetrol into each induction-valve chamber. The fuelpumps (there are two) have a variable throw by means of an eccentric mechanism. Accumulator ignition is employed in conjunction with a distributor mounted between the cam-shaft and fuel-pump.
  Such water as is turned into steam passes automatically by expansion into a large aluminium tubular condenser, mounted longitudinally in the sides of the car frame, and is there converted into water again by air cooling. The condensed water is returned to the tank by a small belt-driven pump.
  The eight cylinders are arranged V fashion upon an aluminium base-chamber, to which they are fastened by loose yokes at their flanges. They are made of forged steel, and are in one piece with their heads and valve-chambers.


Flight, April 3, 1909

Mr. Hubert Latham Progresses.

  AT Chalons Camp Mr. Latham has been practicing with "Antoinette IV," and succeeded in flying over a kilom. Unfortunately an unexpected squall of wind drove him into the trees last week, resulting in the two wings being damaged. He hopes to add his name this week to the roll of winners of the "250 Metres Prize."


Flight, April 24, 1909.

The Antoinette Monoplanes.

  THAT M. Rene Demanest has been able to do such remarkably good work on his Antoinette monoplane after only five lessons, demonstrates beyond all question the ease of manipulation of these "racers" of the air. After the fifth lesson, it will be remembered, M. Demanest secured the last of the 250 metre prizes of the Aero Club de France, and on the sixth occasion, a flight of 2 kiloms. at a height of 50 feet was accomplished.
  On Monday Mr. Hubert Latham succeeded in making a splendid flight of 1,500 metres, including turning, at a height of about 15 metres, after which he came to earth quite easily.
  Capt. Burgeat was also out on "Antoinette VI," and made several flights of 100 metres.


Flight, June 12, 1909.

MONOPLANE WORLD'S RECORDS REMARKABLE PROGRESS.

  A FORTNIGHT ago we chronicled two records which had been made by Mr. Hubert Latham and M. Paul Tissandier respectively, and now we have to record a clean sweep made of those two records by Mr. Latham, who, by his latest performance, has placed himself second only to the Wright Brothers, and demonstrated in a wonderful manner the capabilities of that racing craft of the air - the monoplane type of machine.
  After making his record flight of 37 1/2 mins. on the 22nd ult., Mr. Latham was practising on his machine at Chalons Camp continually, but attempted nothing but short flights until the 4th inst., when he again flew for 37 mins. at a height of between 20 and 25 metres. He displayed the utmost sang-froid while making this little trip, and during the second circuit, while passing over the heads of the spectators, he calmly took his hands off the steering wheel, rolled a cigarette and lighted it, thus creating a new record. He undoubtedly is the first man who has had the audacity to light and smoke a cigarette while in full flight.
  On Saturday afternoon last, Mr. Hubert Latham once more brought out his "Antoinette" machine, and after making a couple of runs round the ground to see that everything was in order he rose into the air at 6.40 p.m. Rising steadily, he soon established himself at a height of about 15 metres, which was afterwards increased occasionally to 40 metres. He flew uninterruptedly, although the wind was blowing at a rate of 15 kiloms. an hour, for 1h. 7m. 37s., thus setting up a new world's record for monoplane flight and beating all French records for monoplanes or biplanes. Apart from the Wright Brothers, the records for long flights which have hitherto been made were held by Henry Farman, 20m. 19s. (July 6th, 1908); Delagrange, 29m.-54s. (August 6th, 1908); Paul Tissandier, 1h. 2m. (May 20th, 1909). Needless to say, the flight aroused the very greatest enthusiasm among the officers at the military camp, and by the time the flight was finished a very large crowd of spectators gathered, all wildly excited, despite the fact that the rain poured down during the last 20 mins. As soon as the monoplane came to earth, the young aviator was carried shoulder high to his shed by the crowd, and over one hundred officers at Mourmelon le Grand signed an official statement certifying to the length of the flight.
  On Sunday evening last, Mr. Latham followed up this wonderful flight with another splendid one, when, having entered for, he carried off, with remarkable ease, the Ambroise Goupy Prize, which called for a flight of 5 kiloms. across country. Starting from the Chalons Camp at 7.52 p.m., Mr. Latham turned the head of "Antoinette IV" towards Cadenay and flew in a straight line over trees and houses for 5.9 kiloms. in 4m. 3 3/5 s. at a speed of about 50 miles an hour. Turning round without coming to earth, he regained his starting point - another record - without incident, and was wildly cheered by an immense crowd of onlookers, numbering close on 600 people. M. Ernest Zens was the official observer at the start, while M. Paul Tissandier was at the turning point.
  A demonstration of the passenger-carrying possibilities of "Antoinette IV" was given by Mr. Latham on Monday evening, when he took up four of his friends for short flights. Capt. Burgeat, who also owns an Antoinette monoplane, was the first, and enjoyed a flight of 700 metres; Lieut. Charry was the second passenger; Mecanicien Cousin was the third, with a flight of 3 kiloms.; while the fourth was Mr. F. Hewartson, who had the longest flight of 11m. 57s, during which time about six miles were covered. During one of the turnings the wheel at the top of the left wing struck the ground, and a few minutes later the wheel fell off. Mr. Latham, on his attention being directed to it, stopped the motor and glided to the ground. During the last trip the wind was blowing in strong gusts, but Mr. Latham had complete control of the flyer.
  A further exhibition of the gliding powers of the Antoinette monoplane was given on the following day, when Mr. Latham made two flights of 3 and 7 minutes respectively. At the conclusion of the second trip, when at a height of 10 metres, he switched off the ignition and glided to earth.
  One result of these successful flights is to show that the art of navigating the air is by no means the exclusive property of a few men. Given properly designed machines, there is no lack of men with nerve and will who are capable of successfully manipulating them. The little band of aviators is ever widening, and it looks as if those who initiated the present heavier-than-air movement may be eclipsed by a newer and jounger school. Santos Dumont, Henry Farman, Delagrange and Bleriot are at any rate being out-distanced by the newcomers, who, once the ball is set rolling, realise its immense possibilities, although no doubt they in their turn will in all probability be eclipsed by others in due course.
  In view of this magnificent flight with a monoplane and M. Tissandier's with a Wright biplane it would appear as if the Daily Mail prize of L1,000 for a cross-Channel flight should be within measurable distance of being won. It is, in fact, announced that Mr. Latham intends to make it his next objective, and to that end is making preparations at once. Perhaps his successes will spur on other experimenters to immediate action in the hope of doing even better.


Flight, July 17, 1909

THE CHANNEL FLIGHT.

  WHATEVER interest may have attached to Mr. Latham's arrival at Sangatte, and to his subsequent proceedings at the old Channel Tunnel works, it bears no comparison with the sudden enthusiasm aroused by his giving the Daily Mail the required 24 hours' notice to fly, on Friday of last week. When it is actually realised that a man has seriously notified his intention of attempting to achieve a feat which has never before been accomplished in the history of the world and of doing so within 24 hours, the project comes down from the clouds with a run, and it is, indeed, no wonder that Calais and Dover should have been seething with excitement ever since. As luck would have it, our famous July weather made flight impossible, first on Friday, then on Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday and so on up to the time of going to press, when Mr. Latham is still on French soil and still continues to calmly scan the horizon between times when he is not in touch with his Antoinette machine or renewing his notice to fly.
  Although up to the last moment hardly anything was done in the way of special preparation for the attempt, arrangements were very quickly elaborated once the project had taken definite shape, and one of the first preliminaries was the installation of a wireless service by the Marconi Co., who established communication between Sangatte and the roof of the Lord Warden Hotel at Dover. All being well, it was decided to land on the Rope Walk Meadow of Shakespeare Cliff. This spot was Mr. Latham's own choice, and except for the obstruction of two telegraph lines, it is fairly convenient.
  Dover and its officials have given themselves up to preparing a suitable welcome, and Mr. Walter Emden, the Mayor, last Saturday postponed a trip to the Continent in order to be personally present. En route the British Motor Boat Club had made arrangements to patrol the course with speedy motor craft, but Mr. Latham, in expressing his thanks for the offer of their services, stated that he had made arrangements for this work to be done from the French side by the torpedo destroyers, "Le Harpon" and "Le Calaisien," the latter boat being equipped to haul the flyer on board should it fall into the sea. Mr. Perrin, the Secretary of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom, also offered the assistance of a similarly equipped tug from the English side if it was required.
  Mr. Latham himself remains cool and collected amid his unique surroundings, and seems little affected by the undeniable excitement of the moment. Although his father was an Englishman, Mr. Latham, who is now 26 years of age, is a French citizen, and was born in Paris. He has served in the French army, and was for fifteen months at Baliol, Oxford. His first experience in aeronautics was obtained in 1905, when he accompanied M. Jacques Faure in a balloon trip across the Channel. This also was a record voyage, for in six hours he travelled from the Crystal Palace to the outskirts of Paris. He is a great advocate of high speed in flight, and intends to double the power of his flyer "after this Channel business is over."
  On Tuesday morning of this week Mr. Latham decided upon a trial flight, merely to see that his machine was in proper order. There was no idea of attempting a crossing, although a tremendous crowd of spectators very quickly arrived on the scene directly there was a rumour to the effect that the flyer was about to be taken out for an airing. Wheeling the machine on to the highway, a start was made in the direction of Calais by running along the flat grass-land by the side of the road. This was one of the few convenient starting points in the vicinity, for although Mr. Latham has chosen a spot with natural facilities for working upon his machine - to wit, the Channel Tunnel works - his surroundings do not form altogether an ideal land aerodrome. Once he gets beyond the cliff and away to sea, however, that is a difficulty which will not bother him much. It was just after 8 o'clock when the flyer lifted, and rose steadily to an altitude of 30 ft. or so; it required a run of nearly a quarter of an hour to get off the ground.
  For a duration of 6 1/2 minutes the flyer remained aloft, and then a descent was made in a cornfield, when some damage was done to the chassis on which the machine is supported. The cause of the mishap, which was in no way serious, was due to the unexpected rapidity of the descent; this was attributed by Mr. Latham to the failure of the wind, which was shielded below a certain altitude by surrounding obstructions. Repairs on the machine were immediately put in hand, and speedily finished in readiness for the favourable moment for starting. The insistent wind and rain, followed by fog, has continued with scarcely a break, and at the time of closing for press Mr. Latham had found it inexpedient to attempt the much-looked-forward-to flight.


Flight, July 21, 1909.

The Splendid Failure

  AFTER more than a week of anxious waiting, the Channel flight has been attempted and lost. But what a splendid failure Mr. Latham made of his try. Everyone regrets that the precise task which he set out to accomplish is not achieved, and everyone sympathises with such a genuine sportsman in his misfortune. But after all is said and done, has not Mr. Latham's successful failure taught even more than would have been available from an uneventful success? Had he flown from Sangatte to Dover as had been hoped, and as he may yet do with the fates more favourable to his project, there would still have been that plaintive cry wailing beneath the general thunder of applause "Yes, but whatever would have happened had he fallen in the sea?"
  It might have been years before anyone would have been found to come forward in willingness to demonstrate an answer to this question, for even apart from personal risk there is ever the prospect of losing a costly machine, and where logic fails to influence via the head, it is generally potent enough through the pocket. The chance which brought Mr. Latham down in mid-Channel, therefore, should, seeing that it did him no harm, be regarded from the standpoint of the old adage that "it's an ill wind that blows nobody good."
  The question of being able to make a safe descent as far as the surface of the water, in the event of a mishap, was never really in doubt, since all aviators are agreed that, given sufficient height, it is practically always within the bounds of possibility to glide in the end even if the equilibrium of the machine has been temporarily upset in the beginning; that is, of course, always assuming that the pilot is a cool hand, and Mr. Latham is that and a good deal more. Taking the water at gliding speed - which by the way is at least that of the normal speed of flight - is an altogether different matter, and needed some such practical evidence as Mr. Latham gave on Monday, in order to supply any sort of clue as to what might be reasonably expected in a similary emergency. As to what might happen after the machine had settled on the water, there was also very considerable doubt, although we believe that Mr. Latham himself never expected anything else but that his flyer would float. There remained only one other point, and that was as to how far the pilot might hope to save himself should the machine sink, and this last we are exceedingly pleased Mr. Latham did not have to prove; he had done quite enough for one morning's work, and it was after all the least the fates could have done for him after he had braved their frown in such a sporting manner, to give him at the end the chance to smoke a cigarette in peace.
  It is, of course, quite impossible to overrate the importance of the personal factor in an emergency of the kind which befell Mr. Latham. He was on the point of taking a photograph of his convoy, the torpedo destroyer "Harpon," as it steamed furiously through the waters nearly a thousand feet below, when he first heard his engine mis-fire. If in the whole gamut of human sensations there is anything more likely to bring one's heart into one's mouth than the sudden mis-firing of one's engine while aboard a flyer a thousand feet above the sea, we should like to know of it; it should come very near to paralysing the nerve centres, we should imagine. "Instantly I gave up any idea of photography" is Mr. Latham's first remark in commenting upon the incident.
  Well, it needs a little getting used to, to appreciate the exact frame of mind which will permit of an interest in snapshots simultaneously with the necessity of paying attention to flight, so that perhaps after all it is only in keeping with the situation that Mr. Latham should have found it natural to explain that he did not finish taking the picture before he attended to anything else. In fact, one may even be permitted to regret, under the circumstances, that the photograph was not taken; it would have been such an extraordinarily interesting momento of the occasion.
  "I examined all the electrical connections that were within my reach," continues Mr. Latham in the narrative he wrote for the Daily Mail. Could anything possibly give greater confidence in the future of the flyer than this simple statement? Here is a man who has such confidence in his machine that he is able, at critical moments like this, to set about trying to cure ignition troubles, forsooth, in mid-air. We can almost imagine that it would have needed no more than the slightest excuse for Mr. Latham to have set about and changed an ignition plug. But, as he explains, "I could hear that more than one of the eight cylinders were mis-firing." Affected by the recollection of the difficulty, Mr. Latham gives way at last to his first signs of feeling. "It was maddening, but I was helpless. Never before had the engine played me such a trick after so short a flight." Like all good sportsmen, Mr. Latham accepted the inevitable, but with the firm intention of making the best of that, too, and having "calculated that the torpedo boat destroyer was about a mile away" he glided down to the surface of the water, for, as he succinctly remarks, "There was nothing else to be done."
  Describing his descent, Mr. Latham says, "I came down not in a series of short glides, but in one clean straight downward slope. My speed at the moment of impact was about 40 or 45 miles an hour. The machine was under perfect control during ascent; instead of diving into the sea at an angle I skimmed down so that I was able to make contact with the sea with the aeroplane practically in a horizontal position. It settled on the water and floated like a cork. I swung my feet up on to a cross bar to prevent them from getting wet. Then I took out my cigarette case, lit a cigarette, and waited for the torpedo destroyer to come up." Although Mr. Latham does not actually make the remark, we imagine it was merely an omission that he did not conclude the above sentence with his former delightful platitude, "There was nothing else to be done."
  The gliding descent, the taking of the water in a horizontal attitude at a speed of 40 miles an hour, and the subsequent bouyancy of the Antoinette flyer, are all matters of the greatest possible importance, less, perhaps, on account of any immediate and direct application than because of their unique character. No man wants to lose his life in flying if he can help it, and even the best of swimmers, and we believe Mr. Latham is a master of this accomplishment, generally dislike getting wet within their clothes.
  But there are bound to be many enthusiasts who aspire to the Channel crossing, and it is going to make all the difference in the world what machine becomes popular for this little journey, as to which affords the greatest security in the event of mishap. Even the best regulated of engines are apt to misfire, and if they follow this up by stopping off work altogether, as Mr. Latham's motor did, there is, as Mr. Latham expresses it, nothing else to be done save to descend upon the water with what ease and grace the pilot and his flyer are jointly able to accomplish.
  However well patrolled the course may be - and it would be difficult in general to ensure greater conveniences than those with which the French Government backed up Mr. Latham - there is bound to be a certain interval between the descent and the rescue, so that even supposing it is not going to be a matter of life and death, there is always the prospect of considerable discomfort. If the flyer can do nothing else for its pilot, it may at least keep him high and dry while he whiles away the time with a cigarette or takes a few snapshots of his surroundings.
  Altogether Mr. Latham's flyer was afloat for half-an-hour or more before it was picked up by the steam tug "Calaisien," and Mr. Latham is of the opinion that it would have floated for a couple of hours or so in a calm sea. As a matter of fact, however, the slight swell in the Channel subsequent to his rescue caused a considerable amount of damage to the planes and other less robust parts of the structure. The mere fact that the flyer kept afloat in the water at all, however, is the chief point, for it is a basis of a reliable character from which further developments can be evolved by those who may specially wish to improve this characteristic. The satisfactory accomplishment of a gliding descent from an altitude of 1,000 feet is the outcome of the same qualities which render a machine successful in flight, that is to say, a combination of natural stability and skilful control. The actual contact with the water at full speed must, we should imagine, always be attended by a risk of diving if the machine is not very well managed during the last few lengths of its flight in the air, more especially since the balance of a flyer is not yet considered from the point of view of its buoyancy in water. Mr. Latham's machine, as is only to be expected, was very much down by the head, but its floating position just kept the pilot's seat above water. On the whole it suggests that a great deal is not wanted to make a satisfactory monoplane which shall be quite reasonably safe on calm water, and it is by no means beyond the realms of possibility that there may spring up in consequence a cult of over-water flight among those who are naturally at home in this element: it also suggests a possible phase of gliding by the sea.


THE CHANNEL FLIGHT.

Latham's Channel Flight.

AFTER many weary days of waiting, which taxed the patience of aviator and spectators to the utmost, the weather was at last propitious for an attempt on Monday, July 19th, and at 20 minutes past 6 in the morning, three guns booming from the destroyer "Harpon," which was steaming at half-speed below the cliffs at Sangatte, definitely informed all concerned that M. Levavasseur, who was on board, had decided that the conditions were good enough, and that the flight should be made.
As the whole world now knows, the bare facts are that at 6.48 everything was ready, and the machine, after running down the slope at Blanc Nez, at last rose into the air. Before seven, Mr. Latham had disappeared from sight, and by the half-hour, had all been well, he would have been on the point of landing at Dover.
When from 6 to 8 miles out from the French coast, however, his engine mis-fired, and ultimately stopped altogether, so that he was forced to descend in the Channel. At the moment when his engine failed the Antoinette monoplane was about 1,000 ft. above sea level, and the gliding descent was accomplished with absolute success, the machine striking the water in an almost horizontal position at a speed of from 40 to 45 miles an hour. So far from sinking, the flyer floated perfectly, although somewhat down by the head, and the intrepid pilot, so far from being inconvenienced by his extraordinary position, did not even get his feet wet, and during the interval which elapsed before his convoy, the destroyer "Harpon," could reach him, he calmly passed the time by smoking a cigarette.
Having gone on board the destroyer himself, the aeroplane was subsequently hoisted up by the steam tug, "Calaisien," after it had been afloat for over half-an-hour. It was by that time somewhat damaged in its more delicate members, but still buoyant. Both boats returned to Calais, where the aviator received a welcome of tremendous enthusiasm, being called upon, among other things, to kiss the queen of the port, a buxom, red-cheeked fisher-girl.

Mr. Latham's Programme.

THAT same evening Mr. Latham left for Paris in order to see about getting a new machine, and with such dispatch did he carry out this work that he had the nearly-finished "Antoinette VII" en route for Calais by Tuesday night. All being well, another attempt should be possible early next week at latest. The new machine, although slightly larger in surface, is otherwise identical with that employed on Monday.
While dismantling the rescued flyer at Sangatte on Tuesday, M. Levavasseur came across a small piece of metal in some place to which it did not belong and attributes the cause of the failure to its presence.
PARIS AERO SALON. - View, from beneath, of the Antoinette Monoplane, showing the lattice-girder frame, which carries the tubular condenser near the front end.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - In the above illustration of an early Antoinette monoplane the arrangement of the spars and ribs and the framework of the wing can be seen through the surface material. The above view also shows the lattice-girder main frame, which in the latest machines is covered in.
PARIS AERO SALON. - View of the Antoinette installation, showing part of the condenser used to convert into water any steam which is formed in the cylinder-jackets.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - View showing an 8-cyl. Antoinette engine installed in the bows of an early flyer. The construction of the main frame and attachment of the condenser are well illustrated, as also is the method of carrying the crank-chamber forward for the support of the propeller.
Antoinette Monoplane, showing the triangular elevator and the two triangular rudders in position for turning to the right and for ascending.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - In the above view of the tail the triangular horizontal plane which forms the elevator is shown depressed for descent, while the two triangular rudders are shown set over for turning to the right.
Captain Burgeat's new monoplane "Antoinette VI," with which he has successfully flown at Chalons, is equipped with an interesting under-chassis, which is very well illustrated by the above photograph. In order to keep the machine trimmed while at rest on the ground, a pair of steadying wheels are carried on an outrigger framework. There is also besides the main centre wheel a corresponding wheel jutting out in front, which serves to protect the tractor-screw in the event of the machine landing on the ground nose first.
ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE. - View, from behind, showing the propeller and the spring framework and wheels attached to the wings. These serve the double purpose of keeping the machine on the level keel when on the ground, and absorbing any shock when alighting after a flight.
ONE OF THE RACING EPISODES DURING THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - Farman, on his biplane, giving a good lead to Latham on his Antoinette monoplane.
Mr. Hubert Latham in full flight on his Antoinette monoplane on Saturday last at Chalons Camp, when he created a remarkable new record for this type of flyer by remaining in the air for 1h. 7m. 31s., maintaining a speed of about 50 miles per hour. Note the biplane on the ground, the occupants of which are carefully watching Mr. Latham's evolutions.
Mr. Hubert Latham flying with his Antoinette monoplane last Saturday at an altitude of about 100 ft., when he put up a new world's record.
HUBERT LATHAM AND THE CHANNEL FLIGHT. - View on Shakespeare's Cliff at Dover, showing some of the expectant visitors awaiting his arrival. Above, Mr. Latham is seen in full flight on his Antoinette monoplane.
Mr. Hubert Latham (on the left) and M. Levavasseur, the constructor of the Antoinette monoplane with which Mr. Latham has created such wonderful records, at Sangatte.
"ANTOINETTE IV." - The monoplane with which Mr. Hubert Latham contemplates flying the Channel, and with which he has already made such splendid records in France. In this view the entire general construction of the machine is well shown.
An enlarged view of the front portion of the Antoinette monoplane used by Mr. Hubert Latham, showing the details of construction of the nose, the disposition of the motor, the propellers, and the radiator, and the protecting support underneath the machine attached to the wheels and the lower part of the nose.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - The start from the French coast on Monday morning last.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - Hubert Latham and his machine immediately after falling into the sea. It will be noticed that Mr. Latham is standing up in the middle of the flyer, where he was quietly waiting for the French torpedo destroyer "Harpon" to take him on board, in the meantime calmly smoking a cigarette.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - The rescue of the Antoinette flyer by the French torpedo destroyer "Harpon." One of the French sailors hitching the hoisting tackle to the centre of the machine.
A watery end to Hubert Latham’s attempt to fly across the Channel in his Antoinette IV on 19 July 1909, 6 days before Bleriot’s successful flight. The Cayley-Henson type ‘kite’ tail unit and the Henson king-posts are clearly visible.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - Hubert Latham's return to Calais. The scene after his landing.
Mr. Hubert Latham at the wheel of his Antoinstte, after accomplishing his remarkable record flight on Saturday.
LATHAM AND FARMAN'S RECENT FLIGHTS AT RHEIMS GRAPHICALLY DEPICTED. - What their distance and height achievements are equal to if carried out on familiar ground in England. On the left the single flight of Farman is seen, reaching almost to Weymouth, whilst the three successive flights of Latham placed end on would have brought this remarkable flyer up to Lancaster and Morecambe Bay, beyond Blackpool, where the proposed Aviation Week is to take place next month. On the right the height event is seen, with St. Paul's Cathedral (to scale) as a guide for comparison.
Antoinette
Flight, July 31, 1909.

LATHAM'S SPLENDID SECOND ATTEMPT.

  IN cheering the success of Bleriot, it is impossible not to sympathise with the disappointment of the vanquished. Mr. Latham's machine was ready on the Sunday to fly, but by the time he had heard of M. Bleriot's start it was too late, for the wind increased in force very quickly, and although Mr. Latham might, had he been left to his own devices, have actually made the attempt that day, he was formally forbidden to do so by MM. Levavasseur and Gastambide, his co-directors. Naturally, he was upset, for it was the disappointment of a lifetime, but he remembered all the same to send a message of cordial congratulation to M. Bleriot on his landing, and that he is in no way disheartened may be gathered from the fact that he added, "Hope to follow you soon."
  It was then reported that he contemplated going one better, by flying from Calais and continuing as far as London. Be this as it may, on Tuesday, July 27th, Mr. Latham made a fresh attempt to fly the Channel, this time failure occurring only within a mile or so of the British shore. It is almost impossible to do justice to an occasion so extraordinary, or to express adequately the regret which all the world feels in sympathy with one who has tried so gamely once again, and lost. Pluck and perseverance have not sufficed to prevail over misfortune, but that the laurels of success should have been lost while the crowd yet cheered what they supposed would be a victory was hard indeed.
  Tuesday morning in Calais was sufficiently fine and calm for Mr. Latham to decide upon waiting no longer. Rising at dawn, he made a short trial flight to test his newly-arrived machine, but unluckily when landing some slight damage was sustained, and it was not until 5.50 that evening (English time) that he actually left the French shore at Cap Blanc Nez for the passage. Flying extremely fast, Mr. Latham mounted steadily upward as he raced along at a terrific speed, and to anxious watchers on the French cliffs all seemed well, in view of the splendid start that had been accomplished. Very soon those at Dover sighted the speck in the distance, which gradually evolved into the white-winged Antoinette monoplane, and henceforth the eyes of some 40,000 spectators or so were gazing excitedly at the wondrous sight. Nearer and nearer came the flyer, and more and more demonstrative became the enthusiasm of the people. From all sides sirens shrieked their welcome through the air; but even while the clamour was at its height the end came. From its straight course the aeroplane turned suddenly aside, made a sharp descent, recovered its direction, and again lost it, all in a moment; then, to the horror-struck gaze of the spectators, the flyer glided sharply down on to the water. The anti-climax was so sudden and unexpected that for the instant tense silence greeted the catastrophe, and then, what a commotion! Everyone to the rescue, whether they could get there or not; out sped cutters, pinnaces and tugs, the sea was alive with driven craft converging on a point, not forgetting the French destroyers which were gradually closing up the intervening space between themselves and the scene of the collapse. It was, however, the steam pinnace of the battleship "Russell" which won the race, but Mr. Latham, who was temporarily safe on his floating air-craft, elected to go aboard one of the French boats which by this time had reached the scene of action. In the descent on the water Mr. Latham's goggles had been broken and his face cut by the glass, so that he needed surgical aid, and it was not for some little time afterwards that he was put ashore at Dover.
  Mr. Latham attributes the failure of the 100-h.p. Antoinette motor to the same cause as on the previous occasion with his smaller motor, but thinks that they were in no way brought about by the rain which was falling rather heavily during the greater part of the trip. The failure of the engine was quite sudden, and the gliding descent very much more acute than upon his first attempt. Mr. Latham does not appear to have lost control of his machine in any way, and it is therefore hardly correct to say that it "fell" into the water. Its buoyancy was again demonstrated in spite of the fact that the fore-part of the machine dived under the water owing to the weight of the motor.
  It was not until early on Wednesday morning that the "Antoinette VII" was successfully salved. About midnight on Tuesday the Calais tug-boat "Calaisien" took charge of the aeroplane, which had by that time drifted towards St. Margaret's Bay, and the captain decided to tow it to Calais. Although the work was slow and difficult, the French port was eventually reached, and the machine hoisted out of the water by cranes. It was placed in a warehouse, and carefully guarded to prevent a repetition of the damage done to the "Antoinette IV" by relic hunters.


Flight, October 23, 1909

THE ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE.

  WHILE it doubtless required Mr. Latham's splendid failures in his attempted cross-Channel flights to bring the Antoinette monoplane into that extreme prominence which it undoubtedly occupies in the public eye to-day, the work of its designer, M. Levavasseur, has ever been deserving of recognition during the long while that he has been working on the problems of flight. If fortune has denied him the greater honours, he has not been discouraged thereby from putting his best into the development of his machine, which stands out to-day not only as one of the most interesting, but also as one of the most carefully-built flyers in the market.
  Of the various reasons which led M. Levavasseur to adopt the monoplane system of construction, its simplicity of form, and lower resistance to flight, have been leading factors, although the designer frankly admits that increased difficulties of construction scarcely allow the matter of its simplicity to go farther than the appearance. Certainly, however, the Antoinette firm have ably taken advantage of their opportunity in this latter direction, for its clean, neat "cut" is, perhaps, the most marked of the external characteristics of this machine.
  In summarising the leading features of the design of the Antoinette monoplane, it is essential to mention two details relating to the main wings. One is their great thickness, the other is their upward slope, which embodies in the machine the principle of the dihedral angle.

The Dihedral Angle of the Wings.

  This principle has for its object the provision of a certain amount of automatic lateral stability by means of the restoring couple brought into play by the difference in the upward components of the air pressure under the wings when the flyer is canted from its normal position of equilibrium. A glance at the accompanying diagram will make this clear. Applying the principle that the pressure on an inclined plane is perpendicular to the surface, it follows that, when in equilibrium, each wing of a dihedral pair is subjected to a normal pressure, P, of which there is an upward component, P1, acting as direct lift. The pressures, P, remain unchanged so long as the speed of the wings through the air is constant, but the values of P1 obviously depend on the angle which each wing makes to the horizontal: for P1 is a vertical component, being that supporting force which overcomes gravity.
  If, for instance, the flyer is canted over into the exaggerated position shown in the second diagram, where one wing is horizontal, then that particular wing would be in a position to have the full value of the pressure, P, exerted as lift, whereas the vertical component resulting from the same value of P on the other wing is considerably diminished below what it was with the machine in equilibrium. It will be noticed that the difference in these pressures is always such as to result in a couple tending to right the machine, and it is this fact that makes the dihedral angle such an important principle.
  Long as it has been known, the dihedral angle has, however, been little used in practice on full-sized machines for the reason that many designers see in the arrangement a source of danger far more serious than any advantage likely to accrue from the otherwise favourable points of the system. It is argued that the most likely cause of canting is a side gust of wind which, persisting after the cant has been started, will find an increasing area of action on the uplifted wing and so tend to capsize the flyer before restoring force has time to assert itself.
  Wilbur Wright in his early gliding experiments tried and abandoned the scheme, and, in fact, it is now nowhere quite so much in evidence as on the Antoinette flyer; hence the reason for drawing early attention to the peculiarity.


Flight, October 30, 1909

THE ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE.

Thick Wings and their Buoyancy.

  THE thickness of the wings already mentioned is a result of adopting a system of construction designed to secure a maximum of strength with a minimum of weight, but it may be remarked en passant that the volumetric capacity which this thickness confers on the wings showed itself to be of more than incidental advantage in the matter of buoyancy when Mr. Latham so unfortunately had to alight on the sea in his cross-Channel flights.
  Of the other special features, it is necessary only to mention the boat-like body and the distance of the tail behind the main planes, which distinctly seems to be relatively greater than on other machines.

Wing Construction.

  The wings are built up upon two transverse main spars, neither of which, however, forms the edge of the wing, as is so commonly the case in the decks of biplanes. Both the leading and trailing edges of the Antoinette wings are sharp, and their upper and lower surfaces (made of Michelin rubber-proofed fabric) are kept exceptionally taut by the large number of ribs that go to make up the wing framework.
  The outstretched wings form a pair of cantilevers, of which the main transverse spars are the principal members. Each spar is constructed on the lattice girder principle, and tapers in depth towards the extremity. At its inner end it is mounted in a substantial bracket, which is attached to the body of the machine. This bracket, in the case of the rear pair of spars, is pivoted, as shown in an accompanying sketch, so that it can rock bodily when the wings are warped.
  In addition to these main transverse spars there are other transverse members unattached to the body of the machine, but serving, nevertheless, to give strength to the wing framework. Across these spars pass the curved main ribs, which are spaced at intervals of about 18 ins.; they are also built up lattice girder fashion. Between the main ribs light open ribs, constructed without the lattice bracing, are provided for the additional support of the surface fabric. Near the body of the machine these latter members have a spacing of only about 2 ins., but elsewhere their distance apart is twice as much. As the result of this very carefully thought-out system of construction, the manufacturers claim that their wing framework for wings of 15 to 25 square metres in surface can be produced as light as 1 kilog. per square metre, not including the fabric.
  In addition to their mounting on the body of the machine, to which reference has already been made, the wings are further supported by wires, which radiate from a central wooden mast projecting above the body. These wires are attached to the main transverse spars about the centre of their length, and each spar is itself independently trussed by a vertical post and diagonal wires. The posts used for this purpose are, like the main-mast, of hollow construction, and each is one continuous member from top to bottom. It is placed a little to the side of the main-spar which it trusses, being notched to receive that member.
  This arrangement avoids the necessity of dividing the post at the centre. Each end of the post is fitted with a steel ferrule, on the outside of which is a screw thread. A suitable attachment for the stay-wires is provided by a light steel plate threaded over the ferrule, and clamped between two nuts.

The Body and Chassis.

  The body of the machine consists of a hollow V-section lattice girder, the fore part of which is encased with a veneer of cedar, and pointed like the bows of a boat. Further aft the cedar gives place to a covering of rubber-proofed fabric, and this material is also carried over the top side of the frame, thus forming a kind of deck. An open cockpit is provided for the accommodation of the pilot's seat.
  The machine is supported on the ground by a pair of small pneumatic shod wheels, attached to an axle which is provided with pneumatic suspension. This latter is obtained by means of a plunger in a steel tube; the tube is a downward continuation of the main-mast already mentioned. The bracing of the axle to a sliding collar which rides on the outside of the stationary tube, and thereby prevents the axle from tilting, is effected by hollow wood struts fitted with steel forks spliced in their extremities.
  An ash skid is provided in front of the machine to prevent the propeller from hitting the ground, and there is a very light skid at the rear to protect the rudder. The forward skid is made of ash, and has a maximum square section of about 2 1/4 ins. Its extremity is laminated and curved upwards, the tip being protected by a steel place.

The Tail.

  At the rear of the body is the tail, consisting of two fixed planes, and three movable planes. The fixed members include a vertical and a horizontal plane arranged like the feathers on the shaft of an arrow, and their object is to fulfil much the same purpose in respect to the flight of the machine. The movable members are virtually extensions of these planes; the continuation of the horizontal plane forming an elevator, while the continuation of the vertical plane makes a rudder. An additional rudder working in unison with the first is provided beneath the elevator.

Control.

  The control of the machine is effected by means of two hand wheels and a pedal. The wheels are placed vertically on each side of the pilot's seat, and lie just outside the body of the machine. That on the right when moved forwards dips the trailing edge of the elevator. A similar movement of the left-hand wheel warps the trailing edge of the right-hand main-wing downwards. Pressing forward the right foot puts the trailing edge of the rudder over to the right, and therefore steers the nose of the machine in the same direction. In the above, the terms tight and left apply to the pilot, who sits facing in the direction of flight.
  Adjacent to the main control-wheels are two smaller wheels for adjusting the throttle and the ignition.
  The warping of the wings is effected by the intermediary of a cog-wheel and chain mechanism illustrated in an accompanying sketch. The cog-wheel is mounted in a case attached to the lower end of the stationary tube which forms an extension of the main-mast. It is operated by a lever attached to its spindle, and the extremities of this lever are controlled by wires from the hand wheel already mentioned. In mesh with this cogwheel is a chain, the extremities of which are coupled by wires to the rear main spars of the wings. Partially rotating the cog-wheel draws the chain from one side to the other of the machine, and thus pulls downwards one main spar while it allows the other to rise.
  This movement takes place with the greatest freedom and nicety, owing to the careful construction of the wings and to the method of mounting the rear spars on a pivot as already described. The forward spars, being fixed rigidly to the body of the machine, remain stationary, and thus the result of the manoeuvre is that helicoidal deformation of the wing surfaces which is commonly described by the term "warping."
  In some cases the Antoinette flyer is fitted with balancing flaps instead of the warping device.

Engine and Propeller.

  The engine on the Antoinette is placed right up in the bows, the crank-chamber being supported on two transverse girders in the body. The crank-chamber is cast so that it extends up to the boss of the propeller, which is fastened direct to the crankshaft. The engine is of the multi-cylinder V type, having eight or sixteen cylinders, according to the power which it is intended to provide. Each cylinder is a separate steel forging, and is complete with its head and valve-chamber. The inlet-valves are atmospheric, and instead of a carburetor the petrol is injected by means of a pump. The water-jackets are made of copper. A feature of the cooling system is that very little water is carried, the idea being to allow the water to be converted into steam, which is then condensed into water again by a tubular aluminium condenser lying outside the body of the machine. The arrangement of this condenser is very well illustrated in the accompanying illustrations, but it is important to remark that the cedar panelling of the body, which elsewhere gives the appearance, and possibly some of the buoyancy, of a boat, is cut away behind the radiator to facilitate freer air-circulation round the tubes.


Flight, November 27, 1909

AN ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE DETAIL.

  A CORRESPONDENT has written asking us to explain how the front strut is affixed to the hull-shaped body of the Antoinette machine, and whether any flexibility is provided for. We have therefore prepared the accompanying sketch, which will doubtless be found useful by way of supplementing the details and scale drawings that we published a few weeks ago (October 13th and 20th). From this it will be observed how the strut is stiffened by a diagonal member that is bolted to it with aluminium side-plates, and how a certain amount of springiness is secured by the use of saw cuts through that portion which comes in contact with the ground and which is protected on the under side by a thin steel armouring.

HUBERT LATHAM'S SECOND CHANNEL ATTEMPT. - The aviator overtaking the French torpedo-destroyer "Escopette" soon after leaving the French coast, which can be discerned dimly in the distance.
THE END OF LATHAM'S SECOND CHANNEL ATTEMPT. - Arrival of the steam pinnace from the British battleship "Russell" at the scene of the "finish," within about two miles of the English coast at Dover. Mr. Latham will be noticed standing up on his machine waiting for the pinnace to rescue him.
HUBERT LATHAM'S SECOND CHANNEL ATTEMPT. - Scene after the rescue of the aviator by the steam pinnace from the battleship M Russell, the tug standing-by for rescuing the derelict machine.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - View of the latest Antoinette monoplane at the Paris Salon. The above view illustrates very clearly the trussing of the spars in the wings.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - View of the latest model, showing the cedar hull. The framework under the surface is illustrated in another view, showing an earlier type.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Duthell-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
LATHAM'S GREAT FLIGHT IN A HALF GALE AT BLACKPOOL LAST WEEK. - Note the beading trees from the high wind in the distance.
Latham "crossing" the wind at Blackpool Meeting last Friday week on his Antoinette monoplane, during his flight through the half gale.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing how the main spars in the wings are trussed by hollow posts and diagonal wires.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing the attachment of the axle-strut to the sliding-guide on the vertical pillar. The strut is of hollow wood, and has a steel end-piece.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing how the stay-wires for the wings are attached to the mast.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing bow the rear spars in the wings are pivoted to the frame to facilitate warping.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - Sketch showing how the control wheel on the left of the pilot's seat is coupled up to the cog-wheel which warps the wings, as shown in another illustration.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - Sketch showing how the hand wheel on the right of the pilot's seat is coupled up to the elevator. The use of pulleys on the elevator cross-bar should be noted.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - Sketch showing the arrangement of the control of the wires used for warping the wings by means of a cog-wheel and chain.
The Antoinette Monoplane.
Flight, November 13, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

AVIA.

  Small monoplane, peculiar for the arrangement of the pilot's seat on a kind of toboggan-like structure mounted under the wings. The system is sufficiently self-evident from our general view of the machine. The engine, it will be noticed, is mounted above the wings, but is supported on uprights direct by the chassis; and drives a two-bladed tractor screw.
  An interesting mechanical detail introduced by the makers, and placed on the market by them as an accessory, is a combination steering and controlling mechanism, designed on the principle of concentric spherical cages, each of which is a universal joint. The construction is approximately represented by the accompanying sketch. The device enables the steering column to be rotated or tilted either separately or simultaneously, according as it is required to operate one member or two at the same time.
  Attention should also be drawn in the Avia flyer to the construction of wheels and ski on the chassis. The system is illustrated by our photograph of the complete machine.
  The supplementary surfaces on the machine include an elevator and a rudder, both situated at the rear. Provision is also made for warping the wings.
Avla Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Sketch showing the universal control employed on the Avia flyer.
AVIA
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Bleriot (No. 9)."

  Monoplane built at the Bleriot works. It has a V-section longitudinal girder frame, part of the surface of which is formed by the Bleriot flexible radiator described elsewhere. Additional radiating surfaces, constructed on the same principle, but in a different form, are arranged, Venetian blind fashion, in front. Vellum-like paper is used as a covering surface for all the planes and the body. At the rear are the rudder and the elevator, also a small fixed horizontal plane. The tips of the main wings are pivoted for steering, in conjunction with the rudder. In front is the engine, a 50-h.p. 16-cyl. Antoinette, driving a 4-bladed flexible tractor screw mounted directly on the crank-shaft.
PARIS AERO SALON. - Side view of the Bleriot Monoplane "No. 9." The central part of the body, which is black, is the flexible radiator.
"BLERIOT No. 9." - General view of the large Bleriot monoplane taken from behind, showing the tail, elevator, and rudder. The steering tips on the extremities ol the main wings are also clearly visible. The span is 10 metres, the surface is 25 square metres, the weight with pilot 560 kilogs., and the engine a 50-h.p. 16-cyl. Antoinette.
"BLERIOT No. 9." - View of the nose of the machine, showing the tractor-screw in front and the ladder-like radiators on either side of the box-girder frame which carries the engine. The torpedo-shaped petrol tank behind the wheels is another feature of the construction, as also are the elastic bands which supplement the spring suspension. The main wings are covered with a vellum-like paper.
Bleriot N 9
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Bleriot (No. 10)."

  Biplane constructed to carry three passengers, including the pilot. It is quite the largest aeroplane in the exhibition and one of the largest in existence. The accommodation is distinctly cramped, both front seats being on the same side as the engine and occupying but little more room. The third seat, a mere box, is immediately behind, alongside the slanting chain which drives a large wooden propeller. Two flexible radiators, described elsewhere, form side curtains between the main planes, and two more side curtains are formed by the triangular frames which extend backwards to carry a pair of elevators. Part of the upper main plane is cut away to clear the propeller, and the recess has small kite-shaped baffle-curtains on either side.


Flight, February 13, 1909

THE BLERIOT FLEXIBLE RADIATOR.

  IN order to dispose of the radiator necessary to cool the circulating water in a more advantageous manner on his aeroplane, M. Bleriot has designed a device which he terms a flexible radiating surface. This was referred to in The Automotor Journal a few weeks ago. It consists of a sheet of aluminium closely covered on one side with hollow brass rings, which are joined together in rows by short lengths of flexible rubber tubing. The cooling water circulates through these rings from one to the other, and is collected by the usual pipes communicating with the pump and the engine water-jacket respectively. On the Bleriot biplane No. 10 the aluminium sheets are arranged like side-curtains between the uprights supporting the two decks of the machine. The two sheets together carry about 800 rings, which afford a total of about four square feet of direct cooling surface. On the monoplanes the radiator forms part of the surface covering of the body, which consists of a longitudinal girder. The rings are individually fastened to the aluminium sheeting by the act of stamping perforations in their flanges; this process causes a "burr" to be formed, which affords sufficient grip. The illustration of the radiator in place on the aeroplane shown above gives a good impression of the arrangement on the biplane, but this device is also incorporated in another way on the two Bleriot monoplanes.
BLERIOT'S BIPLANE. - General view of the central portion showing the radiators in place, the seats, steering wheel, propeller.
BLERIOT RADIATOR. - View of part of the Bleriot flexible radiator, showing three of the annular water rings - which are coupled up together by short rubber tubes. The hollow rings are fastened to sheet aluminium merely by the act of punching the perforations which will be noticed round them.
Bleriot N 10
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Bleriot (No. 11)."

  Monoplane having a relatively narrow spread, only 7 metres. At the rear of the longitudinal girder is a fixed plane with pivoted elevating tips, and above it is the rudder. High up, above the main wings, in the centre, is a small keel to give stability. In front is a 25-h.p. 7-cyl. R.E.P. engine, driving a 4-bladed tractor-screw, fixed direct to its crank-shaft.


Flight, January 30, 1909

Bleriot Flies with His Short-Span Machine.

  MUCH interest attaches to the short span, No. 11, which M. Bleriot exhibited at the Paris Salon, and the trials of its practicability are naturally being watched by all aviators with especial concern. So far, these essays have been going very satisfactorily, and on Saturday last a flight of 200 metres was accomplished. The speed was of course very high indeed, and although no official record was made it was estimated at quite 75 k.p.h. The altitude attained was only about 2 metres, but the flight was stable from start to finish. The supporting surface of this machine is only about 12 metres.


Flight, July 3, 1909

Bleriot Makes a Big Advance.

  IN view of the long time he has been experimenting, and the number of machines he has built, it is a little difficult to comprehend that M. Bleriot's longest flight was the cross-country one of last year, which only lasted for 11 minutes. By his splendid performances during last weekend, he has shown that his baby monoplane, "No. XI," is capable of staying aloft for long periods. On Friday evening, at Issy, M. Bleriot mounted his machine, and in spite of a strong wind blowing, succeeded in making eleven circuits of the big parade ground, the time occupied being 15 mins. 30 secs. Needless to say, on making a perfect landing after this trip M. Bleriot was accorded an ovation by the few enthusiasts who had stayed behind to see the finish. On Saturday last MM. Archdeacon, Chanviere, Zens, and A. Fournier were present on the ground on behalf of the Aero Club, and at 7 o'clock M. Bleriot started for another long flight. He flew for 36 mins. 55 3/5 secs., and could have continued but for the fact that owing to overlubrication the engine commenced miss-firing. M. Bleriot therefore cut off the ignition, and came to earth. It was a pity that automatic lubrication was not installed, for the intrepid aviator had no doubt that, but for the miss-firing, he could have kept going for over an hour. Otherwise the three-cylinder Anzani engine was working perfectly. M. Bleriot is now at Douai with his "No. 12 " monoplane. On Monday he flew for 2 1/2 kiloms. at a height of 20 metres, and on the following day he carried a passenger over the full circuit of the Brayelle aerodrome.


Flight, July 17, 1909

TWENTY-FIVE MILES ACROSS COUNTRY - BLERIOT'S GREAT FLIGHT.

  NOT the least interesting part about the whole affair of M. Bleriot's wonderful flight is the almost casual manner in which it was undertaken. M. Bleriot has indeed been a busy man of late, and what with trotting to and fro between Douai, Paris, Mondesir, and other places, he has really had very little time to himself. Only on Saturday last he was making some very successful flights at Douai with one of his other machines, and he just left his small-span flyer to more or less look after itself until conditions promised favourably for his long flight. It was on Monday evening that he really decided that "to-morrow" should be the day, and having seen that the Anzani engine was working properly, he had the flyer taken from the farmyard, where he had "lodged " it, a kilometre and a half down the road to the south of Etampes. There he stored it, covered up in ticking against a haystack in a field overnight, while he went to stay at Toury with M. Lambert. At 3.30 a.m., on Tuesday, July 13th, he was up again, and together with his host, M. Leblanc, M. Fournier, and his wife, set off in motor cars for the scene of the trial, where they were met by M. Guyot, who had come over from Orleans by road. Thus were the officials of the Aero Club of France in readiness to observe the flight, and record it in the world's history. Under fifty yards' start sufficed to get the flyer aloft, and hardly had M. Bleriot passed the word that he was ready than he was flying along at a height of some 25 metres above the ground. Off chased the three motor cars in pursuit, and soon the cavalcade was spinning along over the high road to Orleans, while Bleriot himself sped over hedges, ditches, fields and trees as he cleaved his own course in a direct line for his destination. Now ascending a little, now coming closer to the earth, the Bleriot flyer kept steadily on, and those awake at this early hour could only stare in amazement at the wonderful episode. Presently the railway between Etampes and Orleans hove in sight, and the locomotive of an approaching train whistled with all its might. Heads were thrust out of carriage windows, first in alarm, then in amazement as the astonished occupants had the experience of witnessing under unique conditions the new locomotion which needs neither road nor rail. It was an inspiring moment, as Bleriot, gracefully increasing his altitude to clear the telegraph wires, sailed calmly over the railway high above the train, waving his hand to the excited and cheering passengers.
  One of the great questions which is always advanced when the subject of flight is on the tapis, is what will happen if the pilot has to descend en route in the middle of his journey. The conditions of the Prix de Voyage afforded an opportunity for the competitor to give a demonstration on this point, and M. Bleriot, sportsman that he is, took advantage of the rules by voluntarily descending in a field near Barmainville, although as a matter of fact he gained nothing by so doing, and stood to lose on the chances of failure which are naturally inseparable from a re-start. At the expiry of 10 minutes the timekeepers who were on the spot again gave the: word to "go," and with a shorter run that before M. Bleriot at once flew up in the air. Toury was the next place passed, and as M. Bleriot has been staying there, and making there from many of his splendid flights, there was naturally additional enthusiasm among those who had got up early enough to witness his further prowess. Passing Chateau Gaillard on the left, and leaving Dambron on the right, Bleriot hove in sight of Artenay and approached his goal as the wind freshened up from the west. This caused the aviator to describe a semicircle in the air while he cleared the railway and the telegraph wires before coming down to earth upon the selected spot at Croix-Briquet-Cheville, which is about 13 kiloms. out of Orleans. In alighting somewhat rapidly slight damage was done to one of the propellers.
  Having started from Chicheny at 4.44 a.m. official time, the landing took place at 5.40. a.m. The distance is given at 41.2 kilometres, and the net time 44 mins. In accomplishing his task, M. Bleriot has established the right to receive 5,000 frs. as pilot, 4,000 frs. as constructor, while M. Anzani receives 3,000 frs. for having made the engine, and M. Chauviere 2,000 frs. as builder of the propeller. Half of these sums will be paid over as soon as the record trial has been certified, but the other half will only be acquired if the performance is not beaten before the 1st of January,1910.
  Having finished his journey, M. Bleriot without delay proceeded to dismantle the machine, and having detached the wings and tied them on to the main framework in readiness for transport, he made arrangements for its removal to Vichy, via Paris, in anticipation of the competitions which take place there. In 35 mins. the flyer was already on its way to the Bleriot establishment at Neuilly, and by mid-day it had arrived there. And there are those who say these machines are not portable.
  M. Bleriot, who has thus accomplished the longest cross-country flight, has performed an even greater achievement in making such a successful attempt with what can with some justice claim to be the smallest practical flyer in existence. It is perhaps a little heavier than the Curtiss biplane in America, but it is smaller. M. Bleriot has always been a great advocate of the monoplane principle, although among other machines he has built a very large biplane. The flyer with which he accomplished his present record is the smallest of his series of monoplanes, and was one of the great attractions at the Paris Salon, where it was not unusual to find doubts expressed as to its capacity for flight at all.


Flight, July 31, 1909

THE BLERIOT SHORT-SPAN MONOPLANE - THE CHANNEL FLYER.

  M. BLERIOT has constructed, at one time and another, many flyers. That to which the accompanying illustrations refer is known as "No. 11," and its special feature lies in the fact that it is one of the smallest practical machines ever built. Its greatest achievements are the crossing of the Channel on Sunday, July 25th, 1909, and a cross-country journey of 25 miles as recorded in FLIGHT, page 421. The appearance of this machine at the first Paris Aero Salon in December of last year was the occasion of considerable comment on the part of all interested in the science of aviation, for no one other than M. Santos Dumont - whose "Demoiselle" was hardly to be regarded in the category of full-size machines - had at that time attempted to build anything quite so compact as the short-span flyer which M. Bleriot exhibited. As the result of preliminary experiment some modifications were made of the original dimensions, but the machine itself is still wonderfully compact, and is altogether quite the smallest-looking flyer which has hitherto met with any sort of success.

Champion of the Monoplane.

  From the time that M. Bleriot abandoned his overwater experiments in 1906 he has been a champion of the monoplane principle, and none have shown greater perseverance than he in the mastery of the problem of flight along these lines. He experienced innumerable difficulties in his early attempts and he met with delay after delay, for he was always having mishaps which damaged his flyer, although they never once placed him hors de combat personally. This latter fact was, it may almost be said, his only consolation, for there were not wanting critics in those days who doubted his ultimate success, and it must be remembered that Wilbur Wright had not then encouraged Europe with his epoch-making demonstrations of what could be done in the air. That patience and pe<:> as the man who first flew across the Channel, and, as some will have it, thereby destroyed for ever the insular position of England.
  M. Bleriot not only taught himself to fly, but he achieved flight with a monoplane of his own design; further, in his "No. 11" he developed the one-deck principle in a manner which has placed the seal of success on this type of machine, although it has not altered the fact that the monoplane still remains the racer of the air.

General Characteristics.

  Being a monoplane, the Bleriot flyer "No. 11" has of course only one deck, or, to be more descriptive, one pair of wings, for it is common to refer to the deck of a monoplane as a pair of wings, since the construction differs from that common in biplanes on account of the position of the main frame which divides the deck in the centre and thus causes each half to jut out like an extended wing from the body. It is a feature of the Bleriot construction that these wings can be readily dismounted in order to facilitate the transport of the flyer. The member to which they are attached consists of a lattice-work box girder having a square section in front but tapering to an edge behind, so that in plan it somewhat resembles the lines of the after-part of a racing skiff. At this extremity there is a rudder, and a little further forward a supplementary plane forming a tail. This member is mounted beneath the girder, and its extremities are pivoted so as to be independently movable for the purpose of control.
  The pilot sits in the main frame, slightly forward of the rear edge of the main wings, and the <:> situated a corresponding amount in front of <:> edge, and is immediately above a two-whe<:> which carries the weight of the fore part of <:> when it is resting on the ground: the rear <:> <:> two-bladed tractor-screw, made of wood. Jutting out above the main-frame, between the pilot's seat and the engine, is a light triangular steel frame, which originally carried a small fin, but has since been deprived of this member. The frame itself remains, however, as it is used in connection with the staying of the main wings.

The Main Wings.

  The main wings, which, as already explained, consist of two single members which are independently detachable from the main framework, are each built up around two transverse wood spars having a solid rectangular section measuring about 3 by 1/2 ins. At frequent intervals, about 7 ins. apart, these two spars are joined by curved ribs, some of which are quite slender pieces of wood having a square section of only about 1/4 in. square, while others are formed by strips of wood. The main rib at the inner extremity of each wing is entirely of wood, and has a built-up channel section. The wings are double-surfaced with Continental fabric, that is to say, the ribs and spars are entirely enclosed top and bottom by this water-proof material, and therefore present a perfectly smooth contour on both faces. At the maximum point, the thickness of the wings is about 3 1/2 ins., but the front edge and the trailing edge are both sharp. Transversely the wings form a straight line, but in fore and aft section they are cambered in accordance with the usual practice, and the maximum amount of camber is about 3 1/2 ins. This point occurs a little less than a third of the distance from the leading edge. The extremities of the wings are rounded off in a manner which is clearly indicated in our accompanying drawing.
  Having a span of 28 ft. and a chord of 6 ft., the aspect ratio is only 4.65 and the area 150 sq. ft.

Supplementary Surfaces.

  The supplementary surfaces on the Bleriot flyer consist of a monoplane tail having pivoted extremities, and rudder. The overall span of the tail, including the tip, is aproximately two-thirds that of the main wings, and the area is about one-fourth as great. The pivoted tips are approximately square, and have an individual area of about one-fourth that of the full area of the tail. The rudder, which is shaped in accordance with the constructional requirements, has an area of approximately 4 1/2 sq. ft. It is situated about 13 ft. behind the rear edge of the main wings, and is pivoted about 18 ins. behind the rear edge of the tail.
  The construction of the tail is similar to that of the main wings, except that the principal transverse spar consists of a steel tube. The central portion of the tail, which is rigid in flight, can be adjusted in respect to its angle of incidence.

The Control.

  The pilot of the Bleriot monoplane "No. 11" sits on a low board raised but a few inches above the floor of the main girder, and rests his back against a leather strap. His feet are placed upon a pivoted cross-bar, by means of which the rudder is operated, and vertically in front of the pilot's seat is a lever for warping the wings and controlling the pivoted tips on the tail by means of wires. This lever is mounted in a somewhat peculiar manner, and has a curious inverted cup-shape fitting upon its lower end, which forms the subject of a Bleriot patent No. 21497 of 1908. It is manipulated with the left hand, while the right is free to control the throttle and ignition-levers, and also, as occasion requires, to operate a rubber bulb of the scent-spray variety for the purpose of increasing the pressure in the lubricating tank, as the sight-feed fitting has, for convenience, been placed somewhat above its lowest level.
  Balancing is controlled by warping the main wings, while the tips of the tail - which work together - perform the usual functions of an elevator.

Constructive Detail.

  First and foremost in the constructive details of the machine comes the mounting of the main wings. Me<:> has already been made of the fact that each wing is b<:> about two main spars, and it is these members wh<:> employed for the attachment. The front spar, <:> the more important of the two, juts out from th<:> of the wing for a matter of 12 ins. or so, <:> into a socket formed by a hollow rectang<:> aluminium, mounted rigidly on the main <:> machine. When in place, the joint is se<:> bolts. The other main spar projects on<:> and is merely bolted to a simple alu<:> fastened at the side of the frame.
  The main frame itself is constructed of ash and is braced at intervals with wood struts and diagonal wire ties, which are fitted with tighteners.
  The attachment of the tail is another interesting detail equally remarkable for its simplicity. The weight of this member is carried by the lower principal longitudinal members of the main frame, to which it is fastened by a pair of channel-section aluminium clips. It is important to bear in mind that the clips are of channel section and therefore partially embrace the rectangular ash beam, thus necessitating only the lightest of bolts to complete the fastening. The bracket extension of these clips carry the main transverse bar of the tail which, as before mentioned, is a steel tube, and the mounting is so arranged that the tail can pivot upon this bracket as a hinge. The tailing edge of the tail is fitted with a little lug which is bolted to a bracket drilled with holes at frequent intervals so that the angle of incidence of the tail can be set with some nicety.

Chassis and Suspension.

  A pair of large bicycle wheels mounted on castor brackets serve to support the fore part of the machine when it is on the ground, and enable the initial run which precedes flight to be accomplished. The rear part of the machine rests upon a single wheel of smaller dimensions. The chassis to which the two principal wheels are attached consists of a pair of tubular steel columns braced together by two wooden beams, upon one of which the front end of the main frame of the machine rests. This beam is stayed to the heads of the steel columns by a steel strap so arranged that the girder frame rests in a kind of cradle. The upper beam is merely a strut between the two columns.
  The columns themselves are stayed to the frame, but the forks which carry the wheels are hinged as well as pivoted to the lower ends of the columns, and the wheel hubs are stayed independently to loose collars that ride upon a portion of the upper ends of the columns which are there turned smooth to receive them. These collars are anchored to the lower ends of the columns by a pair of very strong elastic bands, and it is these pieces of elastic which constitute the main suspension. Inside the hollow columns are springs used for the purpose of returning the wheels to their normal positions after they have been deflected to one side or the other while running along the ground. The connection between the springs and the wheel brackets is carried out by means of a single flexible wire, working over a swivelling pulley.
  As the chassis wheels rise and fall over uneven ground they cause the sliding collars to which they are braced to ride up and down on the vertical columns, and the wear which has taken place on this part of the machine is distinctly noticeable; in fact, the marking is suggestive that the collars are apt to jam, behaviour which might otherwise have been expected on account of their extremely short bearing surface, and the obliquity of the thrust which they have to resist.

The Engine.

  The engine with which the Bleriot "No. 11" is fitted is a 25-h.p. 3-cylinder Anzani of the semi-radial type, which means to say that the cylinders jut out radially from the upper half of the crank-chamber. The motor is aircooled, and has auxiliary exhaust ports in the cylinder walls, which are uncovered by the piston at the end of its stroke. The main exhaust valves are, of course, mechanically operated, but the induction valves are automatic, and are situated immediately above the exhaust valves.
  As the result of the semi-radial construction, the engine is extremely compact, great economy being especially noticeable in the length. The engine is attached to the machine by four channel-steel brackets which are bolted to the faces of the crank-chamber, and are drilled at intervals to the web for the sake of lightness.
  The bore and stroke of the motor are 100 by 150 mm.

The Float.

  During the Channel flight an inflated air-bag was attached inside the frame between the pilot and the tail to act as a float in water.


BLERIOT'S CROSS-CHANNEL FLIGHT.

  M. BLERIOT'S great success is a fitting sequel to Mr. Latham's splendid failure; there should be no jealousy in comparison, both are working in the cause of flight. M. Bleriot reflects glory on his defeated rival at the same time that he is crowned with the laurels of victory himself. And M. Bleriot deserves his success; how much, none save those who have followed his history in flight know. There were days not long since when M. Bleriot used to tumble with his machine with almost monotonous persistency; yet he kept on, in spite of criticisms. In those days, too, he was still trying to fly a monoplane, and monoplanes were not very popular just then, for there were not wanting critics who almost went as far as saying that they would not fly at all. M. Bleriot is the champion of the monoplane, and he has done more than anyone else to develop it. Moreover, he is engineer and pilot combined, and the machine with which he has crossed the Channel, and thereby traced his name indelibly on the pages of history, is his own machine, the work of his own brain, and if the truth were known, contains, we dare say, a good deal of his own handicraft as well. He is not only a worker, he is a sportsman, is M. Bleriot, and most thoroughly deserves every prize he has won.
  It is rather apt to be forgotten how very early M. Bleriot commenced his aviation experiences. As long ago as 1906 an illustration appeared in The Automotor Journal of May 26th, of an aeroplane which MM. Bleriot and Voisin had constructed for experimental work on Lake Enghien. It was a curious machine that, but it has this much of especial interest, that it was designed for use over water. In the following year, 1907, M. Bleriot had built and was trying at Issy, near Paris, a monoplane which does not differ in essentials from the machine which is on view this week at Selfridge's. What mishaps he used to have in those days! Almost every other time that he succeeded in getting off the ground he returned to earth with a crash; he always broke something, but it was never himself, always did this persevering pilot seem to bear a charmed life. As a matter of fact, he used to take what precautions he could, and he himself, as we mentioned last week, attributes many of his escapes to a little trick which he had of throwing himself on to one of the wings of his flyer when he saw that a catastrophe was imminent. M. Bleriot worked on the principle that it was impossible to save both man and machine.
  When M. Bleriot had advanced in the art of flight until he was easily among the two or three genuine pilots of the day, he conceived the idea of making quite a small machine, which type has since been known as his short-span flyer "No. 11." It was shown first of all at the Paris Salon at the end of last year, and attracted a very great deal of attention on account of its compact appearance. It was such a flyer as many had set their hearts upon, but as many more had deemed impracticable.
  No one foresaw then that this was to be the epoch-making machine with which he should fly 25 miles across country on July 17th and 31 miles across the sea on July 25th. True, the dimensions of the span are somewhat larger as the result of alterations which followed various preliminary experiments, but that it is still to all intents and purposes the same compact machine must have been apparent to all who took the unique opportunity of seeing it at Dover or during the past few days in London at the Selfridge showrooms.
  By his two great flights across country and across the Channel M. Bleriot has set the seal of success upon the monoplane principle. His achievements are another huge step in the "coming of the monoplane," about which we had occasion to speak at some length in our issue of June 12th, when Mr. Latham had been making some record flights with a machine of the same class. It is an advance, but it does not alter the problem; the monoplane is still by way of being the racer of the air. M. Bleriot took roughly 40 minutes to cross the Channel, his speed being in the region of 45 miles an hour average, and according to his own account was nearer 50 miles an hour shortly after the start. That is a speed which only a limited number of pilots can be expected to feel safe at in their early experiments. Safety lies in speed, there is much reason to believe, but that is a different kind of safety, and is hardly in the reckoning if the pilot himself is not at home in the air under such conditions. M. Bleriot is now a master of the upper element, but he worked hard for his degree; on no occasion has his knowledge and skill stood him in better stead than during his Channel flight, for there he met with difficulties which must surely have brought a less experienced pilot to sad grief.
  Even at the start there was, according to M. Bleriot's own estimate, a 10-knot wind; while, off Dover, the breeze was double this velocity, and the cliff currents particularly strong. In mid-Channel the wind had dropped, but at the moment of landing it was blowing in all directions.

The Story of the Flight.

  It was almost without warning, but nevertheless with a send-off on the French shore from an enthusiastic crowd, that M. Bleriot flew across the Straits of Dover from Les Baraques, near Calais, to Northfall Meadow at Dover on Sunday. July 25th, thereby incidentally winning the Daily Mail L1,000 prize. Taking the week-end as a whole, it has been one of the windiest periods of a particularly unsettled summer, and the previous day had in particular seemed hopeless for any cross-Channel flight. Half a gale had indeed been blowing and a heavy sea running only a few hours before, and hence it is hardly to be wondered at that the feat was as totally unexpected as it was.
  When this greatest of all great events in the annals of modern history was taking place the world and his wife were mostly abed, especially this side of the Channel. But M. Bleriot had got up at half-past two in the morning, not feeling very well, had taken a short motor run just to blow the cobwebs away, and that was why he was able to snatch the one brief fine moment that presented itself between the daytime storms of Saturday and Sunday. Seeing that the fates were propitious, he then lost little time in bringing out the flyer, and in spite of his injured foot he quickly carried out a practice flight over the sand-hills between Les Baraques and Sangatte. A little earlier, too, he had notified his intention to start to the destroyer "Escopette," which was consequently at that time standing out to sea, with Madame Bleriot and others already aboard - all anxiously on the look-out for him. Finding everything working properly with his machine, he speedily effected a fresh start, this time flying straight away over the cliffs and heading towards England.
  That was at about twenty minutes to five (French time) and it was about twenty minutes past five (also French time) that he landed at Dover. Accounts differ as to the exact moment of departure and descent, and as a matter of fact it is doubtful if any reliable timing was made since M. Bleriot started without a watch as well as without a compass. The distance of the flight was about 31 miles, and hence the speed was in the region of 45 miles an hour. During the crossing he flew at an altitude of 150 ft. to 300 ft., and thus kept much nearer the water than Mr. Latham did on his attempt.
  M. Bleriot's monoplane quickly outstripped the torpedo-boat destroyer "Escopette," with which the French Government replaced the "Harpon," that was on duty during Mr. Latham's attempt. In mid-Channel M. Bleriot lost sight of land and of his escort for a very uncomfortably long period - estimated by him to have been ten minutes - and was entirely without means of ascertaining his proper direction. In the circumstances he did the only thing possible, which was to keep straight on, and fortune favouring him, he sighted the English shore off Deal while heading for St. Margaret's Bay. Turning along the coast M. Bleriot flew towards Dover, and put in at a gap in the cliffs where a representative of Le Matin, M. Fontaine, was signalling to him with a tricolour flag. The site on which the landing was accomplished was the Northfall Meadow. Although the arrival was noticed from afar by several, and M. Fontaine was on the chosen part of the cliff at Dover, yet even he failed to see the real landing, and P.C. Stanford was the only eye-witness of this great historic event, the landing on British soil of the first flyer to cross the Channel.
  The actual contact with terra-firma was rather abrupt; in fact, not only was the propeller broken, but that part of the framework which carries the engine was also damaged. Mishaps of this sort, however, are absolutely negligible by comparison with the success of the main Daily Mail prize, and was none the worse for it, nor in all probability would his machine have been damaged had he been familiar with the site on which he was forced to alight.

Heard Afar Off.

  One of the most interesting minor points associated with M. Bleriot's cross-Channel flight, is the manner in which at Dover he was heard afar off by the very few people who happened to be about at the time. The whirring of the motor (doubtless chiefly due to the open exhaust) was quite distinctly audible, according to more than one eye-witness, even while the flyer itself was a mere speck in the distance. The night watchman on the Promenade Pier, in relating his account of the proceedings to the Daily Telegraph, says: "I suddenly saw a peculiar object away to the eastward, moving very rapidly across the sky. As it came closer I could hear the whirring of the motor, and I judged that it was one of the flying men who had made a start and had practically got across." The chief officer of the Coastguard Station similarly relates that he could hear "a continual buzzing when the machine was several miles away."

Looked Like a Bird.

  Next to the noise of the engine it was the high speed and bird-like appearance of the flyer which principally attracted the attention of those few who were privileged to witness its arrival in England. "The speed was almost incredible," said the chief officer of the Coastguard Station, and certainly the sight of a monoplane coming out of the distance through the air at forty miles an hour or so might be well calculated to appeal to the imagination even of one who's life duty it is to watch all that goes on in the Channel.

M. Bleriot's Last Flight.

  According to several reports M. Bleriot has definitely stated that he will give up flying after he has taken part in the Rheims races. Cherchez la femme of course, but who shall grudge Madame Bleriot her voice in the matter, now that her husband has done so much. Besides, although only 36, he has five children to think of, and there is after all some risk attached to the game which even M. Bleriot's phenomenal good luck might not for ever tide over. Let us, at least, wish him every success and all good fortune in - if it should prove to be - his last flight. It is nevertheless now said that, upon more mature thought, Madame Bleriot has since then withdrawn her embargo, so we may still hope to see M. Bleriot soar to even greater achievements.

Lost in Mid-Channel.

  It must have been a unique experience when M. Bleriot lost himself in mid-Channel, and it can hardly have been without a tremor that he realised himself absolutely "at sea,": although only 10 minutes, as to which way to go. It was a phase of the Channel flight which a good many people had anticipated and against which the more or less elaborate precautions that were proposed in the way of motor boats, &c, were in part to guard. That the first pilot should actually find himself in this predicament, no one of course expected, for most people naturally believed that no one would make the attempt without taking many precautions. To this extent M. Bleriot's flight may possibly be regarded as somewhat foolhardy, and the fact that he so quickly outpaced his convoy the destroyer, certainly rendered his position extremely hazardous had any accident happened; M. Bleriot himself admits as much. But fortune favoured him so that he kept his course. Speaking about his experience, M. Bleriot makes the curious remark that during the time when he was out of sight of land and other definite objects he "felt as if he was not moving."

The Commercial Side.

  Naturally enough M. Bleriot's success will give a trememdous impetus to his own aeroplane business, quite apart from the enormous lift which the entire industry, at home as abroad, will receive from his epoch-making exploit.
  Even as it is he has sold 15 of his machines since he started to take orders for them only a short time ago. He has also secured the monopoly of the Anzani engine which performed so well, and upon which so much of the success of the flight depended that, next to M. Bleriot, M. Anzani has naturally come in for much of the credit attached to this great historic flight.

Chevalier Bleriot.

  M. Bleriot arrived in Dover clothed in a cork jacket and overalls, and the more orthodox garments in which he subsequently appeared were on loan from Mr. Hart O. Berg - the European concessionaire of the Wright aeroplane, who happened to be staying at the Lord Warden Hotel. Mr. Hart O. Berg is a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour and his coat was decorated with the ribbon, which M. Bleriot desired to remove. Mr. Hart O. Berg remonstrated with him, however, saying that he was sure to have the right to the ribbon himself before long, and sure enough during breakfast came a telegram from France saying the Government had already conferred the honour.

Half Share with Latham.

  With sportmanlike generosity M. Bleriot offered to share the L1,000 Daily Mail prize with Mr. Latham if his rival should succeed in making the crossing during Sunday. But as Mr. Latham remained on the French coast M. Bleriot was not called upon to put his offer into effect.

The Flyer in London.

  Motoring in the vicinity of Dover, Mr. Gordon Selfridge, one of the heads of the great Oxford Street emporium, heard of the successful flight, and making his way to where the machine was surrounded by a crowd of spectators, he there and then arranged with the Daily Mail to have the flyer on view in his own showrooms in Oxford Street for the London public to see, and agreed to pay the sum of L200 to the London Hospital - an institution selected by the Daily Mail - for the privilege accorded. By this smart action on the part of a businesslike man, M. Bleriot's aeroplane was not only brought to London, but was actually on view by 10 o'clock on Monday morning, huge crowds flocking in from the earliest moment to avail themselves of the unique opportunity of inspecting its details. During the first three days of the week the stream of sightseers was constant, so much so that Messrs. Selfridge arranged to keep the monoplane for a further twenty-four hours, and, to enable as many as possible to see it, kept the part of their premises in which the machine was housed open until midnight on Thursday.

Bleriot and the Customs.

  The Customs officers, who were among the very few actual spectators of the arrival of M. Bleriot on the English coast, were very properly among the first to accost the pilot after his unconventional descent on British soil. With fitting forbearance, however, they recognised that it was only "one of those flying-men," and therefore made no attempt at an inspection for contraband.

Sixpence Admission.

  After the initial excitement had somewhat abated, a tent was erected as a temporary housing for Bleriot's flyer, and, in aid of local charity, a fee of sixpence was charged for the admission of the public, who hastened up in numbers to see the machine which had thus come so strangely in their midst.

The Prize and its Presentation.

  By crossing the Channel M. Bleriot had gained the L1,000 which the Daily Mail put up for this event, and the presentation of the cheque took place in the Savoy Hotel on Monday afternoon of this week. The gathering at the luncheon which preceded the formality was as notable as the occasion itself; among those present who supported Lord Northcliffe at the reception being the Right Hon. R. B. Haldane, Sir Edward Ward, Sir Thomas Lipton, Bart., Sir Horace Regnart, Bart., Sir Arthur Paget, Sir John Barker, Sir Francis Trippel, Sir Vezey Strong, Sir Thomas Dewar, Major Baden-Powell, Col. Capper, Capt. Jessel, Lieut. Shackleton, Hon. C. S. Rolls, Hon. Charles Russell, Mr. Roger Wallace, Mr. Frank Butler, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. Moberly Bell, Mr. St. John Hornby, Mr. Kennedy Jones, Mr. Hugh Spottiswoode, Mr. Harold Penrin, Mr. H. Gordon Selfridge and Mr. George R. Sirks. Altogether there must have been nearly 150 people present, and there were certainly as many more outside, waiting for an opportunity to cheer Mons. and Madame Bleriot, who were both happily able to be present.
  Lord Northcliffe first of all mads the announcement that the Aero Club of the United Kingdom had decided to present M. Bleriot with its Gold Medal, and then he presented M. Bleriot with a large silver rose-bowl on behalf of the British representatives of the Bleriot firm. The final proceeding was to present the Daily Mail prize of L1,000 in two L500 note which were contained in a letter-case enclosed in a handsome silver cup. In his speech Lord Northcliffe paid very proper tribute to M. Bleriot's achievement, and incidently took the opportunity of drawing attention to Lieut. Shackleton's presence among the guests, saying how pleasant it was that they were thus able to entertain at one and the same time such typical heroes of the respective countries. According to Lord Northcliffe, almost all good things had, like M. Bleriot, first "come out of France," for so many of the leading modern inventions had been due to the work of Frenchmen. In making the actual presentation, Lord Northcliffe concluded his remarks with a short speech of congratulation in French.
  M. Bleriot, in reply, spoke a few sentences characteristic of his modest personality, in which he attempted to belittle his successful effort. But in that, needless to say, his words carried no conviction to the enthusiastic assembly.

The Wireless Story.

  Although less exhaustive in its detail as compared with the wireless messages exchanged between Sangatte and Dover on the occasion of Mr. Latham's attempt, the following brief record is of historic interest: -
  Calais, by Marconi Wireless, via Dover.
   4.36.-Bleriot has started; look out for him. We saw him at 4.35. He started from Les Baraques.
   4.40.-He is nearly half way across.
   4 47.-He has outdistanced the boat.
   4.50.-He is out of sight of French coast.
   4.56.-Destroyers are now out of sight and far behind.
   4.59.-Bleriot flew with perfect steadiness till out of our sight, not very high above the water.
   5 a.m.-Let us know as soon as you see him.
  From the Dover side, unfortunately, the wireless operators entirely failed to locate Bleriot during his flight, although the torpedo boat was first sighted by them at 5.6 a.m., and its movements recorded every few minutes. Not until 5.31 a.m. had the rumour of Bleriot's landing at 5.20 a.m. reached them, to be finally confirmed by wireless to Calais at 5.52 a.m.

Celebrating the Occasion.

  Other more or less important and pleasing functions which have marked the greatness of M. Bleriot's feat have included a civic reception at Dover on Monday morning, when the hero of the hour was on his way to be lionised in London, a dinner given in his honour that evening by the well-known Bleriot Lamp Company of London, a reception by the management at the Empire Theatre later the same evening when animated pictures were shown typical of the aerial trip across the Channel, and, by no means least, the dinner given by the Aero Club at the Ritz Hotel on Tuesday, when their Gold Medal was presented. Also it is significant to observe that a movement is already on foot to erect a commemoration column at Dover on the spot where M. Bleriot alighted.

M. Bleriot in Paris.

  When M. Bleriot and his wife arrived in Paris on Wednesday afternoon, they were greeted by a surging crowd of people who simply swamped the extra force of police which had been detailed to keep the road clear. As soon as the train steamed into the station the crowd surrounded the carriage in which M. Bleriot and his party were, and they had great difficulty in fighting their way to the spot where M. Barthou and the deputation of the members of the Aero Club of France were waiting to M. Bleriot on board his monoplane, and M. Anzani, the designer and constructor of the motor used by M. Bleriot, receive them. All along the four miles which separates the North Station from the Aero Club house, the streets were lined with cheering people, and every vantage point had its occupant who waved a flag or a handkerchief. On arrival at the Aero Club, the guests were welcomed by the President, Comte de la Vaulx, who presented M. Bleriot with the Club's special Gold Medal. Later in the day, M. Bleriot was presented by his workmen with an objet d'art, entitled Le Cri de la Victoire, executed by M. D. Grisand.

Bleriot Monoplane Fabric and Fittings.

  It is of interest to notice that the material of which the planes of M. Bleriot's monoplanes were made was Continental aeroplane sheeting, which is used on many of the most successful flying machines of to-day. Another point of interest is that the Bowden wire mechanism was used by M. Bleriot for the control of the Anzani motor on his flyer.

Faked Cross-Channel Photos.

  In the interests of historic accuracy it is very important to publish a warning against many of the extremely clever but totally imaginative photographs of M. Bleriot's cross-Channel flight that have appeared in various papers during the week. For our own part we have exercised the greatest care in accepting any of the dozens of photographs that have been offered to us, and have studiously rejected all those which are obviously "fakes." In days to come, those looking back upon the present records may well be misled by some of the photographs in question, and even their absence from our own columns may fail to afford the necessary clue. As a matter of fact, no known photographs were obtained of M. Bleriot's flight while he was still in mid-air, in any case, subsequent to the time that he passed above the French torpedo boat.


Flight, November 20, 1909

New Flyers in Great Britain.

On Saturday last Mr. Parkinson made another trial with his Bleriot machine, but the propeller fractured and the test had to be abandoned for the day. Repairs were executed overnight, and on Sunday afternoon Mr. Parkinson had the satisfaction of rising into the air, the machine making a short flight of 200 yards at a height of about 10 feet, much to the delight of the thousand or more sightseers who had been watching the trials.


Flight, December 18, 1909

Accident to M. Bleriot at Constantinople.

  ON the 10th inst., M. Bleriot arrived at Constantinople with the object of giving exhibition flights on his monoplane. The first trials were made on Sunday, and attracted a large crowd to the flying ground, which was very small, too small in fact for any flying to be done with comfort. In addition, there was a strong wind blowing. The spectators becoming impatient, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon M. Bleriot determined to go up, and reached a height of about 60 ft. He was then caught by the strong wind and carried towards the Tataola Hill, 3 kiloms. away from the aerodrome. There he was unable to rise sufficiently to clear the houses and was driven against the wall of one. The machine fell to earth from a height of about 25 ft., and was badly smashed, but M. Bleriot retained his seat. Although able to get up, he complained of internal pain, and it was feared he had sustained severe injuries. He was at once taken to the French Hospital, and on Monday it was announced that there was no danger and it was hoped he would be able to be about by the end of the week. The sympathy of all interested in flying matters will be with the daring aviator in his unfortunate accident, and we wish him in the name of our readers a speedy and complete recovery.

"BLERIOT No. 11." - Rear view of the short-span Bleriot, showing the steering tips on the tail. The span of the wings is 7 metres, the area 15 square metres, the weight 230 kilogs., and the engine a 7-cyl, 25-h,p. R.E.P.
"BLERIOT No. 11." - Side view of the short-span Bleriot taken on Issy Parade Ground during the experiments.
M. Bleriot during his 36m. 55s. flight at Issy last Saturday on his monoplane "No. XI."
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - The start from Mondeslr, near Etampes. M. Bleriot is in the aviator's seat, and M. Anzani is just starting the motor of which he is the maker.
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - During his great flight from Etampes to Orleans, M. Bleriot passed over the railway line just before reaching Artenay at the same time as the Bordeaux express was on its way. This unique incident is seen above.
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - M. Bleriot In full flight on his long cross-country journey passing over the village of Monerville.
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - After covering the 25 miles across country, M. Bleriot alighted at the pre-arranged spot - La Croix-Biquet - about 15 kiloms. from Orleans. Immediately after his descent the whole machine was dismantled ready for transport back to its shed. The process of dismantling is seen above.
M. BLERIOT'S CHANNEL FLIGHT ON SUNDAY MORNING, JULY 25th, 1909. - The start for the crossing from Baraques.
M. Bleriot's sketch of his cross-Channel flight. - In the Daily Mail the above very interesting "chart" sketch by M. Bleriot on Sunday, was published on Monday. The explanation of the drawing is: - The lettering: "Louis Bleriot, arrived in England at 5.12, left France at 4.35." "Cal," in the bottom right-hand corner, means Calais. The black dot is the point of departure, and the line the line of flight. The significant "Rien" and the mark of interrogation indicate the point at which the aviator was for 10 mins. completely lost. " Vent " = wind, and "Fal." = falaise or cliff. "Dou." = Douvres, Dover - and the perpendicular line the lie of the coast. Note how the line of flight is well to the east of Dover and how M. Bleriot's chart illustrates the distance he had to beat westward against the wind before finding a place to land in the Northfall meadow.
AN HISTORICAL EVENT. - M. Bleriot and his monoplane flyer at the spot where he landed in the Northfall meadow, behind Dover Castle, on Sunday morning, 5.20 a.m. (English time 5.14 a.m.), July 25th, 1909, after flying the Channel, having left the French coast at Baraques at 4.40 a.m. (French time) the same morning. The constable on the right is P.C. Stanford, who is believed to be the only person who actually saw M. Bleriot alight on British soil. M. Bleriot himself is easily identified in front in his overalls and aviator's cap.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Mr. G. W. Parkinson, of Gosforth, Northumberland, at the wheel of his Bleriot monoplane. Mr. Parkinson, as we recorded, made his initial flight at Newcastle three weeks ago.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - M. Delagrange flies on his Bleriot machine to the spot where Mr. S. F. Cody came to grief in the sand-pit, to give "first-aid " to the plucky aviator.
M. Bleriot in full flight, on one of his monoplanes, past the grand stand at the Rheims Meeting.
AT PAU - M. Bleriot and some of his pupils. From right to left, MM. A. Leblanc, L. Bleriot, Claude Grahame White, and A. T. Milne-Wilson. On the left is a "snap" of M. Bleriot "planing" to earth with his motor stopped from a height of 75 metres on November 28th.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - An incident. M. Roger Sommer, on his Farman biplane, flying over M. Molon's machine, which had been smashed, during the competition for the Bradford Cup.
DONCASTER AVIATION MEETING. - General view of the aeroplane sheds, with a Voisin machine and three Bleriot monoplanes in readiness for flying.
M. Bleriot on board his monoplane, and M. Anzani, the designer and constructor ol the motor used by M. Bleriot.
Bleriot N 11
Diagrammatic sket;h illustrating the principal features of the Bleriot monoplane.
Sketch of the suspension on the Bleriot monoplane "No. 11," showing the elastic shock absorbers and the sliding collar.
Sketch showing how the main wings of the Bleriot monoplane "No. 11" are made detachable from the frame.
Flight, May 15, 1909.

"Bleriot XII."

  IN a fortnight, at the latest, M. Bleriot hopes to be able to take the air on his new monoplane "No. XII." This is a good deal larger than its immediate predecessor "No. XI," for it has a lifting surface of 22 sq. metres, while the length is 8.5 metres, and the spread of the wings 9.5 metres. The propeller will be 2.5 metres in diameter, and will be driven at 700 r.p.m. by a chain from a 35-h.p. water - cooled E.N.V. engine. The machine will weigh 80 kilogs. "light." At the rear end of the machine, in addition to a fixed horizontal plane, there will be a movable horizontal plane and the vertical rudder.


Flight, May 29, 1909.

M. Bleriot on his New Monoplane.

  M. BLERIOT has now completed his new monoplane No. 12, which, although slightly larger than his No. 11, is very similar to it. It is fitted with a 35-h.p. E.N.V. motor. M. Bleriot had the machine out at Issy on the 21st inst, but unfortunately he-was unable to attempt a flight with it, as it was found that the left wing was slightly heavier than the right one, and so threw the machine out of balance. This defect will, however, be very quickly set right.


Flight, June 19, 1909

Three Men in an Aeroplane.

  M. BLERIOT has once again placed a milestone on the rapidly growing road of aeronautical progress by being the first to achieve free flight on a heavier-than-air flying machine with two passengers beside himself on board. The two who made the trip with M. Bleriot on his monoplane "No. XII," were M. Santos Dumont and M. A. Fournier, the total weight which the 22 square metres were called upon to sustain being in the neighbourhood of 565 kilogs. The flight, which was made at Issy on Saturday afternoon last, was not a very lengthy one, only extending to about 300 metres in a straight line, and it was followed by another of similar duration. A little later M. Bleriot carried his mecanicien for a couple of turns round the Issy Parade Ground, a distance of about 6 kiloms., and just before darkness compelled the suspension of flying for the day he made two flights unaccompanied of 4 mins. 36 sec., during which 5 kiloms. were traversed, and 4 mins. 4 secs. The flights were witnessed by Madame Bleriot and several prominent French aviators, including MM. Paul Zens, Goupy, Witzig, Blanchet and Stceckel.
  On the previous day M. Bleriot made several short flights, including one of about 2 kiloms. which was brought to a conclusion by a double turning in the form of the figure "8," which evoked loud applause from the spectators. During the afternoon M. Bleriot took up M. Guyot, the winner of last year's Voiturette Grand Prix, who turns the scale at 87 kilogs. and flew with him for about one and a half kiloms., at a height of seven metres.
  On Tuesday, M. Bleriot was making some short flights with M. A. Fournier, when he landed very suddenly at the end of the last one and it was found afterwards that the crankshaft of the motor had fractured.
Latest Bleriot Monoplane, which is fitted with a 35-h.p. 8-cyl. E.N.V. Motor. - This new flyer differs, it will be noted, in several respects from previous designs, especially in the tail.
View of the new Bleriot Monoplane, showing the disposition of aviator, motor, &c, and the curvature and struts of the main frame.
COMING OF THE MONOPLANE. - M. Bleriot, on his No. 12 machine, flying 6 kiloms. at Issy on June 12th, with a passenger on board.
ANOTHER METHOD OF BRINGING A FLYER TO THE STARTING POINT. - M. Bleriot's No. XII passenger-carrying monoplane is the machine in the photograph.
AT PAU. - On the left, arrival of Mr. Claude Grahame White's two-seated, type XII, Bleriot monoplane, fitted with a 60-80-h.p. E.N.V. engine, at Pau Aerodrome on November 24th last. On the right, starting for a trial run on November 28th, on Mr. Grahame White's "White Eagle." On this occasion an officially-timed circular flight of 6 kiloms., at a record speed of 96 k.p.h., with a passenger up, was made.
Viewing the still smouldering remains of the Bleriot monoplane (No. 22 in the Rheims contests) after the fire on Sunday last, which resulted from the ignition of the burst petrol-tank.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Breguet-Richet (No. 2)."

  Helicopter-aeroplane, combining the principles of the lifting screw with the aeroplane pure and simple. The screws are two in number, and are placed at an angle of 40 degs. to the vertical between the front and rear biplanes.
  They are driven by bevel gearing from a 50-h.p. 8-cyl. Antoinette engine placed transversely, and are stated to give a starting lift of 300 kilogs. with a horizontal pull of 250 kilogs. at 300 r.p m. Each screw has four flexible blades, and is 4.3 metres in diameter. Of the two main planes, the biplane at the rear has a spread of 14 metres, while the monoplane in front is 10 metres across; together (and with a few other smaller planes) a total of 60 sq. metres surface is provided. The rudder is behind, and the elevator in front beneath the fixed monoplane.
  Between the main plane are two horizontal steering planes, which twist in an inverse sense, and are controlled by a pedal. The machine weighs 550 kilogs., and has been constructed at Douai by M. Breguet; its frame is made entirely of steel. It is very large, and looks cumbersome, but is not very heavy for its dimensions.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the Breguet Helicopter-Aeroplane. The large inclined screws are visible in this illustration, as also is the transverse arrangement of the engine; but the machine as a whole is so large and in such an awkward position that it is impossible to convey a comprehensive idea of its construction by means of a photograph.
Breguet N 2
Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Breguet (J.STENBURY).

  The Breguet biplane, exhibited by the concessionaire, Mr. J. Stenbury, is a very different machine to the combined helicopter-biplane which the same designer exhibited in Paris, but it nevertheless embodies equally uncommon ideas. As a system it is peculiar, not to say unique, amongst biplanes, in having absolutely no sort of supplementary surface in front of the main planes, which are themselves so mounted that they can tilt for elevating and righting purposes. The details of the control levers and wires are not fitted, and, indeed, the machine is far from complete. A compiratively short distance behind the main planes are a set of large tail planes, these being arranged in biplane form, but with the upper deck three times the spread of the lower deck. Between the two decks are a pair of vertical rudders. The whole structure has a most massive appearance, owing to the fact that it is built up entirely of steel tubes, some of which are no less than 2 1/2 ins. in diameter. The tubular spars, which support the main surfaces, are jointed to the main framework, so that the planes can be folded back out of the way for transport; when extended the joint is locked solid by using the spar itself as an internal bolt. In consequence of the large diameter of these tubular spars which pass through between the double surfaces of the planes, the planes themselves are of unusual thickness. A feature of the Breguet construction which is well worthy of attention is the method of obtaining a smooth round cutting edge by the use of thin sheet aluminium tacked on over the Continental fabric. Aluminium ribs of shallow channel section are also used for stiffening the decks, and the same metal is employed in the construction of the flexible propeller blades, which are, however, not shown at Olympia. For the support of the main planes only four tubular steel struts are used, one pair at the extremities, and the other pair in the middle, where they form part of the central framework. The engine with which the machine will be equipped is a 75-h.p. Gobron aero-motor; it will drive a tractor screw in front, which is another peculiarity of the Breguet biplane, since most machines of this type have propellers behind the main planes.

AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Breguet Biplane, seen from behind. Tubular steel of large diameter is used throughout in its construction, and knuckle-joints are introduced to enable the planes to fold back out of the way. The forward planes are pivoted for elevating. The machine is unfinished.
WHAT A WRECKED BIPLANE LOOKS LIKE. - M. L. Breguet's Breguet machine after his smash-up in front of the Grand Stand on Sunday.
On the Breguet machine the main planes are pivoted to serve the purpose of an elevator, the tail is exceptionally large, and the propeller is placed in front, which is an unusual position on biplanes.
Flight, October 16, 1909

AEROPLANES AT THE PARIS SALON (FIRST INSTALMENT).

Penteado (Chauviere).

  Modified form of biplane so constructed that the two decks converge at the extremities. They are further so arranged that at the junction it is the trailing edge of the upper deck which connects with the leading edge of the lower deck; that is to say, the upper deck, instead of being directly over the lower deck, is a full chord in advance. The purpose served by this arrangement is not clear. In the centre there is a gap approximately equal to the chord, but towards the extremities it seems decks become more and more in tandem, and there is no evidence of any difference in the angle of incidence of the lower deck which would afford a compensating factor. It can hardly be said either that the system simplifies the construction to any appreciable extent, as might be supposed would be one of the objects in connecting the two decks in this way.
  Provision is made for warping the lower deck; at the rear is a tail comprising a rudder and an elevator. The engine, a 5-cyl. R.E.P., is in front and drives a tractor screw.
Penteado Machine at Paris Flight Show.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Clement-Bayard"

  Monoplane designed by M. Tatin and built by M. Chauviere for Messrs. Clement-Bayard, the well-known firm of automobile engineers, who have equipped it with an entirely novel type of engine made by themselves, which was illustrated in The Automotor Journal of December 26th, 1908, p. 1694. It is a remarkably substantial-looking machine, and a peculiar feature of its construction is the upward curvature of the tips of the main wings. All surfaces are covered with a light-coloured varnished silk, which looks at first glance like aluminium. The pilot sits in the bows, and the planes are attached to the centre of the girder frame. Carried by long wooden beams stretching out far behind is the elevator and rudder.
Clement Bayard
Flight, September 25, 1909

Clement-Bayard Biplane.

  AMONG the newcomers at Port Aviation, one of the most promising is a biplane of the Voisin type - but without vertical curtains - which has been built in the Clement-Bayard works. It has a lifting surface of 60 sq. metres, and is fitted with a 4-cyl. 40-h.p. Clement-Bayard engine weighing 105 kilogs. The span of the main planes is 11.6 metres, while the overall length of the machine is 11.5 metres, and the weight about 500 kilogs. It will be noticed that balancing is effected by small auxiliary planes placed between the main planes. M. Maurice Clement is experimenting with it at the Juvisy aerodrome with the idea of taking part in the competitions there during the fortnight in the beginning of next month.


Flight, November 20, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

CLEMENT-BAYARD.

  BIPLANE with tail and elevator. The lines resemble a combination of the Wright and Voisin systems of construction, inasmuch as the elevator, outrigger, and shape of the main decks have features in common with the American machine, while the tail is essentially a Voisin detail, albeit on this model it is not of the box-kite form. No panels are used anywhere, nor is there even a prow on the elevator.
  The most interesting detail on this machine is the spring-drive and gear-reduction mechanism for the propeller. The propeller itself is mounted on a kind of double bracket, one part of which is rigidly fixed to the machine, while the other rides on the first, and is anchored to the frame of the machine by a spring-suspended torque-rod. This latter bracket provides a casing and support for a spur-pinion mounted on the end of a universally-jointed extension of the crank-shaft, and this pinion is permanently in mesh with another on the propeller-boss. In the event of suddenly applied load, the action of the drive tends to cause the driving-pinion to "walk" bodily round the gear-wheel on the propeller, an action which is permitted to a limited extent by the spring anchorage just described. An accompanying sketch shows the general arrangement of this detail on the machine.
  The use of a gear-mechanism is for the purpose of adapting the engine speed to a more efficient type of propeller. The average high-speed petrol engine is commonly considered to run too fast for a good design of propeller, but on the other hand gear-reduction mechanism is in itself a source of lost power, and many makers therefore retain the direct-drive. The spring anchorage embodied in the Clement-Bayard system plays much the same part as is performed by a spring-suspended torque-rod on the modern live-axle automobile.
  The control of the Clement-Bayard is effected by a steering-wheel and a pedal. Pushing the steering-wheel column bodily to and fro works the elevator, rotating the wheel operates the rudder. The pedal controls small balancing planes mounted between the main decks, near the extremities.

Clement-Bayard Biplane at Paris Flight Show.
The Clement-Bayard aeroplane, which is now being experimented with by M. Maurice Clement.
Sketch showing the gear-drive for the propeller on the Clement-Bayard flyer.
Flight, June 5, 1909.

THE COLLOMB FLAPPING FLIGHT MACHINE.

  AN extraordinary apparatus, of which we give an illustration, has been constructed by M. Collomb, of Lyons, with the object of achieving flight on the flapping wing principle. The moving planes, of which there are two, rock upon fulcrums, and are so hinged together that they can be operated simultaneously by the engine. As will be gathered from our illustration, an extremely long stroke is required in order to produce the sea-saw motion of each wing about its fulcrum, and the method in which this has been accomplished is primitively simple.
  The engine, which is mounted low down in the main framework, has a chain pulley on each end of its crankshaft, and these drive very long chains which are supported by corresponding pulleys overhead. Anchored to each chain is one end of a long wooden connecting rod, the other ends of which are attached to the hinge between the two planes above. When the chains are in motion they carry the connecting-rods bodily with them, and these impart a reciprocating motion to the flapping planes, which consequently rock about their fulcrum points. The greater portion of the surface of the planes is formed by pivoted louvres arranged after the manner of the laths in a Venetian blind. These laths automatically close on the downstrokes and open to let the air freely through them on the upstrokes, and the inventor of the machine confidently anticipates being able to keep himself aloft in the air by this means.
  The stretch of the wings measures 12 metres, the total surface is 24 square metres. The engine is rated at 40-h.p.
THE COLLOMB FLAPPING FLIGHT MACHINE. - General view, showing the inner ends of the planes approaching their lowest position. The motion of the planes is derived by the direct attachment of wooden connecting-rods to long chains, which are driven by the engine.
Flight, October 23, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

De Dion.

  Multiple-decked flyer defined by the makers as a "dix plan." In reality it properly belongs to the category of "five-deckers," since on either side of the centre body there are but five tiers of supporting surfaces. Each half deck, that is to say, each surface element on either side of the machine, is independently mounted on a longitudinal hinge, so that it can tilt out of the horizontal. All the decks are connected together, so that this tilting is reproduced simultaneously throughout, but in its present state the machine is unfinished in respect to the controlling mechanism. The object of thus pivoting the decks is to provide a means of balancing the machine by altering the "projected area" of the surfaces on either side. The air pressure on a plane is normal to its leading edge, and if the leading edge is not horizontal the vertical component of the pressure is reduced below the maximum. Normally, all the leading edges are horizontal, but this condition is disturbed in the event of loss of equilibrium, and the object of the De Dion system is to provide a means of maintaining the balance by the application of this principle, which is analogous to that of the dihedral angle in the Antoinette monoplane and to the description of which we would refer our readers for further reference to the subject.
  Four chain-driven propellers are fitted. In front of the machine is a biplane elevator, while behind is a biplane rudder intersected by a horizontal fixed tail. The construction of the elevator outrigger resembles the Wright design.
  Dimensions.-Span, 12 metres; supporting surface, 54.2 sq. metres; area of supplementary surfaces, 8 sq. metres; elevator span, 3 metres; chord, 0.7 metre; tail span, 2.6 metres; chord, 0.7 metre. Engine, 100-h.p. 8-cyl. De Dion. Propellers, four, two-bladed, wood, chain-driven at 450 r.p.m.
Flight, October 23, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

Dutheil-Chalmers.

  Biplane designed somewhat on Voisin lines, but remarkable for the prevalence of ,wire-suspended members. The pilot's seat is hung on wires, as also is the steering-wheel, and the same system has been adopted for supporting the short spindles on which the balancing-planes between the main decks are mounted. This latter detail is well illustrated in the accompanying photograph; the arrangement of wires there shown applies in the main to the other members which are less clearly visible.
  A feature in the design which is uncommon is that the outrigger for the tail springs from the front struts of the main planes instead of from the rear spars. This increases the length of an already long member, and thus adds to the difficulties of transportation when dismantled, but at the same time it affords a convenient support for the engine, and otherwise makes for straightforward construction.
  The chassis combines runners and wheels, the latter being spring suspended. This portion of the machine reflects the source of the design, which we are informed originates from the makers of the Avia monoplane.
Dutheil-Chalmers Biplane at Paris Flight Show.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Flight, April 24, 1909.

Henry Farman's "No. 3 " Biplane.

  AT Chalons, Mr. Farman has been trying his new machine, and appears to be well satisfied with the results of several flights ranging from 300 to 1,200 metres. Both greater stability and speed have been obtained with the new model.
  Henry Farman's biplane "No. 3" is fitted with a much more elaborate underchassis than previous machines. Not only does it now possess a set of four wheels under the main plane, but it also includes a pair of skis which are mounted between each pair of wheels, as seen in our illustrations. Wheels and skis alike rise with the machine when in flight. The usual pair of small wheels are fitted to protect the tail. Close inspection of the photographs will show that the inner wheels of the front quartette are smaller in diameter than those on the outside. An interesting detail, well illustrated in our photographs, is the hinged flaps attached to the extreme rear edges of the main planes. These flaps, when set in position, normally lie in the stream lines of the main planes, so that by flexing them up or down, as the case may be, the machine can be righted and steered. In his latest experiments Farman has abandoned the vertical rudder which formerly occupied a position inside the tail.
  Henry Farman has also abandoned the steering wheel in favour of the simple bicycle handle control seen in one of our photographs, and with the absence of any boatlike car on his present flyer, he is left quite free of any entanglement in the event of an accident. It has often been suggested that it is by no means wise for an aviator to sit in front of a horizontal steering column when learning to fly in view of the frequency with which bodily damage has been caused by this member in motor car accidents.
  The flyer is fitted with a 50-h.p. Vivinus engine driving a two-bladed wooden propeller of 2.3 metres diameter. The span of the main planes is 10 1/2 metres, and the overall length of the machine is 13 metres.



Flight, August 7, 1909.

SOMMER THE RECORD-BREAKER.

  ONCE again the French record for duration of flight was beaten by Roger Sommer, flying a Farman biplane (Voisin type), at Chalons, on Sunday, August 1st, with a flight of 1h. 50m. 30s. Sommer, who, as our readers know, has only been flying for about two months, now stands second only to Wilbur Wright in respect of time. The distance travelled upon this occasion is estimated at 70 miles, and the average altitude about 80 feet. The start took place at 4.48 p.m. Henry Farman's longest flight, which took place on July 19th of this year, lasted 1 hr. 23 mins., to be beaten last week by Sommer with half a minute to the good, and on Sunday again with 27 mins. to spare.
  There are still two recorded flights which are better than those of M. Sommer, namely, the two attempts made by Wilbur Wright last December for the Michelin Cup. The flight on December 18th, 1908, was 1 hr. 54 mins. 43 secs., while his best effort on the last day of the year was 2 hrs. 20 mins. 23 secs. The next best to M. Sommer's record was Wilbur Wright's flight of 1 hr. 31 mins. 25 secs, on September 21st, 1908.
  On Monday last M. Sommer made a 9 mile cross-country journey from Bouy, occupying about 12 mins., which landed him at the village of Suippes, where the Mayor and Council had to stop their harvesting in order to officially welcome their strangely-arrived guest. M. Sommer chose an unconventionally early hour for his call, for he settled down at Suippes at 4.20 in the morning. Giving a couple of demonstration flights in the neighbourhood, Sommer restarted for home at ten o'clock in the morning, lost his way in a fog, and eventually reached his shed at a quarter past six in the evening.
  The next day, after a new petrol tank had been fitted to the machine, M. Sommer made a flight lasting 18 mins.


Flight, August 14, 1909.

M. ROGER SOMMER'S RECORD.

  CONTINUING to better his performances every time, M. Sommer, who only a few weeks ago was unknown as an aviator, succeeded in placing himself at the head of the list of successful flyers on Saturday last. Starting at a quarter past three in the morning, he continued flying until he had been aloft for 2h. 27m. 15s., thus easily beating Wilbur Wright's record of 2h. 20m. 23s. Unfortunately, this fine effort of Sommer was not officially timed, and so it will not rank as a world's record, but that does not detract from the merit of the performance.
  When one considers that it was only a little over a month ago, on July 4th, to be exact, that M. Sommer took possession of his machine, it speaks volumes for the great advances which have been made during the past few months. Last December the magnificent flight of Wilbur Wright placed the American type of biplane in the forefront. This position it has held for some time, although the French monoplanes have repeatedly threatened their supremacy, and Bleriot's cross-Channel flight may be said to have given them the place. Now, however, the French biplane school are in front.
  As we have stated above, M. Sommer for his long flight made an early start, just as dawn was breaking, in fact, and so there were not many people present at the commencement. For the first half-hour everything seemed to go well, but after then it was noticed that the speed had slackened. It was noticed that part of the fabric of the lower plane had come adrift, apparently owing to the damp, and was flapping in the wind. M. Sommer momentarily thought he would have to descend, in order to rectify this. The propeller, however, solved the difficulty, as, catching the loose fabric, it tore it away. Thus relieved, the aeroplane regained its former speed, and flew on and on in wide circles over Chalons Camp. After M. Sommer had been aloft an hour the news quickly spread, and so the crowd of onlookers quickly grew. At the end of the second hour the anxiety was intense, as it was realized that M. Sommer had every chance of beating Wright's record, and so placing the duration record to the credit of France. The minutes slowly crept by, and the aeroplane kept circling steadily on until the record time had been passed. At this point the enthusiasm of the assembled spectators was boundless, but just to make certain of the time M. Sommer continued and made one more circle over the Camp. Then his petrol tank being almost dry, he thought it wise to come down, when he was surrounded by the crowd and carried in triumph to his shed, where his health was vociferously drunk in champagne.
  The next day M. Sommer intended to repeat this flight in the presence of Aero Club officials. He started off about 7 o'clock in the evening, but, such is the luck of flying, engine troubles began to make themselves apparent. After the aeroplane had been in the air for a few minutes, the motor suddenly stopped, and the flyer dropped suddenly to the ground from a height of about 25 feet, sustaining a good deal of damage.
  On the Wednesday previous M. Sommer came very near beating Wright's record, and only failed because his petrol supply gave out. Unlike his successful effort last Saturday, this flight was made in the evening. Commencing at 7.34 p.m. he flew in wide circles over Chalons Camp at a speed of about 40 miles an hour, and darkness coming on, torches and motor car lamps were placed around the ground to guide him in his flight, which lasted for 2 hrs. 10 mins.

M. Sommer's Progress.

  IN view of this latest feat of M. Sommer, our readers may be interested in the following diary of his progress as an aviator : -
   July 4th.-Took delivery of his Farman aeroplane and flew for 6 kiloms. at 10 metres altitude.
   July 5th.-Flew for half-an-hour.
   July 14th.-Flew from Chalons to Savenay and back.
   July 17th.-Flew for half-an-hour at a height of 30 metres.
   July 18th.-Flew for 1h. 4m. and had to stop owing to darkness.
   July 28th.-Flew for 1h. 23 1/2 m.
   August 1st.-Flew for 1h. 50m., officially beating French record.
   August 2nd. -Flew from Buoy to Suippes and back.
   August 4th.-Flew for 2h. 10m.
   August 7th.-Flew for 2h. 27m. 15s.

Sommer Gets a Medal.

  As a momento of his cross-country trip from Buoy to Suippes, M. Sommer was on Monday presented with a gold medal by the Mayor of Suippes, in the presence of a large crowd, who enthusiastically cheered the successful aviator. On returning to Chalons he made several short flights, and at the end of one, when endeavouring to glide to earth, he apparently came down too sharply, slightly damaging the chassis of his machine.


Flight, October 16, 1909

THE FARMAN BIPLANE.

  ONE of the most successful pioneers in the practical side of aviation - winner of the historic Deutsch-Archdeacon prize by the accomplishment of the first circular kilom., and hero of the first cross-country flight - Henry Farman has only latterly taken up the design and construction of the machines which bear his name. In his early work he used a Voisin flyer, and throughout the many succeeding experiments, in which one modification or another was made in respect to detail, the machine still retained most of what are, after all, the essential characteristics of the Voisin type.
  The Farman flyer of to-day is a biplane; it has a biplane tail, carried on a rearwardly projecting outrigger, and it has a monoplane elevator in front. Where the Farman design differs materially from the Voisin system, however, is that the machine is totally devoid of vertical panels, either between the main decks or the supporting members of the tail. There is, of course, a rudder, or to be more precise two rudders which work in unison, but there is no prow, not even so much as exists on the Voisin flyer, where the covering in of the elevator outrigger serves this purpose to a certain extent.
  One very natural consequence of the absence of this vertical surfacing in the Farman machine, is that it has a much lighter appearance, for there is nothing so well calculated to make a flyer look heavy as to box it in with side curtains. Another important feature of the Farman flyer, and one which originated on this machine, is the combination wheel-and-ski chassis. Being designed for launching by running along the ground, wheels are essential in the construction, but Mr. Farman was one of the first to appreciate the advantages of the ski on the Wright machine when it came to landing after a flight. A suspension which is in every way satisfactory for running about over smooth ground, preparatory to the start, is by no means necessarily adequate to meet the very severe shocks which are apt to be associated with descents on ground which has not exactly been chosen for the purpose. Here the advantages of skis assert themselves, the extent of their tread and of their strength to resist impact being particularly valuable under such circumstances.

The Main Decks.

  The main decks have a span of 32 ft. 6 ins., and measure 6 ft. 4 ins. on the chord; their aspect ratio is thus 5.1. The framework of the decks consists of two parallel transverse main spars, which pass from one extremity of the span to the other and lie parallel about 4 ft. 9 ins. apart. Across these spars are fastened curved ribs which overlap the rear spar by a distance of 1 ft. 7 ins.; the ribs are flush with the front spar which forms the leading edge of the deck.
  The decks are single-surfaced with ordinary fine canvas, but the spars and the ribs are nevertheless enclosed in pockets of the same material. This is done in order to avoid sharp angles. The strips of fabric forming pockets for the ribs are sewn on to the upper surface. The pocket for the front spar is formed by turning back the main sheet of fabric, the edge of which is then stuck down on to the under surface. The pocket for the rear spar is formed by similarly attaching another strip of fabric to the under surface of the deck.
  That part of the deck formed by the projection of the ribs beyond the rear spar constitutes a flexible trailing edge. It is not, however, continuous either in the top deck or the bottom deck, owing to the provision of hinged balancing flaps and the necessity for accommodating the propeller. The hinged balancing planes are constituted by those portions of the trailing edge lying between the last pair of main struts at each end of the span. The accommodation of the propeller involves the cutting away of the trailing edge of the lower deck only between the main spars of the outrigger frame.
  The main decks are separated by vertical ash struts, 6 ft. 4 ins. in height. The section of the struts forms a pointed oval. Diagonal wire ties crossing between the extremities of the struts brace the whole structure into a lattice girder.

The Framework.

  In addition to the framework of the main decks, the complete machine includes two outriggers for the elevator and tail respectively, and a chassis for the support of the machine upon the ground. All of these members are constructed of timber and wire, ash being the principal wood used.
  The tail outrigger is built up of four longitudinal ash spars, having a rectangular section. These are braced by vertical ash struts set in flanged aluminium sockets, and lugs attached to these sockets afford an anchorage for the adjustable diagonal tie-wires. There are no transverse struts between the spars, except those formed by the transverse spars of the main decks and tail. It will be noticed on reference to the drawing of this machine, that the longitudinal spars in the tail outrigger converge as they recede from the main decks.
  The elevator outrigger forms, in elevation, an isosceles triangle with its apex pointing forwards and upwards. Each pair of converging spars is braced by a single vertical member and a pair of diagonal wires. The transverse bracing between the two pairs of struts forming the complete outrigger is constituted by the bar on which the elevator hinges.
  The chassis frame is formed by two longitudinal skis, attached by six struts to the main-frame of the flyer, as shown in our drawing; diagonal wires are used to complete the bracing as in other parts of the framework. The most interesting detail in the construction of the chassis is the method of mounting the wheels on the ski. They are carried by an axle which is strapped at its centre to the ski by an arrangement of rubber bands, as shown in an accompanying sketch. Radius rods diverge from the ski to opposite ends of the axle in order to prevent slewing when one wheel strikes an obstacle, but as each radius-rod is separately hinged the axle can tilt as much as is required. When the elastic spring has been stretched to its permissible limit, the ski comes in contact with the ground, and takes the load direct.
  Another frame member which is of particular importance, although eminently simple in the Farman flyer, is that which supports the engine and the pilot's seat. It is shown separately in an accompanying sketch, and consists in the main of two wood spars and a simple pressed-steel bracket. The spars lie fore and aft across the main-deck spars, to which they are clamped by U-bolts in order to avoid drilling the wood. A foot-rest, and a light seat for the pilot, are fastened direct to these spars at one end, while a pressed steel bracket for the support of the engine is attached at the other extremity. The bracket itself is of quite unusual shape, since its purpose is to provide a support for the stationary crank-shaft of the Gnome rotary engine. Its shape and position are sufficiently well illustrated by the accompanying sketch to need no further reference.

Supplementary Surfaces.

  The elevator, tail, rudders and balancing planes comprise the supplementary surfaces of the Farman flyer. The elevator is a monoplane constructed in three sections in order to clear the outrigger which supports it, its span being greater than the distance between the main spars of that member. The leading edge of the elevator has been made continuous throughout the span, which is 15 ft. in length. The tail is a biplane of approximately 7 ft. span. Its decks are constructed like the main decks, and are similarly surfaced. The rudder is in duplicate, the two vertical planes constituting this member working in unison. They are hinged to the rear struts of the tail, and project some little distance beyond the trailing edge of that member. Their bracing, which is an interesting constructional detail, is well illustrated by an accompanying sketch. The balancing planes are the hinged portions of the main decks, to which reference has already been made. They are so mounted that they are free to adjust themselves to any natural position, and in flight would lie in the air stream line.

Control.

  Situated at the driver's right hand, is a universally pivoted lever, to which four wires are attached. Two of these wires operate the elevator, while the other two control the balancing flaps which form a portion of the trailing edge of the main decks, as already described. A to-and-fro motion of the lever controls the elevator, backwards movement, tilting the leading edge for ascent, and vice versa.
  Sideways motion of the lever works the balancing flaps, the connections being such that when the lever is moved to the pilot's right the flaps on the pilot's left are deflected downwards, thus causing that end of the deck to be raised upwards by the increased air-pressure which results from the movement. This manoeuvre also increases the resistance on that side of the machine, and in order to obtain the increased lifting effect required it is essential that the velocity at which that end of the deck travels through the air should be maintained, otherwise the increased angle of incidence will not have the desired effect, but will only serve to slew the machine from its proper course. The desired path is maintained by operating the rudders, which are controlled by wires attached to a pivoted foot-rest. Pressing with the right foot sets the rudder so that the machine steers to the pilot's right, a manoeuvre which would be used to counteract the slewing effect of depressing the left-hand balancing-flaps.
  It will be observed that the connections have been designed to accommodate as far as possible what might be expected to be the natural actions of a pilot in emergency. If the machine cants so that the extremity on the left of the pilot is depressed, the pilot would naturally try to correct this by leaning over to the right, and in so doing he would automatically move the balancing-lever in that direction, and would probably also automatically press harder upon the right hand end of the foot-rest. Both actions are those which it is intended should be performed as a means of righting the machine in the case indicated.

Engine and Propeller.

  The engine at present fitted to the Farman flyer is a 7-cylinder Gnome rotary motor. A peculiarity in the arrangement of this engine is that it is situated behind the propeller. The engine itself is of the radial type, and has its cylinders and the crank-chamber constructed entirely of steel. The cylinders are aircooled, and have the exhaust-valves situated in the centre of the heads. The inlet-valves are in the piston-heads, the mixture being admitted through the hollow stationary crank-shaft. One of the principal problems in the development of this engine has been the balancing of the valves against the disturbing influence of centrifugal force, a difficulty which seems to have been satisfactorily surmounted, as the engine is apparently being used with success. The rotation of the cylinders affords, we are led to believe, a satisfactory solution of the air-cooling problem.
  The propeller is made of wood, and has been built by Chauviere, whose workmanship invariably shows great care and high finish. The diameter is 8 ft. 6 ins., and it has two blades.


Flight, December 25, 1909

MR. MORTIMER SINGER'S SUCCESS.

  REMARKABLE success has been obtained at Chalons by Mr. Mortimer Singer with the Henry Farman biplane which he has recently purchased. His best performance up to the present is that of Tuesday last, when he flew 41 miles in 1 hour 1 min. 6 secs., and then only had to come down because of the cold wind. This is, of course, easily a record for novices, and in view of the short time he has been practising is a marvellous performance. Still further progress was made on Wednesday when during several flights Mr. Singer was accompanied by a passenger. At his first attempt on the 16th inst. Mr. Singer flew for 4 mins., and on the following day, three flights were made of 10, 12 and 17 mins. duration respectively. The first two were ended owing to the cold numbing the aviator's hands, while the last flight was brought to an end by a stoppage in the petrol pipe. But for that, Mr. Singer could have continued for much longer. At times he was flying at a height of 70 metres, while the distance covered during the three trips was about 40 kiloms.

Henry Farman's biplane "No. 3," on which the hinged flaps, hanging down, from the main planes are specially noticeable, as also the runners between the set of four wheels, the inner two of which are of smaller diameter than the two outer wheels.
The Farman Biplane, with Mr. Henry Farman at the wheel.
In the above picture Henry Farman is seen in flight on his biplane "No. 3." It will be noticed that the hinged flaps on the main planes have swung into their normal "in flight" position.
Mr. Mortimer Singer is one of the latest members of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom to make a number of successful long flights. Our photograph shows Mr. Singer, on his Henry Farman machine, in full flight at Chalons.
Mr. G. B. Cockburn is the British representative of the Aero Club of the U.K. at Rheims Aviation Meeting, and we wish him every success in upholding the British end of the art of flying'. He has already, as our readers are aware, made some extended flights, and above he is seen practising on his Farman biplane.
M. Sommer's record (unofficial) flight on a Farman biplane of 2h. 27m. 15s. at Chalons last Saturday. - M. Sommer is just flying over the timekeeper's pitch on his tenth circuit, the figures below the flag denoting this alike to the aviator and the attendant public.
During the "Passenger Contest" at Rheims on Sunday last, Henry Farman, in addition to his other triumphs, carried two passengers, besides himself, for one of the circuits of the course. Our photograph shows him in full flight under these conditions.
FLIGHT MEETING AT BLACKPOOL. - Mr. Henry Farman, who made the first flight at the Blackpool Meeting, rounding the west pylone during the long-distance event. In the background are the grand stands, &c.
FLIGHT IN ENGLAND. - M. Paulhan on his Farman biplane, flying high past the grand stands at Blackpoor on the opening day.
BLACKPOOL FLIGHT MEETING. - View of the aerodrome, showing Henry Farman in full flight on his first round. In the distance is seen the Judges' box and the signalling apparatus. On the right is one of the pylones marking the corners of the course.
THE FLIGHT EXHIBITIONS FOR LONDONERS. - Paulhan is seen flying down the straight at Brooklands over the motorists and their cars.
Remarkable Photograph of Paulhan Flying at Dusk on Saturday last over Brooklands Racing Track. - This snap was secured just as there was a reflection of the setting sun through the clouds silhouetting Paulhan's flyer against the brilliant patch of light.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another genuine photograph of an aeroplane when flying over water, showing the reflection in the lake. Our picture is of Paulhan at Brooklands, during one of his splendid exhibition flights on his Henry Farman machine. A comparison of this picture with the many published "faked" photographs of reflected machines is of considerable interest.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - An incident. M. Roger Sommer, on his Farman biplane, flying over M. Molon's machine, which had been smashed, during the competition for the Bradford Cup.
ONE OF THE RACING EPISODES DURING THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - Farman, on his biplane, giving a good lead to Latham on his Antoinette monoplane.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another example of a genuine enlarged photograph, with two machines in the air at a distance. This was "snapped" at Blackpool during the big meeting, and shows Paulhan on his Henry Farman machine, and Rougier behind on a Voisin biplane.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
DONCASTER AVIATION MEETING. - General view of the aeroplane sheds, with a Voisin machine and three Bleriot monoplanes in readiness for flying.
Henry Farman in the aviator's seat of his "No. 3." Note the bicycle handle control which has supplanted the hitherto orthodox steering-wheel,
Mr. G. B. Cockburn, the aviator who, as a member of the Aero Club of the U.K., will fly on behalf of Great Britain at the Rheims Flight Meeting next week.
M. Sommer, who, last week, at Chalons, on a Farman biplane, beat the French duration record by flying for 1 hour 50 minutes, the next day making a cross-country (tight to Suippes, a distance of 9 miles.
LATHAM AND FARMAN'S RECENT FLIGHTS AT RHEIMS GRAPHICALLY DEPICTED. - What their distance and height achievements are equal to if carried out on familiar ground in England. On the left the single flight of Farman is seen, reaching almost to Weymouth, whilst the three successive flights of Latham placed end on would have brought this remarkable flyer up to Lancaster and Morecambe Bay, beyond Blackpool, where the proposed Aviation Week is to take place next month. On the right the height event is seen, with St. Paul's Cathedral (to scale) as a guide for comparison.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing how the bearers for the engine and pilot's seat are fastened to the transverse spars of the main frame by U bolts. The inset sketch shows the universal attachment of the control lever to the side of the footrest.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch of the tail, showing the arrangement of the double rudder, and the method of bracing the rudder-planes.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing one of the four hinged flaps, A, which are let into the trailing edge at the extremities of each main deck. They serve as balancing planes, and are controlled by a lever. Normally they are. free to adjust themselves to the air stream lines.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing how the wheels are strapped to the ski by elastic bands.
The Farman Flyer, 1908 type.
Flight, October 30, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

FERNANDEZ.

  Small biplane, designed to have a similar appearance to the American-built Curtiss flyer; its construction is, however, less convincing. Bamboo is used extensively in the outrigger framework, but elsewhere the spars are wood. The decks are double surfaced, and the trailing extremities of the planes are arranged to warp for balancing purposes, a point of difference between this flyer and the Curtiss, which has independent balancing planes.
  The control levers are peculiarly arranged, but their operation will be obvious from the accompanying sketch. In front of the pilot is a pivoted vertical post, on which are pivoted two adjacent crossbars. Rocking the post to and fro operates the elevator; tilting the cross-bars, separately or together, as may be necessary, warps the decks and operates the rudder.
  It is noticeable that the pilot's seat is well to the fore of the decks. The engine is arranged to drive a single propeller through a vertical chain.
  The supplementary surfaces include a monoplane elevator in front and a rudder behind. An interesting constructional feature, well illustrated by the accompanying photograph, is the three-wheeled chassis.
Fernandez Biplane at Paris Flight Show.
Steering and balancing is effected on the Fernandez biplane by the use of two hand levers mounted on a vertical frame, which is itself pivoted for the purpose of operating the elevator.
Goupy Triplane, fiited with Anzani motor.
THE GOUPY TRIPLANE. - General view of the Goupy triplane from the rear, showing the longitudinal girder which carries the engine in front and the box-kite tail behind. The propeller is right in front, and the pilot sits behind the engine. The tail contains a rudder, and has small steering tips outside the curtains. The span of the main planes is 7 metres, their surface 60 square metres. The weight of the whole machine is 650 kilogs., and the engine is a 50-h.p. Antoinette.
Flight, March 20, 1909.

Goupy Flyer.

  THE Goupy flyer, with which trials are being made at Buc, was, as our readers are aware, constructed at the Bleriot factory. Its span is only 6 metres, and its surface only 26 sq. metres. Unlike "Bleriot No. 11," which is also peculiar for its short span, this machine has, as we mentioned last week, two main supporting planes, and although the upper one is placed a little in advance of the lower one, the machine is what is properly understood as a biplane. It is fitted with a 25-h.p. R.E.P. engine, and is mounted on three wheels. The weight without the aviator is 209 kilogs., and with the pilot on board and in running order, does not exceed 290 kilogs.

THE GOUPY AEROPLANE. - The biplane, of somewhat unusual design, with which M. Goupy is now experimenting at Buc. It will be seen that the upper planes are a little in advance of the lower one, and that the aviator sits behind the front planes. The biplane, which has been built by M. Bleriot, has a lifting surface of 26 sq. metres, the main planes having a spread of 6 metres, and being 1.6 metres across, while the length of the machine is 7 metres. A 29-h.p, R.E.P. motor drives the four-bladed traetor-screw, and the complete machine weighs 290 kilogs.
Flight, October 30, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

GREGOIRE-GYP.

  MONOPLANE, principally interesting on account of the method of warping the wings by means of a bevel-gear mechanism, which rotates the tubular steel main spars. The arrangement is both neat and compact, more, particularly, however, in that it is operated by the steering-wheel and is the sole control in flight. Depressing the horizontal steering - column rotates both spars in unison and warps both wings in the same sense. The warping of the wings by means of movable main spars depends on the provision of a fixed fulcrum to hold the inner extremities of the wings rigid. An accompanying sketch shows the arrangement diagrammatically.
  A rudder is fitted for use when the machine is running at out on the ground, but it is not intended to be operated in flight.
  While considerable care and attention has been given to the construction of the main wings and their warping mechanism, there is a noticeable absence of equally good workmanship elsewhere. The chassis, which combines ski and wheels, at first glance resembles that on the Hanriot, and a comparison of the two designs is instructive.
Gregoire-Gyp Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
The wings on the Gregoire-Gyp monoplane are warped by means of movable main spars connected through bevel gear to the steering-wheel, as shown above.
Flight, November 20, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

HANRIOT.

  Monoplane, principally interesting on account of the design of the chassis, which is well illustrated in the accompanying photograph. The construction has the appearance of being both light and strong; it certainly gives evidence of more desire to avoid complication than do many systems of bracing. It will be noticed from the illustration that four wood columns rise obliquely from the two runners which form the base of the structure. One pair of these struts converge to a point well above the centre of the body, and from this apex, wires radiate for the support of the wings. The other pair of struts stop short at the engine bearers, which lie longitudinally in the main frame of the machine.
  Transversely between the two runners two steel tubes are arranged and on one of these are mounted the two independently suspended wheels which normally lift the front ends of the runners some 8 ins off the ground. The suspension, which is not properly shown in the photograph, consists of elastic springs connecting the wheel brackets to the frame.
  As usual in monoplane construction, the engine is right in front, and drives a tractor screw. There is a tail at the rear, comprising an elevator and a rudder, in addition 10 fixed vertical and horizontal planes. Provision is made for warping the wings, but in its present condition this system of control is not fitted to the machine.
Hanriot Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

Kapferer ("Astra").

  Double monoplane built by the Soc. Sourcouf. It is a much larger machine than the majority of the single-seaters, and has a somewhat heavy appearance. The rear main plane has slightly less spread, and is slightly lower, than the front main plane; the pilot's seat is just in front of the rear plane. At the rear extremity of the longitudinal girder is the rudder and the elevator, both members being divided to extend on each side of a central axis. The engine - a 7-cyl. 35-h.p. R.E.P. - is placed right in front and drives a 2-bladed tractor screw mounted direct on the end of the crank-shaft.
Flight, November 27, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

KOECHLIN.

  Monoplane, in which the two principal points of interest arc the watertight wood body and the method of warping the wings.
  The body is constructed like a light racing skiff, but is flat-bottomed throughout. It is also decked in except for a small cockpit accommodating the pilot's seat. In order that the lines of the body shall be disturbed as little as possible, the engine has been mounted outside on a bracket which projects in front of the "bows."
  The wings are supported on tubular steel spars, as shown in an accompanying sketch, and near the extremities of the smaller tubes, which are adjacent to the trailing edge of the wings, two short wooden cross-pieces are hinged. These little levers are anchored to the chassis frame by wires passing from their lower extremities, and also to the back of the pilot's seat by wires attached to their upper ends. The back of the pilot's seat is pivoted so that it sways with his body, and consequently if he leans over to the left he is able to pull upon the upper wire passing to the top side of the lever on the right hand wing. At first sight it might be supposed that this would have no effect other than to put the tubular steel spar in compression, for the wire lies nearly horizontal above the wing. The spar itself, however, is initially slightly curved, and under additional stress bends still further into an arch concave to the earth. The wooden lever is merely a device for applying a force to the axis of the rod, and the lever is hinged so that the fulcrum afforded by its anchorage shall be maintained when the spar bends. The system is illustrated by an accompanying diagram, and another sketch relating to this machine shows the method of flexing the tail for use as an elevator. A rudder is provided at the rear.

Koechlin Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Koechlin in full flight at Port Aviation on his monoplane, which is fitted with a 4-cyl, 25-h.p. Gregoirc engine.
Sketch showing the details of the tail of the Koechlin flyer, illustrating a method of flexing the elevator.
Sketch showing the attachment of the engine to the watertight hull of the Koechlin flyer.
Sketch showing how the wings are warped on the Koechlin flyer.
Flight, November 13, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

LIORE (W.L.D.).

  MONOPLANE, in which the two principal characteristics are the divided wings and the twin tractor screws. Each wing is made in two parts of approximately equal proportions, the front member being rigidly connected to the frame and the trailing portion being hinged to the other half. The object is to obtain a wing of variable camber. No trials have, so far as we are aware, been made to demonstrate the practicability of handling such a device in actual flight. In order to overcome the obvious difficulty of keeping the trailing wings from bending out of shape, they have been enclosed in a kind of cage formed by a series of steel rods, which virtually perform the duty of external ribs. The arrangement of these rods is shown in an accompanying sketch, where it will be observed how they are attached to the hinge, and are the actual members by means of which variations of position are imparted lo the wings.
  Another special feature, shown on a larger scale in one of our photographs, is the use of twin screws, driven in opposite directions from duplicate chain-sprockets. This latter is a precaution against the disturbing influence of the gyroscopic force produced by fly-wheel like members such as propellers.
  In the same illustration the elastic suspension of the chassis-wheels is shown very clearly. Elastic, either in conjunction with coiled steel or alone, is a favoured material for use in the suspension of flyers, and manufacturers are not hesitating to ask a high price for these new "springs," the material alone we have heard quoted at L5, per yard in the Salon.
  The chassis frame is made of tubular steel, and carries extensions which brace the propeller-brackets. These brackets are mounted on the leading spars of the wings, which are themselves stayed by many wires radiating from each extremity of a central mast.
Liore (W.L.D.) Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Liore (W.L.D.) Monoplane at Paris Flight Show, showing the clutch and gearing,
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
W.L.D. (LIORE)
Sketch showing the manner in which the trailing plane on the Liore flyer is held in a cage.
Flight, January 16, 1909

Maurice Farman's Aeroplane.

  THE aeroplane which Maurice Farman, brother of the famous Henry Farman, is having built for himself, will be constructed by Maurice Mallet. It is a biplane with a 10-metre span, and carries the engine and the pilot's seat on a central frame. In front is an elevator and behind is a rudder; means are also provided for warping the planes. Two engines have been chosen with which trials are to be made, one a 40-h.p. R.E.P. and the other a 58-h.p. Renault. It is probable that the machine will be equipped with two propellers driven by chains. The machine is expected to weigh 250 kilogs. without the motor or propellers. Except for the rudder, there are no vertical surfaces on the machine.


Flight, February 6, 1909

The Maurice Farman Biplane.

  ONE of our accompanying illustrations this week shows the Maurice Farman biplane, of the construction of which our readers have already been advised. In general the machine belongs to the same type as that employed by the famous Henry Farman, but the details of its construction are, as our photograph shows, very different. It has on the whole a neater and more finished appearance than the Voisin type of machine, but this is perhaps largely due to the absence of side curtains. This peculiarity is especially marked in connection with the tail, which, instead of being a somewhat heavy-looking box-kite, as it is on Henry Farman's machine, has become a neat biplane pure and simple. The engine and pilot's seat are arranged on a half-elliptic girder, which has a smooth external surface, and is provided with a hood in front of the pilot. The elevators are in front, and, like the main planes, have a substantial and rigid appearance. The propeller is not shown in our illustration, but its attachment is immediately behind the engine. The principal dimensions are as follows :- Span, 10 m.; length, 10 m.; propeller, 2-5 m. diam.; speed, 900 r.p.m.; engine 50-60-h.p. Renault; total weight of machine, 450 kilogs.
THE MAURICE FARMAN AEROPLANE. - Side view showing the double decks, the elevator in front, and the single rudder between the double-deck tail behind. The spread of the main wings is 10 metres, and the total weight 450 kilogs. The engine at present installed is a 50-60-b.p. Renault. The propeller is not shown.
THE OBRE BIPLANE. - Front view of the Obre aeroplane, which came to grief in its early trials, as recorded last week. Although essentially of the biplane type, this machine has a very small expanse of upper deck. It has a light monoplane tail and rudder behind, which are invisible in the above view. The span of the lower deck is 10 metres; the engine is a 50-h.p. 3-cyl. Anzani.
A SHORT FLIGHT AT ISSY WITH THE LATEST ODIER-VENDOME BIPLANE. - The curved camber of the main planes is the chief feature of this machine which is fitted with a 4-bladed propeller. In the front, on the bottom main plane, at each end is a small steering tip which can be operated for turning and for braking by the pilot. A plentiful supply of spring skids are noticeable for taking any shocks in descent.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Lejune (No. 1)."

  Biplane constructed by Messrs. Pischoff and Koechlin, of Billancourt, for M. Lejune. It is a feeble looking job in bamboo and unvarnished linen, but is designed a little after the lines of the Wright machine in general appearance, although the controlling planes are quite different. There are two double elevators in front, situate some way apart, and a simple vertical rudder behind enclosed in a boxkite tail a la Voisin. The whole apparatus only weighs 150 kilogs., and is equipped with but a 12-h.p. 3-cyl. Buchet engine. The Wright system of chain transmission with twin propellers is used.


Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Pischoff (CAPT. WINDHAM).

  Capt. Windham, who has entered the commercial side of aviation, shows a biplane, which was constructed for him by Messrs. Pischoff, in France, embodying ideas of his own. Capt. Windham has now arranged to build similar machines in England for sale to the public at the price of L650 complete. One of the most characteristic features of the machine is that derived from the appearance of the outrigger framework which carries the biplane elevator in front and the rigid biplane tail behind. The first impression is that this framework is one complete elliptical unit, but closer inspection shows the lack of continuity in the upper girder members which stop short under the main planes. The machine is mainly constructed of wood, but has a certain amount of tubular steel work in connection with the chassis and the brackets for the support of the two chain-driven propellers which are situated immediately behind the main planes, and therefore a little aft of the centre of the machine as a whole. The planes themselves are double surfaced, but the appearance of the end webs does not give evidence of any close attention to special curvature. The decks are separated by vertical wood struts, with the usual system of diagonal wiring. The struts are bolted to strip iron angle plates, which in turn are either bolted or screwed to the main spars, but although this detail in the construction is evidently not intended to be flexible, the rough fitting certainly belies rigidity; in fact, there is a distinct lack of refined workmanship in many parts of the machine.
  An original feature of the control is pivoting the back of the pilot's seat so that by swaying his body he can operate the movements of a pair of small righting planes which are pivoted midway between the main planes at each extremity. The elevator and rudder, the latter being in the middle of the tail, are controlled by a single lever operated by the driver's right hand. The engine with which the machine is at present equipped is a 2-cyl. Dutheil-Chalmers, but the machines which Captain Windham will construct in this country will have 4-cyl. engines of the same make.
Lejeune N 1
The Pischoff biplane is a tailed machine, and as such therefore belongs to the Voisin type, but it differs from the typical Voisin flyer both in appearance and construction. Its tail is not quite as far to the rear, and has a different normal level.
T-joint in Capt. Windham's Pischoff.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Pischoff-Koechlin."

  Monoplane having a car built like a boat, and with the pilot's seat well forward immediately between the main wings. In front is a divided elevator, and there is another behind in addition to a divided rudder. The controlling apparatus was not assembled, nor was anyone in evidence on the stand to explain what would be employed. Immediately behind the main wings are two wooden propellers, driven by chains from a twin-cylinder (opposed) horizontal engine.
Pischof-Koechlin: Side View
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"R.E.P. (No. 2)."

  Monoplane constructed throughout at the R.E.P. works (Billancourt, Seine). The wings extend laterally from the forward end of a longitudinal steel girder of semicircular section, and are so made and mounted that they can be warped for the purposes of steering. The girder has fixed keels above and below; the latter terminates in a rudder, and behind the rudder is the elevator. In front is the engine, driving a 4-bladed tractor screw.
  A feature of the construction is the covering of the entire machine with fabric, so as to present an unbroken surface. Also the top and bottom keels give an unusually large vertical area. Under ordinary conditions, the machine is controlled by a single pivoted lever, which operates the elevator and warps the wings. The rudder is operated by a separate lever working in a notched quadrant, and a third lever is used for setting the elevator at different normal angles.


Flight, February 20, 1909

M. Guffroy Flies on R.E.P. Machine.

ON Tuesday, after going through a couple of days' training at M. R. Esnault Pelterie's aerodrome at Buc, M. Maurice Guffroy, despite the mist, succeeded in making several short flights on the R.E.P. 2-bis monoplane, which he has entered for the Gordon-Bennet Cup. The longest flight measured nearly 70 metres. On Wednesday he was continuing his experiments, and succeeded in making a flight of 800 metres, which was brought prematurely to an end through an extraordinary accident. He failed when turning to quite clear a bank about 12 ft. high, and as a result of the collision the machine completely turned turtle. Marvellous to relate, as the monoplane was travelling at a speed of 80 kiloms. an hour, M. Guffroy escaped unhurt, and the only damage to the machine was a broken propeller.


Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

Rep (BESSLER-WAECHTER).

  The Rep monoplane exhibited by Messrs. Bessler-Waechter, who are the British manufacturers for M. Esnault-Pelterie, is in the main a copy of that No. 2 bis, which was exhibited at Paris and with which M. Pelterie has himself made his most successful experiments. Except in slight details which would pass unnoticed by those not closely acquainted with the precise lines of the earlier model, the flyer on view at Olympia is quite unaltered, but close inspection shows that the tail end of the body of the machine has been slightly modified in its lines and now is more rounded in its section than formerly. The rudder, too, is a little smaller, but the system of control remains unchanged. Ascending and descending is accomplished mainly by the use of the stern elevator, steering is managed by means of the rear rudder, and lateral stability is obtained by warping the main wings. These operations are performed by levers, one of which besides warping the wings also flexes the elevator within certain limits; this particular lever is universally jointed to move either sideways or to and fro. There are two other levers which can be used to set the rudder and to set the elevator in any given position. When ascending it is the rear edge of the stern elevator which is tilted; in biplanes which have an elevator in front of the machine it is of course the front edge which is tilted for this purpose. When proceeding at any given speed, an increase of speed of the engine also causes ascent with any given setting of the elevator.
  A feature of the general scheme of the R.E.P. flyer is the mounting of the machine on two wheels, with guide wheels on the tips of the main wings, so that the pilot can learn to partially control his machine without leaving the ground. Why M. Esnault-Pelterie adopted the monoplane principle he explained in a lecture before the members of the Aero Club some weeks ago. It was, as our readers will remember, mainly because he found that the wires necessary in the construction of a biplane offered tremendous resistance, far greater in fact than would be imagined from their small diameter.
"Mr. Guffroy's R.E.P. monoplane after its accident last week. When turning, during a flight of 800 metres at a speed of 80 kiloms. per hour, one of the wings struck the bank seen in the photograph, causing the machine to capsize and crash to earth in the position seen above. Only the propeller was damaged, and Mr. Guffroy escaped unhurt.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Rep Monoplane, seen from above, and showing the lacing of the wing surfaces to the main frame; the lacing is subsequently covered with fabric. The elevator, tail, rudder and rigid keel are very distinctly shown.
ONE OF THE METHODS ADOPTED AT THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING FOR TAKING THE MACHINES UP TO THE STARTING LINE. - The monoplane in our picture being hauled along is one of the R.E.P. flyers.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the principal part of the Aviation Section. In the foreground, a little to the left, is a back view of Ader's "Avion," to the right is the R.E.P. monoplane, and opposite to it is the Delagrange biplane. In mid-air is the "Ville de Bordeaux," and in the distance, down the Grande Nef, can be seen part of a spherical balloon.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
R.E.P. N 2bis
Great care is taken in the construction of the Rep monoplane to cover every inch of the exterior with surface fabric. Its large keel down the middle of the back is a characteristic feature of this flyer.
A detail on the Rep monoplane.
Flight, January 16, 1909.

Robart Aeroplane.

  M. HENRI ROBART, of Amiens, has recommenced his flying experiments with a new aeroplane weighing 400 kilogs., and fitted with a 40-h.p. Antoinette engine. The surface is 50 sq. metres, and the engine drives two twin-bladed propellers through chains; the propellers are 2.32 metres in diameter and 3 metres in width.
Latest form of the Robart biplane which is fitted with an 8'cyl. 5O.h,p, Antoinette motor, chain transmission and two propellers. It has a span of 12 metres, and a plane surface of 52 sq. metres. The feature of this aeroplane is the pronounced curvature of the lower plane.
A NEW BIPLANE - The above photograph depicts an original biplane, which is the production of a new French firm, the Societe Rossel-Peugeot, M. Frederic Rossel, the favourite assistant of Ader, having joined MM. Peugeot Freres. The machine has many distinguishing features, notably, the absence of a front elevator, the driving of the propellers, and the arrangement of the twin rudders between the planes of the tail. The propellers are driven through bevel gearing from a transverse-shaft, which, in its turn, is driven by a chain from the twin-cylinder engine. The framework of the aeroplane, it will be noticed, is of bamboo.
Flight, October 16, 1909

AEROPLANES AT THE PARIS SALON (FIRST INSTALMENT).

Aime-Salmson.

  Machine which the inventors define as an "autoplane." It is totally unlike any device which has yet flown and is principally interesting on account of the idea it embodies for making the machine self-lifiing, that, is to say, capable of rising off the ground vertically from rest.
  For this purpose a pair of arched wings are used beneath the main wings, which are horizontal, and a pair of propellers are arranged to blow air laterally from the centre of the machine on to the arched surfaces. The deflection of the air stream in a downward direction is intended to give an upward reaction of sufficient magnitude to lift the machine bodily; it will be interesting to see whether the practical trials justify this expectation.
  Propellers for giving longitudinal motion have their shafts bevel driven from the transverse-shafts of the other screws, and so are always in action. Behind the main horizontal wings are two planes, side by side, which can be deflected into the draught from the two propellers. It is intended to try and steer the machine by the reactions thus set up, and it is anticipated that by deflecting both surfaces simultaneously and then screening both propellers it will be possible to increase the initial lifting effort of the transverse-screws. It is at any rate inadvisable to waste the energy developed in two permanently driven propellers when it comes to trying to lift such a device with a rather limited amount of engine power.
Salmson "Autoplane" at Paris Flight Show.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

Santos Dumont's "La Demoiselle."

  Besides being the smallest machine at the show, "La Demoiselle" hangs aloft by a wire like a toy butterfly so that few of the visitors noticed its existence. It is a monoplane having a twin cylinder engine mounted above the wings. The engine drives a two-bladed tractor-screw and the aviator sits beneath on a light saddle. The spread of the wings is only about 5 metres, and their surface only about 9 sq. metres. The total weight is only 67 kilogs., so that it can be very readily handled by one man; it has already achieved some short flights.


Flight, September 25, 1909

M. SANTOS DUMONT'S NEW ACHIEVEMENTS.

Santos Dumont Holds "Jumping Off" Record.

  IT is a long time since M. Santos Dumont had a flying record standing to his name, but he has now secured the honour of being able to rise from the ground in the shortest distance. The official record of the Aero Club of France states that M. Santos Dumont rose from the ground after travelling 70 metres in 6 1/5 seconds, thus beating the record of Mr. Glenn Curtiss, who got up in 80 metres. The "Demoiselle" actually rose when only 40 metres had been covered, but it touched earth again, and 70 metres were traversed before the little flyer got clear away.
  M. Santos Dumont had an interesting experience on the 17 th inst, which illustrates how it will be possible to visit one's friends by aeroplane when they become more reliable and more common. He started off from St. Cyr for one of his little excursions, but was so enraptured with the flight that he kept on until miss-firing of the motor reminded him that his petrol supply was limited. He then found he had lost his bearings, but seeing a house in the distance he determined to come down in the surrounding park. This was safely accom1ished, and needless to say the Comtesse de Galand, for it was in her park at Wideville that the aviator landed, was pleased to see her strange visitor, and he was prevailed upon to stay. No sooner was little "Demoiselle" tucked away in the shed than a vio1ent thunderstorm broke over St. Cyr, and the patient watchers for the return of Santos Dumont grew anxious, and eventually started searching the surrounding neighbourhood for tidings of him. Subsequently one of the sons of the Comtesse, who had seen Santos Dumont start, returned home, and was somewhat astounded to see him calmly sitting down at supper. The distance flown was about 17 kiloms., which was covered in about a quarter of an hour. On the previous day M. Santos Dumont made two flights, one from St. Cyr to Buc and back, and another in which he demonstrated the ability of his little machine to carry weights out of balance. A weight of about 40 lbs. was attached to one side of the frame, but in spite of this the flyer kept an even keel, and, moreover, maintained it when the weight was suddenly released. On Saturday last at St. Cyr M. Santos Dumont further demonstrated the stability of his machine by flying without holding the steering wheel, waving a handkerchief in each hand to show that he was not controlling the machine, which flew on as usual.


Flight, October 2, 1909

SANTOS DUMONT'S "DEMOISELLE."
DETAILS OF THE SMALLEST KNOWN FLYER IN THE WORLD.

  ALTHOUGH the historic cross-Channel Bleriot is a close rival to it, there is no doubt but that the chief centre of interest in the exhibition now open in Paris is that corner of the Clement - Bayard stand on which reposes Mons. Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle," or, to give it the title it bears, "Le Santos No. 20." Partly all the world flocks round this monoplane because it is the smallest practical flyer which is known to have accomplished its primary object. But everyone also goes to see it in consequence of Mons. Santos Dumont's announcement of the free presentation of any rights he might maintain in connection with it, to the world at large. In connection with the exhibit, the designer has issued a printed circular for distribution, and in this he announces that whereas he had originally hoped that anyone could obtain these machines by having them built for themselves at a total cost of from some six to seven thousand francs (L240 to L280), yet he found that the prices charged by manufacturers for engines would inevitably increase that figure at the moment. The circular announces, however, that been made by him with Mons. Clement and Mons. Charron, whereby a thousand of these little voiturettes of the air are to be turned out at a reasonable price, and within a short period.
  Apart from the more popular reason why so much attention is being devoted just now to the "Santos No. 20," there are many excellent technical reasons that warrant that attitude from all serious well-wishers of the science of flight. After all said and done, this machine has flown, and flown with ease and certainty almost from the first moment that it saw the light of day outside the factory, and yet its total weight is but 240 lbs. or thereabouts, while its external dimensions do not exceed some 20 ft. across by 18 ft. fore and aft, by 4 ft. 2 in. in height - of if the vertical dimension was taken to the top of the propeller in its extreme position the overall height is approximately 7 ft. 5 in.
  For these reasons, and also because of the cunning manner in which that not altogether satisfactory material bamboo is used for the chassis, for the main planes, and for the rudder the following, detailed description which we are able to give will doubtless receive a hearty welcome from all readers. Accompanying this description we are able to give a sheet of drawings of the type which we have already made peculiarly our own in this connection, besides another line drawing which comprises a front elevation of the complete machine and sundry photos that clearly demonstrate the nature of the framework as well as the manner in which the motor is carried upon it. The special drawing referred to has all the principal dimensions marked thereon, and as usual this comprises side elevation and plan. In addition to the photographs published herewith we would also remind the reader that four other views appeared in the last issue of FLIGHT, showing the machine in the air, being transported by motor car, and in respect to its important details.

The Chassis.

  A main frame of girder construction is formed by three stout bamboos which are about 2 ins. in diameter at the thickest places, and are arranged two on a lower level with the other centrally above them. Inter-connecting them together are steel struts of oval section, and this main frame is approximately 16 ft. 5 in. from the point of intersection at the rear, up to the extreme front which carries the main planes on the higher level and the two small wheels on the lower level.
  A practice is made in this machine of smoothing down all the bamboo knots, presumably to reduce their resistance, and of binding the bamboos between the knots so as to prevent splitting. All diagonal wires are, moreover, provided with neat little tighteners, none of which are more than an inch long. Our illustrations very clearly show the precise shape of the triangular girder frame, to which we have just referred, and also indicate the position and nature of the seat that accommodates the operator. This seat merely consists of a piece of canvas stretched across between the two lower main bamboos, the operator thus being placed quite low down in the chassis, and just aft of the two supporting bicycle wheels. Other features of the main frame are the provision of a special universal joint which carries the tail, and of a special vertical member fixed some three feet from the rear end, which not only serves to carry the wires which operate the elevator portion of the tail, but which has a runner formed at its foot to act in conjunction with the two wheels when the machine is resting on the ground. It will be observed that this runner is all that is required, inasmuch that as soon as the monoplane gets going the tail end lifts free of the ground before the fore portion rises.
  A further important characteristic of the girder is that it is divided in the neighbourhood of the rear of the main planes, so that it can be taken apart without difficulty. Brass sockets are fitted for this purpose.

The Main Planes.

  Two main transverse spars constitute the principal members of the two main planes, which are set at a dihedral angle to one another, in accordance with M. Santos Dumont's well-known beliefs on this subject. These spars are of ash, but are not of an even section throughout their entire length, being heaviest a few feet away from the dihedral angle, where they are about 2 ins. wide by about 1 1/8 ins. deep and tapering down to a bare inch in depth, though still retaining a width of a couple of inches where they are joined to the central bamboo. The front spar lies some 9 ins. behind the leading edge of the frame, while the rear one is about 12 ins. forward of the trailing edge, and the planes are otherwise built up with bamboo ribs fixed beneath the two main spars while the surfacing is double and is formed of silk.
  A further feature of the construction of the planes is the employment of light bamboo corner-stays which save the employment of any heavy end-rib, and are thus well worth noting on the part of every designer. In shape, the planes are so formed that the angle of greatest incidence is at the centre, diminishing slightly towards the outer extremities, while the greatest camber is not as near the leading edge as usual, being barely in front of the centre.
  With a total span of 18 ft., and a chord of 6 ft. 5 ins., it will be observed that the total area of the planes is about 115 sq. ft., and that the aspect ratio is approximately 2.8. As regards the camber, this is roughly about 4 ins. Other constructional details that are of importance while still speaking about the main planes, include the following: - The leading and trailing edges are caused to be quite sharp, owing to the use of wires that are fitted to the ends of the rib; pockets are formed in the planes, owing to a line of sewing being run between the various ribs; and another unusual detail is that no wires are to be found above the planes, all wire diagonals being arranged between the surfaces.

The Tail.

  As already briefly indicated, the tail moves as a whole and is pivoted on a universal joint for that purpose. This part of the machine in particular is commendable in design, and the construction is certainly preferable to other methods in common use, in which one of the elements of the tail is divided in order to allow for the movement of the other. As will be observed, the ball-and-socket joint lies some 10 feet behind the trailing edge of the main plane, and the motion of the tail upwards and downwards for elevating, as well as sideways for steering, is controlled by steel wires in the manner that can to some extent be followed in our special illustrations.
  Both tail surfaces are quite flat, being free from camber, and are stretched upon bamboo ribs. The horizontal surface constituting the elevator is 6 ft. 5 in. across from tip to tip, and measures 4 ft. 9 in. fore and aft between its extreme points, while the vertical rudder surface has a similar shape, and an equal fore-and-aft dimension, but possesses a considerably less total area than the elevator.

Controlling Mechanism.

  There are three principal means whereby the pilot can control the machine, apart from the switch-button, which is coupled up in the ignition system for the engine, and is fixed to the elevating-lever. The first of these is the elevating-lever, by means of which the tail is moved up and down, and this lever lies close to the right hand of the pilot, as may be seen in our illustration. Next should be mentioned the small hand-wheel, which lies on the left, this controlling the steering-gear inasmuch as it enables the rudder to be moved bodily backwards and forward sideways. And thirdly there is a lever lying against the aviator's back which enables him to warp the wings by leaning his body over to left or right as may be needed. Leaning to one side causes the rear edge of the wing on the opposite side to be flexed downwards, and thus causes that side of the machine to rise. It will be observed that there is no actual connection between the wing flexing and the tail control, which is a very important detail to be noted.
  Another detail which concerns the controlling mechanism on "Le Santos No. 20" is that springs are introduced in the controlling wires for each of the steering systems so as to maintain them taut under all conditions.

The Engine and Propeller.

  As regards the motor itself, this is of the twin-cylinder horizontal type with opposed cylinders. The bore and stroke are respectively 130 mm. and 120 mm., and an output of about 30 h.p. is available, with a total weight of some 110 lbs. Brass jackets are used for circulating the water around the cylinders, and the valves, which are all mechanically operated, are situated in the cylinder heads. Auxiliary exhaust-ports drilled through the cylinder-walls constitute an additional means of escape for the burnt gases, and the crank-shaft receives the propeller direct upon its front end, so that no additional fly-wheel is needed.
  This engine is mounted upon the upper bamboo, and additional supports for it are provided between the cylinder-heads and the front transverse-spars of the main planes. It is, therefore, carried bodily up above the planes - indeed, at an unusually high altitude, and since the propeller is no less than 6 ft. 6 ins. in diameter, the blades consequently cut across the line of sight of the operator. The propeller, moreover, lies very close up to the leading edge of the planes.
  Concerning the auxiliaries to the motor, a brass petrol tank of torpedo shape is fixed above the central angle of the planes, and the carburettor lies immediately beneath the motor, while a special type of radiator is used for cooling the water, and is placed on either side, as may be observed in our illustrations. This radiator is made in two sections, each of which extends the full width of the main planes, and is situated close underneath them. It is formed of very small tubes connecting a larger front tube with a larger rear tube, the small connecting tube being only about 1/8 th of an inch in external diameter; some hundred of these tubes are employed on each side, and they are made of copper.


Flight, October 9, 1909

FURTHER DETAILS OF SANTOS DUMONT'S No. 20

  SUPPLEMENTING the very full illustrated description which we gave last week of the "Demoiselle," we now reproduce four further sketches which we have made specially, in order to still further elucidate certain minor but important details for the benefit of readers of FLIGHT. These include a front view of the complete machine, another showing the tail with its universal-joint, a third illustrating special fitments adopted for the tubular struts for the main girder, and the remaining sketch relating to the system of lacing adopted for the trailing edge of the main plane.
  In the first of these illustrations two important points are brought out with special prominence. Firstly, the tubular stays which form the chief supports for the leading edge of the main planes, and secondly, the precise manner in which the operating-wires for warping the wings are run through small guide-tubes on either side of the aviator's seat. The centrally placed lever which lies behind the back of the pilot operates the wings as described last week, but it is interesting to observe that M. Santos Dumont has a piece of brass tube some two or three inches long sewn on to the back of his jacket, so that when he is seated in place the tube slips over the lever in question and enables him to rely upon a positive action when he leans over to the right or left. In the same sketch, too, may be observed the position occupied by the two chassis wheels.
  As regards the tail, this in itself is constructed with a bamboo rim as mentioned last week, but the universal swivel is formed entirely of pieces of tube, in the use of which the inventor is very clever. The intermediate T-piece has one vertical arm that swivels in the brased sockets which couple up the main bamboos together, and the tail itself swivels upon the horizontal arm of the T-piece. Our sketch also shows the connecting-wires that pass to the hand-lever on the right and the hand-wheel on the left for elevating and for steering respectively, and also denotes the presence of the small helical springs that automatically take up any slack or allow for any contractions in the operating-wires.
  It will be remembered that we spoke last week of the ignition-switch that is fitted into the steering-lever for enabling the engine to be stopped at a moment's notice if necessary. In addition to the three controls for the monoplane proper, it should also have been stated that the throttle-valve on the engine is coupled up to a pedal conveniently placed for the left foot. In this way the two engine-controls can be manipulated, although the operator's hands need never leave the even more important lever and wheel on which the evolutions of his flyer depend so greatly. Our other illustrations with their inscriptions readily speak for themselves, and hence no further reference need be made to them here.

M. Santos Dumont in full flight on his "Demoiselle," with which he has recently accomplished such sensational journeys.
From our picture above the size of M. Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle" can perhaps best be realised by our readers. After a flight, M. Dumont, If disinclined to return by the air, simply hoists his flyer into his car and returns home with his "accessory" by road, although hardly as rapidly as when in free air.
The Darracq flight engine and propeller used by M. Santos Dumont in his splendid flights across country.
In the "Demoiselle" the 30-h.p. horizontal-opposed two-cylinder engine is fixed centrally above the dihedral angie made by the two main planes. The propeller, carried direct on the front end of the crank-shaft, is some 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and constitutes the fly-wheel. In the above view, the very straggling multi-tubular radiators lying on either side of the motor and snugly stowed away beneath the main frames, are seen.
View from behind of the Darracq flight engine fitted to M. Dumont's "Demoiselle." In this the method of operating the valves is clearly seen, and also the arrangement of the magneto, driven by skew gearing.
In the above central view of the "Demoiselle" M. Santos Dumont is occupying the somewhat rough and ready canvas seat that is provided for the pilot. He has in his right hand the elevating lever, which moves the universally-jointed tail up or down; his left hand is grasping the small wheel which serves to steer the machine by moving the rudder sideways, and at his back is the lever that enables him to flex the wings by leaning his body over to one side or the other.
Santos Dumont's "La Demoiselle"
The above front elevation of the "Santos No. 20," shows the method of staying the main planes, and also of flexing them. The drawing indicates, moreover, the position occupied by the special radiators.
Front view of the "Demoiselle," showing the main stays for the leading edge of the wings as well as the warping wires passing from the seat.
View of the complete tail, which is moved bodily upwards and downwards as well as sideways, about the special swivel-joint shown in greater detail in the inset.
Tubular struts of oval section fit into sockets brased on to thin metal collars in order to stiffen the main girder-frame. As will be observed above, these collars are rendered rigid with the main bamboos by means of small clamping plates and screws.
In the above sketch is shown the lacing by means of which the rear edge of the main planes is held taut about a strong wire, which is itself clipped to the ends of the ribs. The surfaces of the wings are in this way stretched tightly.
M. Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle" Monoplane, No. 20.
Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Vendome (No.2)."

  Monoplane of birdlike appearance, constructed by M. Vendome. It is peculiar for its method of control. Two independent levers are used to warp the main wings either in the same or contrary sense, according as it is wished to ascend or steer. Quick steering is effected by pedal control of steering-tips superposed on the extremities of the main wings. At the rear is an elevator-tail set by a third lever. The tractor-screw is in front, direct-driven by a 3-cyl. Anzani engine.


Flight, November 27, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

VENDOME No. 3 BIS.

  Monoplane, having double-surfaced wings set at a slight dihedral angle. The body has a very skeleton-like appearance, as it is formed solely by two longitudinal spars, situated about 18 ins. apart between the wings, and closing together aft, where they extend rearwards to carry the tail. The tail proper consists of a fixed horizontal plane and a fixed vertical plane beneath it. There is in addition a rudder and an elevator. The rudder is mounted so that it warps into a cambered section when steering; the elevator being considerably cambered in its normal state, is merely pivoted in order to enable its angle of incidence to be varied. An accompanying sketch shows how the rudder is mounted to give the flexing action. It will be noticed that the fixed rudder-post passes through the rudder about 5 ins. from the leading edge. The leading edge is gripped by a fork, which forms part of the steering cross-bar and turns with it; wires from the extremities of the bar pass to the trailing edge of the rudder-plane. When the steering bar is moved the tendency's, of course, for the rudder-plane to pivot upon its post bodily, but its leading edge being engaged with the aforementioned fork, this is impossible, and in consequence the surface has to flex into cambered form.
  Small triangular planes are fitted above the extremities of the wings on the Vendome flyer and are coupled up to the mechanism which operates the rudder. This consists of a pivoted bar lying horizontally in front of the pilot's seat in such a position that it forms a foot-rest. Pressing forward with the right foot moves the bar so that the rudder is put over for steering to the right and simultaneously the flap above the extremity of the right-hand wingtip is raised. The action of this would presumably be to increase the resistance on that side of the machine and thereby increase the steering effect; they are not, apparently, used as balancing planes.
Vendome Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Vendome N 2
Vendome N 3 bis
Sketch showing how the rudder is warped on the Vendome flyer.
Sketch showing the planes above the extremities of the wings of the Vendome flyer.
Flight, January 2, 1909

THE WRIGHT AND VOISIN TYPES OF FLYING MACHINE.
A COMPARISON BY F. W. LANCHESTER.

The Voisin Machine. Origin and Description.

  MM. Voisin began their experimental work some years before their name was known to the general public, or rather some years before their machines came into public prominence through the exploits of Farman and Delagrange, for comparatively few people, even at the present time, are even aware of the name of the makers of these most successful machines. In 1904, MM. Voisin constructed for M. Archdeacon some cellular kites of a large size, of very much the form of their present type of machine ; these were tested in tow of a motor launch on the Seine, and provided much of the data that MM. Voisin afterwards utilised in the construction of the actual flying machines that brought their work into public prominence.
  MM. Voisin (and their engineer or works manager M. Colliex, who is largely responsible for their designs) make no secret of the fact that they have based their work on that of pioneers such as Lilienthal, Langley, and others, and in fact they say that they never miss an opportunity of utilising any information or data on which they can lay hands. On the other hand, much of their work is based on their own researches; they appear to take little for granted, having equipped themselves with an "artificial wind" apparatus, with which they test their work on a small scale before finally settling a design.
  The Voisin factory is on a comparatively small scale; the output and work in hand at date includes (amongst others) some five machines of the Farman-Delagrange type, and four machines of a modified pattern, with an aerofoil consisting of three superposed members. The former is the only type of machine for which flight data are to hand, and in the remarks that follow it is this type to which reference is made as the Voisin machine.
  It appears from statements made to the author by MM. Voisin (and confirmed by Mr. Farman himself) that when their designs were prepared, the first order they obtained was from M. Delagrange and the second from Mr. Farman, who placed his order for what was practically a duplicate machine. That Farman made successful flights before Delagrange was due in the main to the fact that he had made in advance appropriate arrangements for testing and trials on the Champ de Manceavres at Issy-les-Moulineaux, a precaution that the latter neglected, and it would seem that it is hopeless to attempt to fly, at least with a new machine, without some such provision. It also appears that the Delagrange machine went through some kind of a history in its early state, the wheels fitted in the first instance not being arranged as it was subsequently found necessary to arrange them, namely, as castors, or as the French express it, " orientable." It is this provision that takes care of any slight side component of the wind when starting and alighting which might otherwise upset the machine.
  The Voisin machine is given as weighing complete, with Mr. Farman " up, " 1,540 lbs. (700 kilogs.), and has a total supporting surface of 535 sq. ft., this being the combined area of the horizontal members of the aerofoil and the tail, both being used for sustentation, though there are reasons for supposing that the pressure per sq. ft. on the aerofoil is greater than on that of the tail.
  The ordinary maximum velocity of flight is approximately 45 miles per hour, or 66 ft. per sec. ('=72 kiloms. per hour).
  In addition to the horizontal sustaining members of the aerofoil and tail there are a number of venical members whose function is to preserve and control the direction of flight, and to give lateral stability; these have a total area of approximately 255 sq. ft.
  The supporting surfaces of both aerofoil and tail are of rectangular plan form, the former being 10 metres by 2 metres, and, therefore, having an aspect ratio - 5. The aspect ratio of the tail members is 1 '25; they are, therefore, nearly square.
  The Voisin machine is propelled by a single screw of 7 ft. 6 in. diameter (2-3 metres), of which the effective pitch is approximately 3 ft. (the actual pitch is much greater, the "slip" being excessive). The propeller is keyed direct to the motor shaft.
  The motor fitted to the Voisin (Farman) machine is an 8-cyl. "Antoinette," 4-35 ins. diameter by 4-15 ins. stroke ( 110 mm. by 105 mm.), stated to give 49 b.h.p. at 1,100 revs, per min. ; its weight is given as 265 lbs. (120 kilos.).
  It is said that the gliding angle of the Voisin machine was at first approximately 1 : 5 or 11 degrees, but that by detail improvements in diminishing framework resistance by rounding off and covering in to form stream-line sections, the gliding angle has been improved, and is now about '16 radian, that is between 1 : 6 and 1 : 7, or 9 degs. approximately.


Flight, January 9, 1909

THE FIRST PARIS AERONAUTICAL SALON.

"Delagrange No. 3."

Biplane constructed by Voisin Freres, and exhibited by the Soc. d'Encouragement d'Aviation in order to advertise their new Juvisy Aerodrome, which opens on January 10th. The general lines of the machine are well known to readers of The Automotor Journal. It has in addition to the two main planes an elevator in front and a rudder enclosed by a box-kite tail behind. The pilot sits in the centre between the main planes, and is thus just in front of the engine # a 50-h.p. 8-cyl. Antoinette # which drives a 2-bladed propeller mounted on the end of its crank-shaft. There are two side curtains between the main planes, one near each end.

"Voisin-Farman No. 1"

  Biplane constructed by Voisin Freres on the lines of "Farman No. 1," and equipped with a dummy pilot to give reality to its setting over the grand staircase, where it looks for all the world as if about to fly off from the balusters. The general lines of this machine are the same as the " Delagrange," and it presents the same workmanlike appearance which is characterising the Voisin productions. It is neither clumsily heavy nor flimsily light, but appears to have just a reasonable degree of rigidity which does the builders credit for their judgment in design.


Flight, February 20, 1909

Moore-Brabazon and His Engines.

  MR. MOORE-BRABAZON is trying another engine on one of the Voisin aeroplanes, and this time it is an E.N.V. 8-cyl. motor which he has selected.

Moore-Brabazon Flies Easily.

  WITH the new engine Moore-Brabazon has got along much more smoothly in his flying. On Wednesday, at Issy, in the early morning, he repeatedly made circular kilometre flights without the smallest sign of effort, his machine behaving splendidly. So much so, that he already sees himself on the way for a long flight. His biplane is to be transferred to Chalons, where a special hangar is now being erected, and he then intends to try for some more ambitious records, bringing him a little nearer to the top than the fifth place at present reached by him.


Flight, March 27, 1909

FLYERS AT OLYMPIA.

"The Bird of Passage" (J. T. C. MOORE-BRABAZON).

  Such is the name which Mr. J. T. C. Moore Brabazon has given to his No. 4 flyer which, like its predecessors, was constructed by Voisin Freres in France. It is the actual machine with which Mr. Moore-Brabazon made his latest famous flights at Issy, and it is the only flyer in the Show that has actually flown incidentally, the mud on the wheels and chassis give the fact an air of practical reality. This particular flyer which is, of course, typical of the Voisin construction and to which our remarks about the Voisin machine exhibited by Mr. F. R. Simms therefore apply, happens to have been the first of the new pattern in which the distance between the main decks was increased from 1.5 metres to 2 metres. "The Bird of Passage" is equipped with an E.N.V. 8-cylinder engine which drives a twin-bladed propeller direct. The pilot sits in front of the engine in a rectangular car which projects forward to carry the elevator. Directly in front of him is a steering wheel like that on a motor car, but set on a horizontal spindle; this wheel the pilot turns to steer and pushes bodily to and fro in order to ascend and descend.


Voisin (F. R. SIMMS).

  The biplane exhibited by Mr. F. R. Simms, who has secured the sole concession for these machines in this country, is one of the standard Voisin machines and affords an excellent example of the Voisin system of construction. Next to the Wrights', the Voisin flyers have been the most successful which have yet taken their place in the air. The great feature of the Voisin system is, as our readers know, the use of a box-kite tail, carried by an outrigger framework some distance behind the main plane. This tail, which encloses the rudder, is itself employed for the purpose of giving automatic longitudinal stability, the idea being that the wind blowing on to the tail uses the leverage afforded by the outrigger framework to bring the machine once more on to an even keel. In front of the main planes is an elevator, and between the main planes there are fixed four vertical side curtains; the car which carries the engine and the pilot is also covered with fabric.
  The Voisin machine is certainly a well-built job, and it has a number of constructional details of considerable interest, some of which may or may not, of course, stand the test of time. The main planes are single surfaced, and the decks are thus very thin and flexible, which causes the spars and libs to stand out rather prominently; each member is, however, encased in its own special bag.
  It is a feature of the Voisin design, possibly resulting from certain details of construction, that each main plane as an overhung flexible rear edge which can adjust itself to the air streams. The elevator in front, on the contrary, is rigid fore and aft, and has top and bottom surfaces, which are nearly two inches apart at the thickest point. All the struts of the Voisin machine are elliptical in section, and have sharp cutting and trailing edges; they are neatly and rigidly mounted in aluminium sockets, which are bolted to the main spars. All the tension wires are adjustable. The machine is mounted on a two-wheeled chassis in front, and has a pair of small wheels under the tail; the suspension of the former is effected by long helical springs.


Delagrange (MASS CARS).

  The Delagrange biplane as exhibited by the Mass Co. is a slightly modified Voisin machine; the modification consisting in the abolition of the four vertical side curtains which the Voisin machines proper employ between the two outer pairs of struts separating the main planes. In the machine shown, too, the distance between the main planes is 0.5 metre less than that on the modern Voisin machines. The control is unaltered and the details of construction are likewise unchanged; the engine with which the flyer is equipped is a 50-h.p. 8-cyl. Antoinette.
  M. Delagrange has, as readers of FLIGHT know, met with a considerable measure of success with these machines. He was one of the early winners of the Aero Club of France 200 metres prize, and for a brief period before Wright's achievements in that country, actually held the world's record with a flight lasting nearly 30 minutes, during the course of which he accomplished a distance of 247 kiloms., by making 15 1/2 circuits of the Issy Parade Ground. Among other places, he has flown in Rome, and among other notable facts in connection with his performances is that he took aloft the first lady passenger, Madame Therese Peltier.


Flight, April 3, 1909

Aeroplanes to be Blessed.

IT has been no very uncommon thing to record in the past the blessing of motor cars by the Roman Church in France. Apparently the same procedure in some quarters is to be followed in regard to flying machines, as a formal gathering this week took place on April ist at the invitation of the Compagnie d'Aviation at Juvisy, when benediction was pronounced by the Archbishop of Paris and the Bishop of Versailles over the aerodrome of the above-named company, and incidentally over the flyers which happened to be there at the time. We await with curiosity the name of the special Saint under whose protection aeroplanes have been placed.


Flight, April 10, 1909

Blessing Aerodromes and Aeroplanes.

LAST week we referred to the innovation of blessing the new aerodrome at Juvisy and the two Delagrange aeroplanes there. We now give in our frontispiece a couple of photographs illustrating this curious ceremony. It will be sean that a sort of grand stand was erected for the occasion, and to the front of this the two aeroplanes were brought. The service was commenced by Mgr. Amette, the Archbishop of Paris, delivering an address, in the course of which he said that man by his original fall lost the sovereignty of the air, but the present inventions permit it to be hoped that man may be allowed by Divine grace to regain some small fragment of his original sovereignty. The Church was therefore happy to bless the machines, destined to soar through space and conquer realms hitherto beyond man's domination.
Short prayers were then uttered that those using the aeroplanes might be preserved from accident, after which one of the aeroplanes was named "Ile de France," by Baroness Lagatinerie, and the other "Alsace," by Madame Dussand, and sprinkling them with holy water, the Archbishop blessed them. At this moment a change came over the heavens, and, as if in sympathy with the Archbishop's movements, rain fell in torrents, causing the "godmothers" and the assistants to flee for shelter. About five hundred people witnessed the ceremony, including the Duke and Duchess of Rohan, Princess Murat, Prince and Princess Leon, Marquis and Marchioness of Castellane, Marquis and Marchioness of Puybaudet, &c.


Flight, May 1, 1909.

PRESENT STATUS OF MILITARY AERONAUTICS.
By GEORGE O. SQUIER, Ph.D., Major, Signal Corps, U.S. Army.

REPRESENTATIVE AEROPLANES OF VARIOUS TYPES.

The Farman Aeroplane (Fig. 24).

The Farman flying machine has two superposed aero-surfaces 4 ft. 11 ins. apart, with a spread of 42 ft. 9 ins. and 6 ft. 7 ins. from front to rear. The total sustaining surface is about 560 sq. ft.
A box tail 6 ft. 7 ins. wide and 9 ft. 10 ins. long in rear of the main surfaces is used to balance the machine. The vertical sides of the tail are pivoted along the front edges, and serve as a vertical rudder for steering in a horizontal plane. There are two parallel, vertical partitions near the middle of the main supporting surfaces, and one vertical partition in the middle of the box tail. A horizontal rudder in front of the machine is used to elevate or depress it in flight.
The motor is an 8-cyl. Antoinette of 50-h.p. weighing 176 lbs., and developing about 31-h.p. at 1,050 r.p.m.
The propeller is a built-up steel frame covered with aluminium sheeting, 7 1/2 ft. in diameter, with a pitch of 4 ft. 7 ins. It is mounted directly on the motor-shaft immediately in rear of the middle of the main surfaces.
The framework is of wood, covered with canvas. A chassis steel tubing carries two pneumatic-tyred bicycle wheels. Two smaller wheels are placed under the tail. The total weight of the machine is 1,166 lbs. The main surfaces support a little over two pounds per square foot. The machine has shown a speed of about 28 miles per hour, and no starting apparatus is used.
On January 13th, 1908, Farman won the Grand Prix of the Aero Club of France in a flight of 1 min. 28 secs., in which he covered more than a kilometre. It is reported that on October 30th, 1908, a flight of 20 miles, from Mourmelon to Rheims, was made with this machine.


Flight, May 29, 1909.

Opening of the Juvisy Aerodrome.

  THE opening of Port Aviation - the aerodrome at Juvisy - on Sunday last was somewhat in the nature of a fiasco. Great preparations had been made, and it had been extensively advertised that there would be an exciting aeroplane race between Delagrange, Rougier, Bleriot, and others. A large crowd of spectators, estimated by some people as something up to 100,000 - probably 10,000 is nearer the mark - assembled and patiently waited for some hours to see the flyers in the air. The kite-flying competition which was on the programme for the afternoon did not secure a great deal of interest, and as there was no signs of the aeroplanes being put through their paces, murmurs of discontent began to arise. At last M. Delagrange made several short flights, but that did not satisfy the crowd. Eventually, about five o'clock, it looked as though some damage would be done, as the crowd began to encroach on the course and threatened to invade the pay-offices and smash the grand-stands, &c, up. With characteristic pluck, M. Delagrange came to the rescue. Although he was hampered by the people swarming on the course, he started off and covered five circuits of the course. Rougier also made an attempt to fly, but he was so unnerved by the people crowding upon him that he was unable to complete one circuit. The judges therefore decided that M. Delagrange was the winner of the Lagatinerie Prize, but as only two machines competed, the value of it, in accordance with the rules, was reduced to 2,500 francs. The official record of M. Delagrange's flight states that he covered five circuits, a distance of 5.8 kiloms., in 10 mins. 18 3/5 secs.
  The next event at Port Aviation is to be held to-morrow (Sunday), and will take the form of a high jump contest, a line of balloons being fixed at a height of 25 metres, and the competitors having to "jump" over them.


Flight, July 10, 1909

M. Paulhan Flies.

  "SLOW but sure" is the motto of M. Paulhan, who has been practising on his Voisin biplane at Issy, and for some days last week he contented himself by making several "jumps" in order to familiarise himself with the handling of the machine. On Saturday, after several short flights of about 200 metres in length, he decided upon a more extended flight and made not quite five circuits of the grounds, amounting to about eight kiloms., the altitude not being very great, varying between two and five metres. He then gave notice to the Aero Club that he would make an attempt on Monday to win one of the 500-metre prizes, but unfortunately some trouble was experienced with the motor, and although the machine made several short jumps, it did not keep going sufficiently long to cover the course. M. Paulhan is, however, very well pleased with his progress, and is now at Douai, where he intends to take part in some of the competitions there.


Flight, July 24, 1909

Captain Ferber at Belfort.

  ON Sunday last, Captain Ferber made several flights on the Champ de Mars, on a Voisin biplane. The secret of the identity of Captain Ferber and the successful "De Rue" is now an open one. It will be remembered we referred some weeks ago to "De Rue" being the assumed name of a well-known aeronautical enthusiast.
  Captain Ferber also made six very successful flights on Tuesday of this week at Belfort, although they were all fairly short. Satisfied with the running of his machine, he thereupon had it sent off to Vichy for the meeting.


Flight, August 14, 1909.

THE VOISIN BIPLANE, 1908-9 TYPE
A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MR. MOORE-BRABAZON'S "BIRD OF PASSAGE," TOGETHER WITH SCALE DRAWINGS WHICH HAVE BEEN OBTAINED THROUGH THE COURTESY OF THE OWNER FROM THE ORIGINAL MACHINE.

  WHILE Farman and Delagrange were arousing the enthusiasm of France, and attracting the keen interest of all nations to their brave and diligent attempts to conquer the air, the designer and constructor of the first practical type of French flyer remained in comparative obscurity; for the moment everyone overlooked the man behind the machine. M. Voisin commenced his experiences in flight at a sufficiently early period in the modern history of the movement, for he made his first public effort as pilot of the glider with which M. Bleriot inaugurated aerial experiments over the Seine. Bleriot's glider was towed by a fast motor boat, and more than once M. Voisin found himself prematurely plunged thereby beneath the surface of the water. When Voisin and his brother settled themselves down to the designing of a motor-driven machine, they made no particular outcry about the occasion. It was not until after the successful flights which Farman and Delagrange had made with their device had been adequately applauded, that France herself began to realise who it was that produced them. For his work, however, M. Voisin has received the very just award of having his name included on the first list of decorations to be awarded in connection with the science and art of flight.
  One of the first of those to secure a Voisin flyer was Mr. Moore-Brabazon, and it is of this machine, now housed at Shellbeach, that the owner has very kindly permitted us to make the accompanying scale drawings for the benefit of readers of FLIGHT. Mr. Moore-Brabazon's "Bird of Passage," as he has named his flyer, is a machine with which he has achieved several flights. In fact, his early progress in the mastery of the air with it was remarkable. Since its arrival in this country he has also flown, but not to the same extent, partially owing to the inclemency of the present summer.

Leading Characteristics.

  The Voisin flyer is an original type of machine, and it is therefore the more important to specifically state its leading characteristics. Broadly speaking, the great point in the Voisin flyer is the fact that it has a tail, this member consisting of a kind of open-ended box carried at the rear upon a light outrigger framework extending some thirteen feet behind the main decks.
  Having two principal supporting surfaces, the Voisin flyer belongs to the biplane class, and in this respect is similar to the Wright machine, with which it has another point in common, in the presence of an elevator. The elevator consists of a pivoted plane mounted about six feet in front of the main decks. Apart from the presence of the tail, the greatest contrast between the Voisin and Wright types lies in the absence of any wing warping or other special method of maintaining lateral stability in the Voisin flyer, beyond what is available from the effects of steering by the rudder.
  Unlike the Wright flyer, which is supported upon runners or "ski," the Voisin machine, when on the ground, rests upon a wheeled chassis, and it is a leading characteristic in the construction of the machine that this chassis is attached to a kind of girder which supports the engine, contains the driver's seat, and carries an extension on which the elevator is mounted. This chassis-frame is one of the elements into which the machine can be dismantled for transport.
  The last, but by no means the least important, characteristic of the Voisin flyer is its use of a single high-speed propeller mounted direct on the crank-shaft of a 50-h.p. engine.

The Main Decks.

  The main decks have a total span from tip to tip of approximately 33 ft., and a fore and aft chord of 6 ft. 9 ins. They are single-surfaced with fabric which is stretched over a foundation consisting of ash ribs lying across two transverse main spars. Two spars are placed about 5 ft. apart, and the ribs, which end up flush with the front spar, overlap the rear member a matter of 21 ins., whereby the trailing edge of the decks becomes flexible to a limited extent. This flexible trailing edge is a feature of Voisin construction, as also is the single-surfacing of the decks.
  The "Continental" surface fabric is so attached that it lies beneath the ribs, but these members are enclosed in pockets of the same material; it is this feature of the construction which gives the uneven appearance to the upper surface of the deck. In order to avoid sharp angles, the main transverse spars are also covered by strips of fabric so fastened that they give the spars a virtual triangular section.
  All the ribs which lie between the two main spars are not alike, for at intervals coinciding with the vertical struts which separate the decks the ribs are considerably larger, and are built up to form an inverted T section. Before being mounted, the ribs are permanently set to the required shape, so that the decks when surfaced shall have the proper camber.

The Tail.

  The tail, which is also of biplane form, is constructed on exactly similar lines to the main decks, and although it has a smaller gap, and a much shorter span, the chord is the same dimension. The area of the two decks of the tail is nearly one-quarter of the area of the main decks, and it is necessary to bear its value in mind when considering the effective supporting area of the whole machine. The aspect ratio of the tail is only a little more than unity.

The Elevator.

  Unlike the tail, the elevator does not resemble the main decks, either in its form or construction, for in the first place it is of the monoplane type, secondly it is double-surfaced. The elevator is, owing to its method of mounting, divided into two equal portions on either side of the girder frame, which juts out in front of the main deck. The area of both parts combined is 45 sq. ft. or a little more than one-tenth of the area of the main decks. Its effective span is 13 ft. 10 ins., and as its chord is 3 ft. 3 ins. the aspect ratio of each portion is about 2.
  The ribs which stiffen the elevator are sufficiently thick at the maximum section to allow the hinge-rod to pass through them, and fore and aft of this point, which lies 10 1/4 ins. behind the leading edge, the ribs taper to a point. The hinge-member consists of a 1 1/4-in. steel tube, and the maximum depth of the elevator at this point is about 2 1/2 ins. Being double-surfaced, that is to say, having a fabric covering top and bottom, the ribs and the hinge are entirely enclosed. The elevator is virtually cambered by its arched upper surface; the bottom surface is approximately flat.
  The operation of the elevator is carried out by means of a connecting-rod attached to the steering-wheel spindle. This latter member is mounted so that it can slide in its bearings, and the pilot is thus able to set the elevator by pushing and pulling the steering-wheel bodily to and fro.

The Rudder.

  The rudder resembles the elevator in form and construction. It is situated between the decks and the tail, being mounted upon a vertical hinge pivoted upon the rear transverse spars of the tail decks. Owing to the tail itself having a flexible trailing edge most of the rudder lies wholly within the tail, only about 1 ft. 3 ins. of its chord projecting in the normal position. The hinge of the rudder is about 18 ft. 4. ins. behind the rear edges of the main decks.
  The operation of the rudder is effected by wires, which pass round a wooden drum on the steering spindle.

(To be concluded.)


Flight, August 21, 1909.

THE VOISIN BIPLANE, 1908-9 TYPE.
A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MR. MOORE-BRABAZON'S "BIRD OF PASSAGE."
(Concluded from page 488.)

Side-Curtains.

  ANOTHER feature which characterises the Voisin flyer is the presence of side-curtains between the main decks and also between the decks of the tail, these members being thereby converted into a kind of box-kite construction. Between the main decks there are four sidecurtains, one at each end and another between the vertical struts adjacent to those at each end. They consist of sheets of the same surface material as is employed for the decks, and are stiffened by fiat ribs enclosed in pockets. To a certain extent they may also receive support from the diagonal wireties which lie adjacent to them.
  The real utility of sidecurtains has been questioned by some aviators, and M. Delagrange has flown a Voisin machine without them. Leaving aside all considerations affecting those employed between the main decks, it appears to us that the possible influence on the effectiveness of the rudder, of those in the tail, ought certainly to be taken into consideration. We have already pointed out that the rudder is almost entirely enclosed within the tail, and it is difficult to believe that the side curtains do not effect its action.
  The part played by the side-curtains between the main decks is not altogether too well defined. They afford a considerable extent of cutwater, which doubtless assists the machine in turning, and it is possible that they also tend to minimise the direct effect of side gusts suddenly striking the machine obliquely.

Engine and Propeller.

  After trying various different engines, Mr. Moore-Brabazon finally selected an E.N.V. motor of 50-h.p. It is an engine of the 8-cyl. "V" type, and of very substantial construction, although specially designed for flight.
  The propeller is mounted direct on an extension of the crank-shaft, and is a two-bladed construction in steel. The blades are riveted to detachable arms, which are bolted to a separate boss in a manner which is clearly illustrated in an accompanying sketch. Some observations on the pitch and efficiency of the Voisin propulsion will be found in FLIGHT, vol. 1, p 16. In front of the engine, and immediately behind the pilot's seat, is a large honeycomb radiator.
  The engine is mounted on a light girder framework of steel, an arrangement which is well illustrated in the accompanying photographs.

Control.

  The control of the Voisin flyer is carried out entirely by the aid of the elevator and the rudder, the former being operated by pushing and pulling the steering wheel bodily to and fro, and the latter by turning the wheel upon its axis. The steering follows the same direction as on a motor car; pulling the steering wheel tilts the front edge of the elevator for temporary ascents. The purpose of the elevator is to produce temporary ascents or jumps by altering the angle of incidence of the main planes to the relative wind, and also to check any longitudinal oscillations which may occur, The elevator, although a means of beginning an ascent, is not itself endowed with any capacity for causing ascent to be maintained, that alone can result from an increase in the engine power beyond what is necessary to sustain horizontal flight. Lateral stability is maintained by suitably steering the machine, so as to give the depressed wing tip such an increased relative velocity to the air as will cause it to have a greater lift.

The Chassis.

  The weight of the machine, with the exception of that part represented by the tail, which is independently supported by a pair of small wheels, rests upon two bicycle wheels shod with 650 by 65 mm. tyres. These wheels are mounted upon a tubular framework, and have a. track of 4 ft. 8 1/2 ins. They are so arranged that they can swing, together, to one side or the other of their normal position, like the castors of a chair, a feature which is essential in order to preserve the equilibrium of the machine when it runs along the ground. In order to restrain these movements on the part of the wheels, their hubs, which are joined by a hinged axle, are anchored to the chassis frame by tension springs, which always tend to draw the wheels back again to their normal positions.

Suspension.

  The suspension of the flyer upon the chassis is effected by a pair of long helical springs. Each spring is mounted about a steel column which extends upwards from the chassis and passes through a bracket attached to the girder frame which carries the engine. This bracket serves as an abutment to the upper end of the spring, and it also carries a rubber pad to cushion the effect of the recoil. This point forms one of the attachments of the chassis to the frame, the other attachment being formed by a radius-rod which is hinged directly to the frame at a point further in front. When the springs compress, the effect of these radius-rods is to cant the uprights about which the springs are mounted, a point which should be borne in mind when considering the stresses to which the supporting brackets are liable to be subjected.

Pilot's Seat.

  The pilot's seat in the Voisin flyer is situated about a third of the chord behind the leading edge of the main plane, and is contained within the girder frame which carries the engine and the elevator. On Mr. Moore-Brabazon's machine the seat consists of a simple board, hinged so that it can be raised for access to the starting handle of the engine, which lies almost immediately beneath it. The relative position of the seat to the other principal members is clearly shown by an accompanying sketch.

Girder Work.

  From a constructional point of view a flyer presents a series of special problems in girder work, and it is therefore always instructive to consider the design on this basis. The main planes of the Voisin machine constitute together a kind of lattice girder, in which vertical wood struts alternate with diagonal piano-wire ties. Here and there extra struts and tie-wires have been introduced in the manner illustrated by an accompanying diagram which shows the staying of the main spars forming the leading edges of the decks.
  A point which is always of considerable importance to observe in this connection, is the continuity or otherwise of of the girder from end to end, and special attention should therefore be paid to the manner in which the lower spars of the main decks are carried across through the supplementary frame used for the engine. In the Voisin construction the front spar is divided at this point and fastened to the engine girder by a bracket, an intermediate member belonging to the girder bridging the gap.
  Another example of girder work in the Voisin flyer is the outrigger carrying the tail, but this consists of four rectangular spars attached by brackets to the rear transverse spars of the main decks. Each pair of spars in a vertical plane constitutes a lattice girder, and is braced in a similar manner to the spars in the main decks. There as no bracing, however, between the spars in a horizontal plane, other than that afforded at each end by the tail and the main decks respectively.
  The girder, to which the chassis is attached, which carries the engine, the pilot's seat, and the elevator, is a semi-elliptic construction formed by four longitudinal spars braced together by wood struts and diagonal wireties. In the vicinity of the engine tubular steel struts are used instead of ash, and the blank end of the girder is finished off with a pressed steel member, which braces three sides simultaneously.

Constructive Detail.

  Considerable attention has already been given to the joints and fastenings of the Voisin flyer in other issues of FLIGHT, so that our readers are already familiar with the aluminium socket-brackets by means of which the struts of the machine are fastened to the spars. This in itself is a feature of the Voisin construction not alone as a detail but also because of the rigid system which it represents. The joints in the Voisin flyer are designed to be quite rigid throughout, and the tie-wires have tighteners fitted to them, so that they can always be kept taut. On the contrary, the Wright flyer has hook-and-eye joints between the struts and the spars, and the tie-wires are not specially stretched in place; the whole machine is, in fact, built so as to be slack, and therefore able to give when strained.

Materials.

  Ash is used throughout in the construction of the machine, with the exception of the steel tube work employed in the chassis. As timber, ash is characterised by its flexibility, and on the Voisin machine it must be confessed that there is not lacking evidence of its capacity in this respect, many of the struts and spars being very much inclined to bend under the load imposed upon them. In flying machine design every effort is, of course, made to keep down the weight, and sections have to be reduced to a minimum in consequence.
  For the small fittings such as the socket-brackets for the struts, aluminium is employed, and this metal was also used for the main supporting brackets above the springs, until it gave way during a rough landing. Messrs. Short Brothers then introduced a pair of manganese steel brackets when making the repair, and as these members are in any case not large, the increase in weight is in no way comparable with the value of the additional strength thus obtained for such an important member
  The fabric used for covering the decks is Continental rubber-proofed material.

Dimensions.

  Most of the important dimensions likely to be of primary interest to the reader are given on the full-page plan and elevation. There are a few others, however, which it may be of interest to summarise here. The spacing of the ribs in the main decks is approximately 1 ft. 3 ins.; their camber is given by an accompanying diagram. The main transverse spars in the decks are 1 1/2 ins. fore and aft and 3/4 in. deep, but the section is not symmetrical, being cut away to sharpen the leading edge. The ordinary ribs have a section of about 5/16 in. by 3/4 in., while the main ribs of the section are 1 1/2 ins. wide at the base. The struts have a maximum width of 1 1/2 ins. and a maximum depth of 2 ins. They taper slightly towards the extremities, and have a sharp-pointed elliptic section. The longitudinal spars forming the outrigger which carries the tail have a mean section of 1 1/2 x 1 x 1 1/4 ins., while the main spars in the central girder which carries the engine and elevator have a section 1 1/8 ins. square. The ribs in the elevator are spaced 1 ft. 4 1/2 ins. apart.
  The smallest wire used has a diameter of about 1/16 in., but their size varies in different places and is much larger where it is employed for staying the chassis. The tubular steel work of the chassis is mostly 1 1/4 ins. in diameter. The helical springs used in the suspension are 3 ft. long, 2 ins. mean diameter, and of 3/4 in. circular section.


Flight, October 30, 1909

The First Lady Flyer.

  YET another sphere which some had thought man would, for some time, at any rate, retain for his own has been invaded by the gentler sex. Baroness La Roche has been successfully piloting a Voisin biplane, and has thereby earned the right to be known as the first lady flyer or "aviatress." For some time the Baroness has been taking lessons from M. Chateau, the Voisin instructor, at Chalons, and on Friday of last week she was able to take the wheel for the first time. This initial voyage into the air was only a very short one, and terra firma was regained after 300 yards; but on the following day the parade ground at Chalons was encircled twice, the turnings being made with consummate ease. During this flight of about four miles there was a strong gusty wind blowing, but after the first two turnings the Baroness said that it did not bother her, as she had the machine completely under control.

Side view of the Voisin-Delagrange biplane.
The Voisin-Delagrange biplane in full flight.
MARKING A NEW EPOCH IN THE PROGRESS OF FLIGHT. - M. Delagrange flying on his Voisin machine round the Juvisy Aerodrome last Sunday upon the occasion o! its inauguration. This is the first public aerodrome in the world.
PARIS AERO SALON. - Rear view of the Delagrange Aeroplane, built by Voisin. This illustration shows the box-kite tail and the rudder, which is not visible in the photograph of the Farman machine.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the principal part of the Aviation Section. In the foreground, a little to the left, is a back view of Ader's "Avion," to the right is the R.E.P. monoplane, and opposite to it is the Delagrange biplane. In mid-air is the "Ville de Bordeaux," and in the distance, down the Grande Nef, can be seen part of a spherical balloon.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
Fig. 24. - Farman Aeroplane.
PARIS AERO SALON. - View of the Voisin Aeroplane, built on the lines of "Farman No. 1." The machine carries a dummy pilot, and is mounted as if about to fly off into the Grand Nef.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - General view of "Delagrange No. V," which is exhibited by Mass Cars. This flyer is of Voisln construction, but has no side-curtains between the main planes, which are themselves less far apart than on the latest Voisin machines.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon on his Voisin biplane, which has been fitted with an 8-cyl. 50-h.p. E.N.V. water-cooled motor.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon's "Bird of Passage" outside Short Brothers' factory at Shellbeach. The elevator in this view is shown tilted.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - Mr. Moore-Brabazon's "Bird of Passage," the actual Voisin flyer with which he has been making successful experiments in France. The engine now fitted on this machine is an 8-cylinder E.N.V.
Side view of the Voisin biplane, showing the relative position of the engine and the construction of the outrigger which carries the tail.
View of the Voisin biplane from behind, showing the relative size of the rudder and tail.
Detailed view of the tail on the Voisin biplane, showing method of mounting the rudder, and also the small wheels which support it on the ground.
General view of the central part of the Voisin biplane, showing its suspension on the chassis.
Detailed view of the elevator on the Voisin biplane, showing how it is mounted and stayed.
Two views of the engine on the Voisin biplane; also showing the pilot's seat and the control. In the right-hand view the seat itself, B, has been turned up into a vertical position. The timing and throttle-levers, A, and also the switch, A1are to be seen in the centre of the above illustration.
Detailed view of the chassis on the Voisin biplane, showing how the wheel axle is anchored to the chassis frame by springs.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Voisin machine, exhibited by Mr. F. R. Simms, seen from in front. This illustration gives an excellent view of the elevator, and of its interconnection with the controlling lever. The engine and propeller are not fitted.
The remarkable custom which pertains in France of invoking the blessing of the Church upon motor cars, aerodromes, flyers, and such like goods and chattels, was referred to in FLIGHT last week. A couple of interesting photographs are given above of the ceremony of blessing the new Aerodrome at Juvisy by the Archbishop of Parts, and incidentally of a couple of aeroplanes, respectively named "Ile de France" and "Alsace," - which were brought forward to receive a share of the Episcopal favour.
Voisin biplane upon which M. Paulhan effected his flights last week, showing at close quarters the elevators and the extra wheel which has been fitted to the nose of the machine. The motor employed by M. Paulhan is a 50-h.p. Gnome.
On Sunday last "De Rue" made some successful flights at Belfort on his Voisin biplane. It will be remembered that some time ago we mentioned the fact that "De Rue" was really the assumed name for the moment of a prominent leader in aeronautics. That leader, we are now at liberty to mention, is the well-known Capt. Ferber. He is at the wheel of his machine in our photograph.
VOISIN AIRCRAFT AT RHEIMS READY FOR THE STARTER. - The machines are: No. 5. Jean Gobron biplane (Gobron motor); No. 33. Henry Fournier's machine (Itala motor); No. 27. M. E. Bunau-Varilla's machine (E.N.V. motor); and the tail seen on the left is M. Sanchez Bensa's Voisin (Antoinette motor).
AT BRESCIA AVIATION MEETING. - A popular flyer - M. Anzani starting on his Voisin biplane. Note the trail of exhaust from the motor.
FLIGHT IN ENGLAND. - M. Rougier is seen on his Voisin machine, passing the aviators' sheds at Blackpool during the long-distance competition.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another example of a genuine enlarged photograph, with two machines in the air at a distance. This was "snapped" at Blackpool during the big meeting, and shows Paulhan on his Henry Farman machine, and Rougier behind on a Voisin biplane.
JUVISY AVIATION WEEK. - M. Paulhan, on his Voisin biplane, and Count de Lambert (nearest), on his Wright flyer, during the contests at Port Aviation, near Paris, at the end of last week. General view of the aerodrome taken from the top of the Grand Stand.
RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - A race in the air between M. Bunau Varilla on a Voisin biplane and, in the distance, M. Tissandier on one of his Wright ilyers.
Baroness de la Roche, the First "Aviatress" of the World. - Last week the Baroness flew on a Voisin biplane for 300 metres, and afterwards twice round the Chalons Camp-a distance of about four miles.
WHAT A WRECKED BIPLANE LOOKS LIKE. - Henri Fournie's Voisin machine after his first accident.
In the Voisin biplane the engine, the pilot's seat, and the elevator are earned in a girder frame of semi-elliptic form, which is attached direct to a tw0-wheeled chassis, and forms a unit with the machine. In the above drawing the relative position of the main decks, which are attached to the girder, is also indicated.
Voisin (Delagrange, Farman)
The Voisin type of biplane is characterised by the use of a tail which is carried at the extremity of an outrigger framework extending some distance to the rear of the machine.
Rigid socket-joint on the Voisin flyer.
Diagram showing the camber of the decks on the Voisin biplane.
Sketch of the two-bladed propeller on Mr. J. T. C. Moore - Brabazon's "Bird of Passage." The inset drawing shows how the blade is riveted to its arm.
Sketch of the steering wheel control on the Voisin biplane, showing the connection between the spindle and the elevator.
The entire weight of the main decks, engine and pilot oa the Voisin biplane, carried on a pair of helical springs abutting against manganese steel brackets, arranged as shown in the above sketch.
Diagram of the bracing of the main spars constituting the leading edges of the decks on the Voisin biplane. The square member in the centre is the girder which carries the engine and the pilot's seat.
Sketch showing the skeleton framework forming the deck of the Voisin biplane.
MR. J. T. C. MOORE-BRABAZON'S "BIRD OF PASSAGE." - The Voisin biplane, 1908-9 type.
THE NEW VOISIN BIPLANE. - We recently gave particulars of the important alterations made in the latest Voisin models, and the above photograph clearly shows these new departures,
Another view of the new Voisin biplane, showing details of the tail of the latest model.
Flight, November 20, 1909

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SALON.

VUITTON-HUBER.

  Helicopter with tandem lifting screws arranged to rotate in opposite directions. A third screw arranged as a propeller is intended to provide means for translation through space when the machine has once been raised from the ground. This latter propeller is of small diameter, but is driven at high speed, for the bevel-pinion on its shaft is one of those belonging to the reversing mechanism employed in the drive of the main screws. Provision is made for throwing the small propeller in and out of action at will by means of a jaw-clutch. The reversing gear, by means of which the lower lifting' screw rotates in an opposite direction to the upper, consists of two main bevel wheels in opposition and in mesh with a set of three planet pinions mounted in a stationary cage.
  The pilot sits immediately in front of the vertical propeller-shaft, and the engine, not shown on the model exhibited, is placed beneath. At the pilot's left hand is a lever for working a progressive clutch which combines a reduction gear - of the epicyclic type - of such ratio that the speed of the vertical shaft is reduced to 500 r.p.m. In front of the pilot's seat is a fixed vertical triangular plane forming a prow to give steering-way, and behind the machine is a rudder.
  The frame is built in pyramid form, mostly of bamboo, which is bound throughout with tape. Elsewhere hollow wood members are used.
  The engine, when fitted, is to be of 120-h.p.; the machine weighs in its present state 169 kilogs. The lifting screws are 5 metres in diameter, and rotate at 500 r.p.m. The pitch is not given. The small propeller is 1.7 metres in diameter.
Vuitton-Huber Helicopter at Paris Flight Show.
THE WITZIG-LIORE-DUTILLEUL AEROPLANE. - This view of the Witzig machine, which is taken from behind, gives an excellent idea of the en escalier arrangement of the main planes. It is a little difficult to classify this particular aeroplane under any of the accepted types.
Flight, December 25, 1909

The Dufaux Biplane.

  MM. DUFAUX FRERES, the manufacturers of the Motosacoche motor cycles, have recently built a biplane with which they are obtaining very good results so far. The main planes are similar to those of the Bleriot machine except that there are two superposed, and lateral stability is obtained by small ailerons placed between these two planes at their extremities. The machine is fitted with a three-cylinder Anzani motor of 25-h.p. and weighs 180 kilogs. On its first trial the machine rose to a height of two metres and traversed a distance of 50 metres.